Glomerular transcriptomic analysis of the influence of Genetic background effect during anti-GBM glomerulonephritis in mice
ABSTRACT: We analyzed the impact of the genetic background during experimental passive non-accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) (an equivalent to nephrotoxic nephritis) in two different mouse genetic backgrounds (C57BL6/J vs 129S2svPAS/crl). Glomerular extracts have been made at an early time point (e.g day 4 of the induction of the glomerulonephritis). RNA have been extracted following standard procedures. Overall design: 3 mice per group have been compared. 3 Control mice from each background. And 3 anti-GBM-GN challenged mice from each Genetic background, corresponding to 12 samples in total.
Project description:Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis is characterized by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) with deposition of IgG along the GBM. In a limited number of cases, glomerular immune complexes have been identified in anti-GBM nephritis. A 38-year-old female presented azotemia, hematuria, and proteinuria without any pulmonary symptoms. A renal biopsy showed crescentic GN with linear IgG deposition along the GBM and mesangial IgA deposition. The patient was diagnosed as concurrent anti-GBM nephritis and IgA nephropathy. Therapies with pulse methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide administration were effective. Concurrent cases of both anti-GBM nephritis and IgA nephropathy are rare among cases of anti-GBM diseases with deposition of immune complexes. This rare case of concurrent anti-GBM nephritis and IgA nephropathy with literature review is noteworthy.
Project description:p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is thought to play a central role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Whether p38MAPK plays a pathogenic role in crescentic GN (GN) and which of its four isoforms is preferentially involved in kidney inflammation is not definitely known. We thus examined expression and activation of p38MAPK isoforms during anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis. Therefore, p38? conditional knockout mice (MxCre-p38?(?/?)) were used to examine the role of p38? in anti-GBM induced nephritis. Both wild type and MxCre-p38?(?/?) mice developed acute renal failure over time. Histological examinations revealed a reduced monocyte influx and less tubular damage in MxCre-p38?(?/?) mice, whereas glomerular crescent formation and renal fibrosis was similar. Likewise, the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1 and IL-10 were similar, but IL-8 was even up-regulated in MxCre-p38?(?/?) mice. In contrast, we could detect strong down-regulation of chemotactic cytokines such as CCL-2, -5 and -7, in the kidneys of MxCre-p38?(?/?) mice. In conclusion, p38? is the primary p38MAPK isoform expressed in anti-GBM nephritis and selectively affects inflammatory cell influx and tubular damage. Full protection from nephritis is however not achieved as renal failure and structural damage still occurs.
Project description:Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) coordinates the signaling of growth factors and promotes fibrosis. Neonatal death of systemic CTGF knockout (KO) mice has hampered analysis of CTGF in adult renal diseases. We established 3 types of CTGF conditional KO (cKO) mice to investigate a role and source of CTGF in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis. Tamoxifen-inducible systemic CTGF (Rosa-CTGF) cKO mice exhibited reduced proteinuria with ameliorated crescent formation and mesangial expansion in anti-GBM nephritis after induction. Although CTGF is expressed by podocytes at basal levels, podocyte-specific CTGF (pod-CTGF) cKO mice showed no improvement in renal injury. In contrast, PDGFR? promoter-driven CTGF (Pdgfra-CTGF) cKO mice, which predominantly lack CTGF expression by mesangial cells, exhibited reduced proteinuria with ameliorated histological changes. Glomerular macrophage accumulation, expression of Adgre1 and Ccl2, and ratio of M1/M2 macrophages were all reduced both in Rosa-CTGF cKO and Pdgfra-CTGF cKO mice, but not in pod-CTGF cKO mice. TGF-?1-stimulated Ccl2 upregulation in mesangial cells and macrophage adhesion to activated mesangial cells were decreased by reduction of CTGF. These results reveal a novel mechanism of macrophage migration into glomeruli with nephritis mediated by CTGF derived from mesangial cells, implicating the therapeutic potential of CTGF inhibition in glomerulonephritis.
Project description:Oxidative stress is implicated in tissue inflammation, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated nephritis. Using the anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) mouse model, we found that increased expression of glutathione S-transferase Mu 2 (GSTM2) was related to reduced renal damage caused by anti-GBM antibodies. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy has shed light on the treatment of immune-mediated kidney diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if MSCs could be utilized as vehicles to deliver the GSTM2 gene product into the kidney and to evaluate its potential therapeutic effect on anti-GBM-GN.The human GSTM2 gene (hGSTM2) was transduced into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs via a lentivirus vector to create a stable cell line (hGSTM2-MSC). The cultured hGSTM2-MSCs were treated with 0.5 mM H2O2, and apoptotic cells were measured by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The 129/svj mice, which were challenged with anti-GBM antibodies, were injected with 10? hGSTM2-MSCs via the tail vein. Expression of hGSTM2 and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney was assayed by quantitative PCR and western blotting. Renal function of mice was evaluated by monitoring proteinuria and levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and renal pathological changes were analyzed by histochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to measure inflammatory cell infiltration and renal cell apoptosis.MSCs transduced with hGSTM2 exhibited similar growth and differentiation properties to MSCs. hGSTM2-MSCs persistently expressed hGSTM2 and resisted H2O2-induced apoptosis. Upon injection into 129/svj mice, hGSTM2-MSCs migrated to the kidney and expressed hGSTM2. The anti-GBM-GN mice treated with hGSTM2-MSCs exhibited reduced proteinuria and BUN (58% and 59% reduction, respectively) and ameliorated renal pathological damage, compared with control mice. Mice injected with hGSTM2-MSCs showed alleviated renal inflammatory cell infiltration and reduced expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 (53%, 46% and 52% reduction, respectively), compared with controls. Moreover, hGSTM2-MSCs increased expression of renal superoxide dismutase and catalase, which may associate with detoxifying reactive oxygen species to prevent oxidative renal damage.Our data suggest that the enhanced protective effect of GSTM2-transduced MSCs against anti-GBM-GN might be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress-induced renal cell apoptosis and inflammation, through over-expression of hGSTM2 in mouse kidneys.
Project description:The kidney glomerular capillaries are frequent sites of immune complex deposition and subsequent neutrophil accumulation in post-infectious and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. However, the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment remain enigmatic, and there is no targeted therapeutic to avert this proximal event in glomerular inflammation. The uniquely human activating Fc receptor Fc?RIIA promotes glomerular neutrophil accumulation and damage in anti-glomerular basement membrane-induced (anti-GBM-induced) glomerulonephritis when expressed on murine neutrophils. Here, we found that neutrophils are directly captured by immobilized IgG antibodies under physiological flow conditions in vitro through Fc?RIIA-dependent, Abl/Src tyrosine kinase-mediated F-actin polymerization. Biophysical measurements showed that the lifetime of Fc?RIIA-IgG bonds increased under mechanical force in an F-actin-dependent manner, which could enable the capture of neutrophils under physiological flow. Kidney intravital microscopy revealed that circulating neutrophils, which were similar in diameter to glomerular capillaries, abruptly arrested following anti-GBM antibody deposition via neutrophil Fc?RIIA and Abl/Src kinases. Accordingly, inhibition of Abl/Src with bosutinib reduced Fc?RIIA-mediated glomerular neutrophil accumulation and renal injury in experimental, crescentic anti-GBM nephritis. These data identify a pathway of neutrophil recruitment within glomerular capillaries following IgG deposition that may be targeted by bosutinib to avert glomerular injury.
Project description:Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent a particular subset of T lymphocytes capable of producing several cytokines, which exert regulatory or effector functions, following stimulation of the T cell receptor. In this study, we investigated the influence of iNKT cells on the development of experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN). After injection of anti-GBM serum, the number of kidney iNKT cells rapidly increased. iNKT cell-deficient mice (Jalpha18-/-) injected with anti-GBM serum demonstrated worse renal function, increased proteinuria, and greater glomerular and tubular injury compared with similarly treated wild-type mice. We did not detect significant differences in Th1/Th2 polarization in renal tissue that might have explained the severity of disease in Jalpha18-/- mice. Interestingly, expression of both TGF-beta and TGF-beta-induced (TGFBI) mRNA was higher in wild-type kidneys compared with Jalpha18-/- kidneys, suggesting a possible protective role for TGF-beta in anti-GBM GN. Administration of an anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody significantly enhanced the severity of disease in wild-type, but not Jalpha18-/-, mice. In conclusion, in experimental anti-GBM GN, iNKT cells attenuate disease severity and TGF-beta has a renoprotective role.
Project description:Immune-mediated nephritis contributes to disease in systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture syndrome (caused by antibodies specific for glomerular basement membrane [anti-GBM antibodies]), and spontaneous lupus nephritis. Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody-induced and spontaneous lupus nephritis. This study sought to clarify the genetic and molecular factors that maybe responsible for enhanced immune-mediated renal disease in these models. When the kidneys of 3 mouse strains sensitive to anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis were compared with those of 2 control strains using microarray analysis, one-fifth of the underexpressed genes belonged to the kallikrein gene family,which encodes serine esterases. Mouse strains that upregulated renal and urinary kallikreins exhibited less evidence of disease. Antagonizing the kallikrein pathway augmented disease, while agonists dampened the severity of anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis. In addition, nephritis-sensitive mouse strains had kallikrein haplotypes that were distinct from those of control strains, including several regulatory polymorphisms,some of which were associated with functional consequences. Indeed, increased susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis and spontaneous lupus nephritis was achieved by breeding mice with a genetic interval harboring the kallikrein genes onto a disease-resistant background. Finally, both human SLE and spontaneous lupus nephritis were found to be associated with kallikrein genes, particularly KLK1 and the KLK3 promoter, when DNA SNPs from independent cohorts of SLE patients and controls were compared. Collectively, these studies suggest that kallikreins are protective disease-associated genes in anti-GBM antibody-induced nephritis and lupus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:T-type calcium channels (TTCC) are involved in mesangial cell proliferation. In acute thy-1 nephritis in the rat TTCC inhibition reduces glomerular damage and cell proliferation. This work is extended here by a study of the non-selective TTCC inhibitor TH1177 in a chronic model of proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) including late treatment starting after the initial inflammation has resolved. The objective was to determine the effects of TH1177 in a model of chronic mesangioproliferative renal disease. METHODS:Chronic GN was induced in WKY rats by unilateral nephrectomy (day -?7) followed by day 0 injection of Ox7 thy-1 mAb. Treatment with TH1177 (10-20?mg/Kg daily IP) was started on day 2 (early treatment) or on day 14 (late treatment) and compared to vehicle-treated controls until sacrifice at day 42. Glomerular disease was assessed with a damage score, fibrosis assay, cellular counts and renal function measured by serum creatinine. RESULTS:Treatment with TH11777 was associated with reduced serum creatinine, less glomerular damage, reduced fibrosis and reduced glomerular cellularity. The results for early and late TH1177 treatments were essentially the same and differed significantly from vehicle. CONCLUSIONS:The ion-channel modulator TH1177 is capable of improving glomerular outcome in chronic rat GN even when treatment starts 14?days after initiation of the disease. These data are discussed in the context of the possible targets of TH1177 including TTCC, TRP family, Stim/Orai group and other cation channels. The work supports the use of genetic models to examine the roles of individual cation channels in progressive glomerulonephritis to further define the targets of TH1177.
Project description:In this study, we employed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the Smad3-dependent lncRNAs related to renal inflammation and fibrosis in Smad3 knockout (KO) mouse models of unilateral ureteral obstructive nephropathy (UUO) and immunologically-induced anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN). 12 kidney tissue samples of Smad3 KO/WT mice from normal control, UUO at day 5 or anti-GBM GN at day 10 models (n=2 in each group) for whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing.
Project description:Glomerular damage mediated by glomerulus-infiltrating myeloid-derived cells is a key pathogenic event in lupus nephritis (LN), but the process is poorly understood. Confocal microscopy of kidney sections and flow cytometry analysis of glomerular cells from magnetic bead-purified glomeruli have identified glomerulus-infiltrating leukocyte populations in NZM2328 (NZM) lupus-prone mice with spontaneous chronic glomerulonephritis (GN) and anti-glomerular basement membrane-induced nephritis. The occurrence of a major glomerulus-infiltrating CD11b+F4/80-I-A- macrophage population exhibiting the markers programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), Mac-2, and macrophage mannose receptor (CD206) and producing Klf4, Il10, Retnla, Tnf, and Il6 mRNA, which are known to be expressed by alternatively activated (M2b) macrophages, correlated with proteinuria status. In NZM mice with spontaneous LN, glomerular macrophage infiltration is predominant. CD11b+F4/80-I-A- intraglomerular macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are important in inducing GN, as anti-CD11b and -ICAM-1 mAb inhibited both proteinuria and macrophage and PMN infiltration. The predominant and high expression of PD-L1 by CD11b+F4/80-I-A- glomerular macrophages in kidneys of mice with GN and the inhibition of proteinuria by anti-PD-L1 mAb supported the pathogenic role of these macrophages but not the PD-L1- PMN in GN development and in inducing podocyte damage. In NZM mice with spontaneous chronic GN and severe proteinuria, few glomerulus-infiltrating PMN were found, leaving macrophages and, to a less extent, dendritic cells as the major infiltrating leukocytes. Taken together, these data support the important pathogenic effect of CD11b+F4/80-I-A- M2b-like glomerulus-infiltrating macrophages in LN and reinforce macrophages as a promising target for GN treatment.