Comparative ABA-treatment of Col-O vector control and transgenic plants
ABSTRACT: The aim of this experiment is to understand the impact of overexpression of ERD15 on the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana. ERD15 was isolated from a screen for genes rapidly induced after pathogen treatment from Arabidopsis. This gene was originally found as early responsive to drought (Kiyosue et al., 1994, Plant Physiol 106, 1707). ABA is central phytohormone in drought response, but increasing information is pointing to its significant role in pathogen responses as well. We are interested to see the effect of this hormone on plants overexpressing ERD15 compared to control plants. The samples (rosette leaves)will be harvested from 3-week old soil grown plants 90 min after spraying with 100 micromolar ABA. Comparison will be made with non-treated plant samples. Experimenter name = Elina Helenius Experimenter phone = +358 9 191 59085 Experimenter fax = +358 9 191 59079 Experimenter institute = University of Helsinki Experimenter address = Viikinkaari 5 D Experimenter address = P.O.Box 56 Experimenter address = Helsinki Experimenter zip/postal_code = 00014 Experimenter country = Finland Keywords: compound_treatment_design Overall design: 4 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:The aim of this experiment is to understand the impact of overexpression of ERD15 on the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana. ERD15 was isolated from a screen for genes rapidly induced after pathogen treatment from Arabidopsis. This gene was originally found as early responsive to drought (Kiyosue et al., 1994, Plant Physiol 106, 1707). ABA is central phytohormone in drought response, but increasing information is pointing to its significant role in pathogen responses as well. We are interested to see the effect of this hormone on plants overexpressing ERD15 compared to control plants. The samples (rosette leaves)will be harvested from 3-week old soil grown plants 90 min after spraying with 100 micromolar ABA. Comparison will be made with non-treated plant samples. Experimenter name = Elina Helenius; Experimenter phone = +358 9 191 59085; Experimenter fax = +358 9 191 59079; Experimenter institute = University of Helsinki; Experimenter address = Viikinkaari 5 D; Experimenter address = P.O.Box 56; Experimenter address = Helsinki; Experimenter zip/postal_code = 00014; Experimenter country = Finland Experiment Overall Design: 4 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:Global transcriptome studies demonstrated the existence of unique plant responses under combined stress which are otherwise not seen during individual stresses. In order to combat combined stress plants use signaling pathways and 'cross talk' mediated by hormones involved in stress and growth related processes. However, interactions among hormones' pathways in combined stressed plants are not yet known. Here we studied dynamics of different hormones under individual and combined drought and pathogen infection in Arabidopsis thaliana by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based profiling. Our results revealed abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) as key regulators under individual drought and pathogen stress respectively. Under combined drought and host pathogen stress (DH) we observed non-induced levels of ABA with an upsurge in SA and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations, underscoring their role in basal tolerance against host pathogen. Under a non-host pathogen interaction with drought (DNH) stressed plants, ABA, SA and JA profiles were similar to those under DH or non-host pathogen alone. We propose that plants use SA/JA dependent signaling during DH stress which antagonize ABA biosynthesis and signaling pathways during early stage of stress. The study provides insights into hormone modulation at different time points during combined stress.
Project description:UV-B (280-320 nm) exposure causes serious damage in plants, limiting their growth and survival, effects that are partly counteracted by repair mechanisms active in plants receiving accompanying visible radiation. Though no particular UV-B receptor has been identified to date, there is strong evidence to indicate that certain aspects of UV-B perception are receptor-mediated. Investigations of down-stream signalling events have thus far indicated broad similarities to pathogen-induced defence responses in plants. In order to identify genes in Arabidopsis that may be up- or down- regulated specifically in response to UV-B exposure and compare them to genes whose expression is altered in plants challenged by an avirulent isolate of Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew), we propose to analyse the transcriptional profiles for the following treatments:; 1. UV-B Responses; "A-1" Columbia (Col-0) exposed to supplementary UV-B/UV-A* with a background of low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR of 20 micromol m-2 s-1) for 1.5 photoperiods (photoperiod = 12h). [UV-B treatment]; "A-2" Col-0 exposed to supplementary UV-A and low PAR for 1.5 photoperiods [control for UV-B treatment]; "A-3" Col-0 exposed to visible light only (low PAR) (no UV) for 1.5 photoperiods [control for UV effects in general].* There are no pure sources of UV-B light available. 2. Pathogen Responses; "A-4" Col-0 spray-inoculated with P. parasitica isolate HIKS-1 (recognised by the R-gene RPP7). After spraying, plants were kept covered in plant propagators and transferred to an 18 degreeC growth chamber. !Samples for RNA extraction were taken 72h after inoculation. "A-5" The viability of spores was also checked by parallel spraying of the susceptible mutant, Col-rpp7. [pathogen treatment]; "A-6" Col-0 mock treated with water, covered and transferred to an 18 degree C growth chamber, 72h prior to sampling. [control for pathogen treatment]; In all experiments, we are using RNA from leaves taken at the same time of day (6 h into the 12 h photoperiod) from 4.5-week old plants grown under 12h photoperiod. All treatments were normalised against PR-1 expression levels to ensure comparability between UV-B and pathogen treatments. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between local and systemic induced responses in UV-B treated plants, we are using RNA from whole rosettes for both the UV-B and pathogen treatment for better comparability among treatments. The degree of similarity between these two sets of transcriptional changes will complement and help interpret our experimental data on changes in resistance to pathogens in plants pre-treated with UV-B. Moreover, the data set obtained would allow for identification of UV-B specific changes in gene expression including cis-acting UV-B-responsive promoter elements. Experimenter name = Julia Brueggemann; Experimenter phone = 01789 470 382; Experimenter fax = 01789 470 552; Experimenter address = Horticulture Research International; Experimenter address = Wellesbourne; Experimenter address = Warwickshire; Experimenter zip/postal_code = CV35 9EF; Experimenter country = UK Experiment Overall Design: 6 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:The overexpression of IbbZIP1 leads to a significant upregulation of abiotic-related genes, suggesting that IbbZIP1 gene confers salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factors regulate flower development, seed maturation, pathogen defense, and stress signaling in plants. Here, we cloned a novel bZIP transcription factor gene, named IbbZIP1, from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] line HVB-3. The full length of IbbZIP1 exhibited transactivation activity in yeast. The expression of IbbZIP1 in sweetpotato was strongly induced by NaCl, PEG6000, and abscisic acid (ABA). Its overexpression in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced salt and drought tolerance. Under salt and drought stresses, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed significant upregulation of the genes involved in ABA and proline biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species scavenging system, significant increase of ABA and proline contents and superoxide dismutase activity and significant decrease of H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the IbbZIP1 gene confers salt and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. This study provides a novel bZIP gene for improving the tolerance of sweetpotato and other plants to abiotic stresses.
Project description:Little is known about how water stress including drought and flooding modifies the ability of plants to resist simultaneous attack by insect feeding and transmission of insect-vectored pathogen. We analyzed insect population growth, feeding behaviors, virus transmission, and plant amino acid profiles and defense gene expression to characterize mechanisms underlying the interaction between water stress, soybean aphid and aphid-transmitted, Soybean mosaic virus, on soybean plants. Population growth of non-viruliferous aphids was reduced under drought stress and saturation, likely because the aphids spent less time feeding from the sieve element on these plants compared to well-watered plants. Water stress did not impact population growth of viruliferous aphids. However, virus incidence and transmission rate was lowest under drought stress and highest under saturated conditions since viruliferous aphids took the greatest amount time to puncture cells and transmit the virus under saturated conditions and lowest time under drought stress. Petiole exudates from drought-stressed plants had the highest level of total free amino acids including asparagine and valine that are critical for aphid performance. Aphids did not benefit from improved phloem sap quality as indicated by their lower densities on drought-stressed plants. Saturation, on the other hand, resulted in low amino acid content compared to all of the other treatments. Drought and saturation had significant and opposing effects on expression of marker genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Drought alone significantly increased expression of ABA marker genes, which likely led to suppression of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related genes. In contrast, ABA marker genes were down-regulated under saturation, while expression of SA- and JA-related genes was up-regulated. We propose that the apparent antagonism between ABA and SA/JA signaling pathways contributed to an increase in aphid densities under drought and their decrease under saturation. Taken together, our findings suggests that plant responses to water stress is complex involving changes in phloem amino acid composition and signaling pathways, which can impact aphid populations and virus transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure of plants to different environmental insults instigates significant changes in the cellular redox tone driven in part by promoting the production of reactive nitrogen species. The key player, nitric oxide (NO) is a small gaseous diatomic molecule, well-known for its signaling role during stress. In this study, we focused on abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism-related genes that showed differential expression in response to the NO donor S-nitroso-L-cysteine (CySNO) by conducting RNA-seq-based transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS:CySNO-induced ABA-related genes were identified and further characterized. Gene ontology terms for biological processes showed most of the genes were associated with protein phosphorylation. Promoter analysis suggested that several cis-regulatory elements were activated under biotic and/or abiotic stress conditions. The ABA biosynthetic gene AtAO3 was selected for validation using functional genomics. The loss of function mutant atao3 was found to differentially regulate oxidative and nitrosative stress. Further investigations for determining the role of AtAO3 in plant defense suggested a negative regulation of plant basal defense and R-gene-mediated resistance. The atao3 plants showed resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000) with gradual increase in PR1 gene expression. Similarly, atao3 plants showed increased hypersensitive response (HR) when challenged with Pst DC3000 (avrB). The atgsnor1-3 and atsid2 mutants showed a susceptible phenotype with reduced PR1 transcript accumulation. Drought tolerance assay indicated that atao3 and atnced3 ABA-deficient mutants showed early wilting, followed by plant death. The study of stomatal structure showed that atao3 and atnced3 were unable to close stomata even at 7?days after drought stress. Further, they showed reduced ABA content and increased electrolyte leakage than the wild-type (WT) plants. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that ABA biosynthesis genes were down-regulated, whereas expression of most of the drought-related genes were up-regulated in atao3 than in WT. CONCLUSIONS:AtAO3 negatively regulates pathogen-induced salicylic acid pathway, although it is required for drought tolerance, despite the fact that ABA production is not totally dependent on AtAO3, and that drought-related genes like DREB2 and ABI2 show response to drought irrespective of ABA content.
Project description:Drought stress conditions in soil or air hinder plant growth and development. Here, we report that the hot pepper (C apsicum a nnuum) RING type E3 Ligase 1 gene (CaREL1) is essential to the drought stress response. CaREL1 encodes a cytoplasmic- and nuclear-localized protein with E3 ligase activity. CaREL1 expression was induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and drought. CaREL1 contains a C3H2C3-type RING finger motif, which functions in ubiquitination of the target protein. We used CaREL1-silenced pepper plants and CaREL1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate the in vivo function of CaREL1 in response to drought stress and ABA treatment. CaREL1-silenced pepper plants displayed a drought-tolerant phenotype characterized by ABA hypersensitivity. In contrast, CaREL1-OX plants exhibited ABA hyposensitivity during the germination, seedling, and adult stages. In addition, plant growth was severely impaired under drought stress conditions, via a high level of transpirational water loss and decreased stomatal closure. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that ABA-related drought stress responsive genes were more weakly expressed in CaREL1-OX plants than in wild-type plants, indicating that CaREL1 functions in the drought stress response via the ABA-signalling pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that CaREL1 functions as a negative regulator of ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance.
Project description:Physiology and nutritional quality of a facultative CAM plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum under drought stress alone are poorly understood. To induce drought, M. crystallinum was cultured aeroponically with different nutrient spraying intervals such as 5, 30, 60 and 240 min. The long spraying interval such as 240 min resulted in lower mass of root and shoot, shorter total root length with less tips and smaller surface area, compared to short interval of 5 min. Grown under the longest spraying interval of 240 min, M. crystallinumalso had significantly higher leaf dry matter content but lower leaf succulence. However, CAM acidity was undetectable for any plants. Although M. crystallinum grown under extended spraying intervals had higher photosynthetic pigments, they utilized lesser light energy and did not dissipate heat as effectively as those grown under 5 min. Compare to other shorter spraying intervals, photosynthetic gas exchange rates were significantly reduced under 240 min spraying interval, indicating signs of water deficit stress. Shoot nitrate, total reduced nitrogen, total soluble protein and Rubisco concentrations were similar for all plants. For phytochemicals and dietary minerals, plants grown under 240 min spraying interval had significantly higher values than the other plants. Therefore, drought does not result in the induction of CAM but regulates photosynthetic performance and enhances nutritional quality of M. crystallinum.
Project description:NACs are one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and are involved in the response to abiotic stress. BoNAC019, a homologue of AtNAC019, was isolated from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). BoNAC019 was localized in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional activator. The expression of BoNAC019 was induced by dehydration, salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and H2O2 treatments. BoNAC019 overexpressing plants were generated to explore the function of BoNAC019 in response to drought stress. Overexpression (OE) of BoNAC019 reduced drought tolerance with lower survival rate, higher water loss rate, lower proline content and ABA content. The seed germination and root length assays of BoNAC019-OE plants showed decreased sensitivity to ABA. Under drought condition, antioxidant enzymes and anthocyanin content decreased in BoNAC019 -OE plants, resulting in the accumulation of more reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause damage to plants. Several stress-responsive genes, antioxidant enzymatic genes, anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and ABA signaling genes were down-regulated under drought condition while the ABA catabolism genes were induced in BoNAC019-OE plants under both normal and drought conditions. Our results demonstrated that BoNAC019 might participated in regulating drought tolerance by inducing ABA catabolism genes and decreasing ABA content.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) signaling pathway responds to various abiotic stresses in plants. RESULTS:Wheat CIPK23, isolated from wheat drought transcriptome data set, was induced by multiple abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, and abscisic acid (ABA). Compared with wild-type plants, TaCIPK23-overexpression wheat and Arabidopsis showed an higher survival rate under drought conditions with enhanced germination rate, developed root system, increased accumulation of osmolytes, and reduced water loss rate. Over-expression of TaCIPK23 rendered transgenic plants ABA sensitivity, as evidenced by delayed seed germination and the induction of stomatal closure. Consistent with the ABA-sensitive phenotype, the expression level of drought- and ABA-responsive genes were increased under drought conditions in the transgenic plants. In addition, using yeast two-hybrid system, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc) assays, TaCIPK23 was found to interact with TaCBL1 on the plasma membrane. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that TaCIPK23 plays important roles in ABA and drought stress responses, and mediates crosstalk between the ABA signaling pathway and drought stress responses in wheat.