ABSTRACT: The objective of this microarray study was to obtain whole genome gene expression data from breast cancer, human to mouse xenograft models and from the primary cancer used for the xenograft, when possible. We also profiled these xenograft breast cancer tumors as they were passaged into additional mice. Whole Genome expression data allows us to monitor gene expression conservation and/or changes that occur from human to mouse, and from the initial mouse graft through subsequent passages. PAM50 molecular subtypes are also processed using the expression data. The xenografts provide in-vivo models for functional and therapeutic studies. Overall design: 62 mRNA microarray experiments were completed for 19 different WU-BC (Washington University-Breast Cancer) lines which also had data from a patient biospy as well as multiple passages from a mouse xenograft. 2 tumors had data from mouse xenograft passages but no data from the patient biopsy. Each representative patient tumor sample and mouse xenograft passage was amplified, labeled, and co-hybridized with a reference sample.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-014850 Whole Human Genome Microarray 4x44K G4112F (Probe Name version)
Project description:Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive disease for which targeted therapies are lacking. Recent studies showed that basal-like breast cancer is frequently associated with an increased activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is critical for cell growth, survival, and angiogenesis. To investigate the therapeutic potential of PI3K pathway inhibition in the treatment of basal-like breast cancer, we evaluated the antitumor effect of the mTOR inhibitor MK-8669 and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in WU-BC4 and WU-BC5, two patient-derived xenograft models of basal-like breast cancer. Both models showed high levels of AKT phosphorylation and loss of PTEN expression. We observed a synergistic effect of MK-8669 and MK-2206 on tumor growth and cell proliferation in vivo. In addition, MK-8669 and MK-2206 inhibited angiogenesis as determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Biomarker studies indicated that treatment with MK-2206 inhibited AKT activation induced by MK-8669. To evaluate the effect of loss of PTEN on tumor cell sensitivity to PI3K pathway inhibition, we knocked down PTEN in WU-BC3, a basal-like breast cancer cell line with intact PTEN. Compared with control (GFP) knockdown, PTEN knockdown led to a more dramatic reduction in cell proliferation and tumor growth inhibition in response to MK-8669 and MK-2206 both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of these two agents on tumor volume was observed in WU-BC3 with PTEN knockdown. Our results provide a preclinical rationale for future clinical investigation of this combination in basal-like breast cancer with loss of PTEN.
Project description:Cancer forms specialized microenvironmental niches that promote local invasion and colonization. Engrafted patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) locally invade and colonize naïve stroma in mice while enabling unambiguous molecular discrimination of human proteins in the tumor from mouse proteins in the microenvironment. To characterize how patient breast tumors form a niche and educate naïve stroma, subcutaneous breast cancer PDXs were globally profiled by species-specific quantitative proteomics. Regulation of PDX stromal proteins by breast tumors was extensive, with 35% of the stromal proteome altered by tumors consistently across different animals and passages. Differentially regulated proteins in the stroma clustered into six signatures, which included both known and previously unappreciated contributors to tumor invasion and colonization. Stromal proteomes were coordinately regulated; however, the sets of proteins altered by each tumor were highly distinct. Integrated analysis of tumor and stromal proteins, a comparison made possible in these xenograft models, indicated that the known hallmarks of cancer contribute pleiotropically to establishing and maintaining the microenvironmental niche of the tumor. Education of the stroma by the tumor is therefore an intrinsic property of breast tumors that is highly individualized, yet proceeds by consistent, nonrandom, and defined tumor-promoting molecular alterations.
Project description:Whole genome expression studies were performed on Xenograft panels with multiple passages from 3 different patient tumors. We assessed the global gene expression concordance from passages to passage and from passage to primary tumor when available and performed PAM50 subtype classification. These results were examined within the context of 40 PAM50 prototype experiments. Overall design: Thirteen experiments representing different tumor passages from WU-BC 3, 4, and 5 were compared using unsupervised hierarchical clustering and PAM50 Subtype Classification. These experiments were analyzed within the context of previously published PAM50 Prototypes (GSE26082).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) found in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with breast cancer portend a poor prognosis and are thought to be intermediaries in the metastatic process. To assess the clinical relevance of a mouse model for identifying possible prognostic and predictive biomarkers of these cells, we have employed patient-derived xenografts (PDX) for propagating and molecularly profiling human DTCs. METHODS:Previously developed mouse xenografts from five breast cancer patients were further passaged by implantation into NOD/SCID mouse mammary fat pads. BM was collected from long bones at early, serial passages and analyzed for human-specific gene expression by qRT-PCR as a surrogate biomarker for the detection of DTCs. Microarray-based gene expression analyses were performed to compare expression profiles between primary xenografts, solid metastasis, and populations of BM DTCs. Differential patterns of gene expression were then compared to previously generated microarray data from primary human BM aspirates from patients with breast cancer and healthy volunteers. RESULTS:Human-specific gene expression of SNAI1, GSC, FOXC2, KRT19, and STAM2, presumably originating from DTCs, was detected in the BM of all xenograft mice that also developed metastatic tumors. Human-specific gene expression was undetectable in the BM of those xenograft lines with no evidence of distant metastases and in non-transplanted control mice. Comparative gene expression analysis of BM DTCs versus the primary tumor of one mouse line identified multiple gene transcripts associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, aggressive clinical phenotype, and metastatic disease development. Sixteen of the PDX BM associated genes also demonstrated a statistically significant difference in expression in the BM of healthy volunteers versus the BM of breast cancer patients with distant metastatic disease. CONCLUSION:Unique and reproducible patterns of differential gene expression can be identified that presumably originate from BM DTCs in mouse PDX lines. Several of these identified genes are also detected in the BM of patients with breast cancer who develop early metastases, which suggests that they may be clinically relevant biomarkers. The PDX model may also provide a clinically relevant system for analyzing and targeting these intermediaries of metastases.
Project description:Mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze enriched, low abundance proteins from patient serum, in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) breast cancer and controls with a positive mammogram and negative biospy. Proteins in each group were compared to identify IDC specific markers.
Project description:Breast cancer studies implant human cancer cells under the renal capsule, subcutaneously, or orthotopically and often use estrogen supplementation and immune suppressants (etoposide) in xenograft mouse models. However, cell behavior is significantly impacted by signals from the local microenvironment. Therefore, we investigated how the combinatorial effect of the location of injection and procedural differences affected xenograft characteristics. Patient-derived breast cancer cells were injected into mouse abdominal or thoracic mammary glands +/- estrogen and/or etoposide pretreatment. Abdominal xenografts had increased tumor incidence and volume, and decreased latency (P < 0.001) compared to thoracic tumors. No statistically significant difference in tumor volume was found in abdominal xenografts treated +/- estrogen or etoposide; however, etoposide suppressed tumor volume in thoracic xenografts (P < 0.02). The combination of estrogen and etoposide significantly decreased tumor incidence in both sites. In addition, mice treated +/- estradiol were injected orthotopically or subcutaneously with well-characterized breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, ZR75-1, MDA MB-231, or MCF10Ca1h). Orthotopic injection increased tumor volume; growth varied with estrogen supplementation. Location also altered methylation status of several breast cancer-related gene promoters. Lastly, vascularization of orthotopic tumors was significantly enhanced compared to subcutaneous tumors. These data suggest that optimal xenograft success occurs with orthotopic abdominal injections and illustrate molecular details of the compelling influence of the local microenvironment on in vivo models.
Project description:Incidence of canine mammary carcinoma is two times higher than the rate of human breast cancer. Mammary tumors are the most common type of cancer in intact female dogs and account for about half of all neoplasms in these dogs. Well-established models of breast cancer have shown that neoplastic cells often have a loss of intercellular communication, particularly gap junction proteins. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the aspect of gap junction intercellular communication in canine mammary carcinoma, non-cancerous (CMEC) and cancerous (CMT12, CMT27, and CF41.Mg) cells, and patient-derived tumors. Both non-cancerous and cancerous mammary cells express connexins 26 and 43 using immunofluorescence; however, the level of expression is significantly different in quantitative analysis using western blot in which connexin 43 in both CMT12 and CMT27 is significantly decreased compared to CMEC. Furthermore, a decrease of gap junction capacity in CMT12 and CMT27 was observed compared to CMEC. Immunostaining of CMT27-xenograft tumors revealed positive Cx26 and negative Cx43 expression. Similarly, immunostaining of spontaneous canine mammary tumors revealed that Cx26 is present in all tumors while Cx43 is present in 25% of tumors. Overall, the study provides for the first time that a differential pattern of connexin expression exists between non-cancerous and cancerous mammary cells in dogs. This study will pave the path for further in vitro work of connexins in comparative canine models and possibly allow for novel therapeutics to be developed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models of cancer have been recognized as better mouse models that recapitulate the characteristics of original malignancies including preserved tumor heterogeneity, lineage hierarchy, and tumor microenvironment. However, common challenges of PDX models are the significant time required for tumor expansion, reduced tumor take rates, and higher costs. Here, we describe a fast, simple, and cost-effective method of expanding PDX of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in mice. METHODS:We used two established frozen PDAC PDX tissues (derived from two different patients) and implanted them subcutaneously into SCID mice. After tissues reached 10-20 mm in diameter, we performed survival surgery on each mouse to harvest 90-95% of subcutaneous PDX (incomplete resection), allowing the remaining 5-10% of PDX to continue growing in the same mouse. RESULTS:We expanded three consecutive passages (P1, P2, and P3) of PDX in the same mouse. Comparing the times required for in vivo expansion, P2 and P3 (expanded through incomplete resection) grew 26-60% faster than P1. Moreover, such expanded PDX tissues were successfully implanted orthotopically into mouse pancreases. Within 20 weeks using only 14 mice, we generated sufficient PDX tissue for future implantation of 200 mice. Our histology study confirmed that the morphologies of cancer cells and stromal structures were similar across all three passages of subcutaneous PDX and the orthotopic PDX and were reflective of the original patient tumors. CONCLUSIONS:Taking advantage of incomplete resection of tumors associated with high local recurrence, we established a fast method of PDAC PDX expansion in mice.
Project description:Mouse models have been developed to investigate colorectal cancer etiology and evaluate new anti-cancer therapies. While genetically engineered and carcinogen-induced mouse models have provided important information with regard to the mechanisms underlying the oncogenic process, xenograft models remain the standard for the evaluation of new chemotherapy and targeted drug treatments for clinical use. However, it remains unclear if drug efficacy data obtained from xenograft models translate into clinically-relevant treatment modalities. In this study, we have generated a panel of 28 patient-derived colorectal cancer explants (PDCCEs), an extension of our previous work, by direct transplantation of human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues into NOD-SCID mice. A comprehensive histological and molecular evaluation of PDCCEs and their corresponding patient tumor demonstrates that PDCCEs maintain histological features and global biology through multiple passages. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vivo sensitivity of PDCCEs to oxaliplatin can predict patient outcomes. Our findings suggest that PDCCEs maintain similarity to the patient tumor from which they are derived and can serve as a reliable preclinical model that can be incorporated into future strategies to optimize individual therapy for patients with CRC. 28 human primary colorectal and 37 mouse derived colorectal explant tumors
Project description:To examine the role of cancer stem cells (CSC) in mediating metastasis in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and the association of these cells with patient outcome in this aggressive type of breast cancer.CSCs were isolated from SUM149 and MARY-X, an IBC cell line and primary xenograft, by virtue of increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity as assessed by the ALDEFLUOR assay. Invasion and metastasis of CSC populations were assessed by in vitro and mouse xenograft assays. Expression of ALDH1 was determined on a retrospective series of 109 IBC patients and this was correlated with histoclinical data. All statistical tests were two sided. Log-rank tests using Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to determine the correlation of ALDH1 expression with development of metastasis and patient outcome.Both in vitro and xenograft assays showed that invasion and metastasis in IBC are mediated by a cellular component that displays ALDH activity. Furthermore, expression of ALDH1 in IBC was an independent predictive factor for early metastasis and decreased survival in this patient population.These results suggest that the metastatic, aggressive behavior of IBC may be mediated by a CSC component that displays ALDH enzymatic activity. ALDH1 expression represents the first independent prognostic marker to predict metastasis and poor patient outcome in IBC. The results illustrate how stem cell research can translate into clinical practice in the IBC field.