Project description:Osteoporosis is a major problem for the laying hen industry due to welfare issues and economic losses related to bone fractures. The objective of this research was to better understand genetic influences on bone integrity by comparing gene expression profiles from bone marrow of chickens expressing phenotypic differences for a number of bone characteristics. Global expression profiles of genes included on the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) Chicken 13K array were assessed in broiler and layer chickens. Keywords: Gene expression comparison between two chicken lines at 60 weeks of age Overall design: Twelve hybridizations (6 dual-channel slides) are included in this dataset. Three 60 week old layer and three 60 week old broiler samples were labeled with each dye to control for dye bias.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a major problem for the laying hen industry due to welfare issues and economic losses related to bone fractures. The objective of this research was to better understand genetic influences on bone integrity by comparing gene expression profiles from bone marrow of chickens expressing phenotypic differences for a number of bone characteristics. Global expression profiles of genes included on the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) Chicken 13K array were assessed in broiler and layer chickens. Keywords: Gene expression comparison between two chicken lines at 15 weeks of age Overall design: Twelve hybridizations (6 dual-channel slides) are included in this dataset. Three 15 week old layer and three 15 week old broiler samples were labeled with each dye to control for dye bias.
Project description:Glycogen phosphorylase is a major sarcoplasmic protein in chicken pectoralis muscle, constituting approx. 4% of the total protein complement. In slow-growing layer chicks phosphorylase accumulated in parallel with muscle accretion, but in fast-growing broiler chicks the concentration of phosphorylase in the muscle increased (from 5 to 8 mg/g wet wt.) with time. In a 5-week period, the total amount of phosphorylase in the pectoralis muscles increased 18-fold in broiler chicks (from approx. 75 to 1400 mg total), but only 3-fold (from approx. 100 to 270 mg total) in layers. Pyridoxal phosphate, the cofactor of the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase, was used as a specific label to measure the rate of degradation of the enzyme in the pectoralis muscle of growing broiler and layer chickens in vivo. In young animals, the fractional rate of phosphorylase synthesis was similar in broiler and layer chickens (approx. 15%/day), but the rate of degradation in layers (5%/day) was 5-fold higher than in broilers (1%/day). As the animals aged, the rate of synthesis decreased, but more so in layers than in broilers. The rate of degradation of phosphorylase also decreased in layers, but in broilers it remained at the low level seen in young animals. The dramatically higher rate of phosphorylase accretion in the pectoralis muscles of the broilers is therefore achieved by an initial lower rate of degradation combined with a sustained difference between rates of synthesis and degradation.
Project description:The present study was conducted to evaluate the encapsulated essential oils (EEO) as an alternative to anticoccidials using a coccidiosis vaccine challenged model in broiler chickens. A total of 600 one-day-old male broiler chicks were provided with no added corn/soybean-meal-based control diet or diets that contained either salinomycin (SAL) or thymol- and carvacrol-based EEO at 60 and 120 mg per kg of diet. Before challenge at 21 days, each treatment had 10 replicates except for the no-added control group, which had 20 replicates. On day 21, half of the control groups were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine at 25 times higher than the recommended vaccine dose. During 22 to 28 days (i.e., one-week post coccidiosis vaccine challenge), the challenged chickens had a decrease (P < 0.05) in body weight gain and feed intake but an increase in feed conversion ratio compared with the non-challenged, naïve control chickens. However, dietary EEO significantly counteracted (P < 0.05) coccidiosis-vaccine-induced depression in body weight gain and feed intake. Inclusion of dietary EEO linearly decreased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of the volatile fatty acids. Dietary SAL and EEO affected gut morphology in chickens at 20 days post-hatch. Dietary EEO linearly (P = 0.073) increased serum catalase activity as the inclusion level increased. Collectively, our study shows that dietary EEO increased coccidiosis-vaccine-induced growth depression and altered gut physiology in broiler chickens. Our study adds to the accumulating evidence that dietary EEO is proven to be an effective alternative to anticoccidials for broiler chickens.
Project description:The study proposed an exploratory functional analysis on differential gene expression of the jejunum and of cecum in chickens. For this study, 150 Ross 308 male chickens were randomly allotted in six pens (25 birds/pen) and fed the same commercial diet. From 19 birds of 42 days of age, jejunum and cecum mucosae were collected for RNA extraction for transcriptome microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) submitted to DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) software evidenced enriched gene clusters for biological functions differentiated in the tissues. DAVID analysis in the jejunum showed enriched annotations for cell membrane integral components, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) signaling pathway, and peroxisome and lipid metabolism, and showed DEGs for gluconeogenesis, not previously reported in chicken jejunum. The cecum showed enriched annotations for disulfide bond category, cysteine and methionine metabolism, glycoprotein category, cell cycle, and extracellular matrix (ECM). GSEA analysis in the jejunum showed peroxisome and PPAR signaling pathway-related gene sets, as found with DAVID, and gene sets for immune regulation, tryptophan and histidine metabolism, and renin-angiotensin system, like in mammals. The cecum showed cell cycle and regulation processes, as well as ECM receptor interaction and focal adhesion-related gene sets. Typical intestinal functions specific for the gut site and interesting functional genes groups emerged, revealing tissue-related key aspects which future studies might take advantage of.
Project description:This study utilized comparative global gene expression microarray analysis of GD-affected and clinically healthy chickens from a recent GD outbreak to glean insights into the molecular and cellular changes associated with this disease process. Two-condition experiment, GD-affected vs. Healthy chickens. Biological replicates: 2 control replicates, 2 GD-infected replicates with dye-switching.
Project description:The transplantation of adult stem cells into recipients is a method used widely in mammals to determine the fate of transferred cells, and for the production of progenies. This study is the first report, to our knowledge, to demonstrate the successful production of chickens using cells transdifferentiated from adult chicken bone marrow cells (BMCs) transplanted into the testes. BMCs from the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic (Tg) chickens were induced via in vitro transdifferentiation to male germ cells and injected into the testes of normal recipients. The multipotency of BMC was found with RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and FACS using specific markers, such as OCT4 and SSEA-1, -3, and -4. Localization and in vivo transdifferentiation of injected cells in the seminiferous tubules of recipients were traced for up to 40 days' post-injection by GFP expression and immunocytochemical analyses. The integration of the eGFP and the neo(R) genes in sperm gDNAs of recipient was confirmed via PCR analysis. A subsequent testcross of the recipient roosters with non-Tg hens resulted in the production of eGFP Tg progenies, demonstrating the successful transdifferentiation of the adult BMC to the germ cells in the testis. Therefore, we suggest that the use of adult BMCs is a new and promising approach to the production of Tg poultry, and may prove helpful in the study of avian developmental biology.
Project description:Previous attempts of ?-1,3-galactocyltransferase knockout (GalTKO) pig bone marrow (BM) transplantation (Tx) into baboons have demonstrated a loss of macro-chimerism within 24?h in most cases. In order to achieve improved engraftment with persistence of peripheral chimerism, we have developed a new strategy of intra-bone BM (IBBM) Tx. Six baboons received GalTKO BM cells, with one-half of the cells transplanted into the bilateral tibiae directly and the remaining cells injected intravenously (IBBM/BM-Tx) with a conditioning immunosuppressive regimen. In order to assess immune responses induced by the combined IBBM/BM-Tx, three recipients received donor SLA-matched GalTKO kidneys in the peri-operative period of IBBM/BM-Tx (Group 1), and the others received kidneys 2 months after IBBM/BM-Tx (Group 2). Peripheral macro-chimerism was continuously detectable for up to 13 days (mean 7.7 days; range 3-13) post-IBBM/BM-Tx and in three animals, macro-chimerism reappeared at days 10, 14 and 21. Pig CFUs, indicating porcine progenitor cell engraftment, were detected in the host BM in four of six recipients on days 14, 15, 19 and 28. In addition, anti-pig unresponsiveness was observed by in vitro assays. GalTKO/pCMV-kidneys survived for extended periods (47 and 60 days). This strategy may provide a potent adjunct for inducing xenogeneic tolerance through BM-Tx.
Project description:This study describes the development and use of bacteriophage cocktails to control Campylobacter in broiler chickens, in a commercial setting, in Queensland Australia, following the birds from farm to the processing plant. The components of the bacteriophage cocktails were selected to be effective against the maximum number of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates encountered on SE Queensland farms. Farms were identified that had suitable Campylobacter target populations and phage were undetectable 1 week prior to the intended treatment. Cocktails of phages were administered at 47 days of age. Groups of study birds were slaughtered the following day, on-farm, at the end of flock transport to the plant, and at processing (approximately 28 h post-treatment). On Farm A, the phage treatment significantly reduced Campylobacter levels in the ceca at the farm in the range of 1-3 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.007), compared to mock treated controls. However, individual birds sampled on farm (1/10) or following transport (2/10) exhibited high cecal Campylobacter counts with low phage titers, suggesting that treatment periods > 24 h may be required to ensure phage replication for effective biocontrol in vivo. At the time of the trial the control birds in Farm B were phage positive despite having been negative one week earlier. There was no significant difference in the cecal Campylobacter counts between the treatment and control groups following treatment but a fall of 1.7 log10 CFU/g was observed from that determined from birds collected the previous week (p = 0.0004). Campylobacter isolates from both farms retained sensitivity to the treatment phages. These trials demonstrated bacteriophages sourced from Queensland farms have the potential to reduce intestinal Campylobacter levels in market ready broiler chickens.
Project description:Broiler chickens grow rapidly within a short period; in this regard, our group had previously reported a decrease in the active transport of glucose in the intestines of broiler chickens with their growth. Therefore, in this study, we compared the active transport process of amino acids in the intestines between 1- and 5-week-old broilers using everted sac, Ussing chamber techniques, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The everted sac experiment showed that amino acids were absorbed from all segments of the small intestine in both age groups. There were no significant differences in the serosal to mucosal ratio between 1- and 5-week-old broilers. The Ussing chamber experiment showed that amino acid-induced short-circuit current (?Isc) in the ileal epithelium was significantly greater in the 5-week-old chickens than in the 1-week-old chicks (P=0.035). Membrane conductance, an indicator of ion permeability, showed no significant difference between the two groups. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of amino acid transporters (ASCT1, EAAT3, B0AT1, and y+LAT1) were significantly elevated in the distal ileum of the 5-week-old broilers compared to those in the 1-week-old broilers (P<0.05), while no significant differences were observed in the mRNA levels of ATB0'+, B0/+AT, rBAT, CAT1, and CAT2 in both groups. Our study provides clear evidence that age-dependent increase in the active transport of amino acid across the ileal epithelium is caused by the high expression of Na+-dependent amino acid transporters in broiler chickens.