SOX13 regulated genes in CD4+CD8+ double positive thymocytes
ABSTRACT: ab and gd T cells originate from a common, multi-potential precursor population in the thymus, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this lineage fate decision process are unknown. We have identified Sox13 as a gd-specific gene in the immune system. Using Sox13 transgenic mice, we show that SOX13 promotes gd T cell development while opposing ab T cell differentiation. Conversely, mice deficient in Sox13 expression exhibited impaired development of gd T cells, but not ab T cells. One mechanism of SOX13 function is the inhibition of WNT/TCF signaling, suggesting that differential WNT/TCF activity is an essential parameter for this binary cell fate choice. Keywords: global gene expression profile comparison Overall design: CD4+CD8+ double positive thymocyte subsets were sorted by FACS using total pooled thymocytes from minimum of two mice and immediately lysed in Trizol. Comparison groups in each experiment were DP thymocytes from Sox13 transgenic mice and wild type B6 littermate controls. Gene expression profiling was performed according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Affymetrix). Labeled cRNA (from total RNA) was generated and applied to Affymetrix Mu11K(A and B) (expt 1) or muU74Av2 (expt 2) microarrays. Results were analyzed using Microarray Analysis Software v4 and v5 (Affymetrix).
Project description:ab and gd T cells originate from a common, multi-potential precursor population in the thymus, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this lineage fate decision process are unknown. We have identified Sox13 as a gd-specific gene in the immune system. Using Sox13 transgenic mice, we show that SOX13 promotes gd T cell development while opposing ab T cell differentiation. Conversely, mice deficient in Sox13 expression exhibited impaired development of gd T cells, but not ab T cells. One mechanism of SOX13 function is the inhibition of WNT/TCF signaling, suggesting that differential WNT/TCF activity is an essential parameter for this binary cell fate choice. Experiment Overall Design: CD4+CD8+ double positive thymocyte subsets were sorted by FACS using total pooled thymocytes from minimum of two mice and immediately lysed in Trizol. Comparison groups in each experiment were DP thymocytes from Sox13 transgenic mice and wild type B6 littermate controls. Gene expression profiling was performed according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Affymetrix). Labeled cRNA (from total RNA) was generated and applied to Affymetrix Mu11K(A and B) (expt 1) or muU74Av2 (expt 2) microarrays. Results were analyzed using Microarray Analysis Software v4 and v5 (Affymetrix).
Project description:Immune protection from intracellular pathogens depends on the generation of terminally differentiated effector and of multipotent memory precursor CD8 T cells, which rapidly regenerate effector and memory cells during recurrent infection. The identification of factors and pathways involved in CD8 T cell differentiation is of obvious importance to improve vaccination strategies. Here, we show that mice lacking T cell factor 1 (Tcf-1), a nuclear effector of the canonical Wingless/Integration 1 (Wnt) signaling pathway, mount normal effector and effector memory CD8 T cell responses to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). However, Tcf-1-deficient CD8 T cells are selectively impaired in their ability to expand upon secondary challenge and to protect from recurrent virus infection. Tcf-1-deficient mice essentially lack CD8 memory precursor T cells, which is evident already at the peak of the primary response, suggesting that Tcf-1 programs CD8 memory cell fate. The function of Tcf-1 to establish CD8 T cell memory is dependent on the catenin-binding domain in Tcf-1 and requires the Tcf-1 coactivators and Wnt signaling intermediates beta-catenin and gamma-catenin. These findings demonstrate that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays an essential role for CD8 central memory T cell differentiation under physiological conditions in vivo. They raise the possibility that modulation of Wnt signaling may be exploited to improve the generation of CD8 memory T cells during vaccination or for therapies designed to promote sustained cytotoxic CD8 T cell responses against tumors.
Project description:The TCF-1 and LEF-1 transcription factors are known to play critical roles in normal thymocyte development. Unexpectedly, we found that TCF-1-deficient (Tcf7(-/-)) mice developed aggressive T cell malignancy, resembling human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). LEF-1 was aberrantly upregulated in premalignant Tcf7(-/-) early thymocytes and lymphoma cells. We further demonstrated that TCF-1 directly repressed LEF-1 expression in early thymocytes and that conditional inactivation of Lef1 greatly delayed or prevented T cell malignancy in Tcf7(-/-) mice. In human T-ALLs, an early thymic progenitor (ETP) subtype was associated with diminished TCF7 expression, and two of the ETP-ALL cases harbored TCF7 gene deletions. We also showed that TCF-1 and LEF-1 were dispensable for T cell lineage commitment but instead were required for early thymocytes to mature beyond the CD4(-)CD8(-) stage. TCF-1 thus has dual roles, i.e., acting cooperatively with LEF-1 to promote thymocyte maturation while restraining LEF-1 expression to prevent malignant transformation of developing thymocytes.
Project description:Thymocytes bearing the E alpha 52-68/I-A(b) complex-specific 1H3.1 alpha beta T cell antigen receptor are positively selected in Ab-Ep [Ab-Ep transgenic, invariant chain (Ii)(-/-), I-A beta(b-/-)] mice, where I-A(b) molecules present only E alpha 52-68. Although Ii reintroduction led to deletion, I-A beta(b) reintroduction disrupted positive selection. T cell antigen receptor transgenic Ab-Ep I-A beta(b+) mice had a large thymus with an increased absolute number of CD4(+)CD8(+) cells and no overt signs of deletion. Unlike Ab-Ep Ii(+) antigen-presenting cells, Ab-Ep I-A beta(b+) antigen-presenting cells did not activate 1H3.1 T cells. However, their capacity to present E alpha 52-68 was intact. Thus, positive selection of 1H3.1 thymocytes on the tight compact E alpha 52-68/I-A(b) complex is neutralized by the corecognition of loose compact self-peptide/I-A(b) conformers that do not interfere with the cognate activation of mature 1H3.1 T cells. The data support the notion that the integration of distinct signals generated by the simultaneous recognition of multiple self-peptide/MHC complexes directs intrathymic selection of T cells.
Project description:The transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1 are essential for early T cell development, but their roles beyond the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) stage are unknown. By specific ablation of these factors in DP thymocytes, we demonstrated that deficiency in TCF-1 and LEF-1 diminished the output of CD4(+) T cells and redirected CD4(+) T cells to a CD8(+) T cell fate. The role of TCF-1 and LEF-1 in the CD4-versus-CD8 lineage 'choice' was mediated in part by direct positive regulation of the transcription factor Th-POK. Furthermore, loss of TCF-1 and LEF-1 unexpectedly caused derepression of CD4 expression in T cells committed to the CD8(+) lineage without affecting the expression of Runx transcription factors. Instead, TCF-1 physically interacted with Runx3 to cooperatively silence Cd4. Thus, TCF-1 and LEF-1 adopted distinct genetic 'wiring' to promote the CD4(+) T cell fate and establish CD8(+) T cell identity.
Project description:In vertebrate embryos, the cardiopharyngeal mesoderm gives rise to both cardiac and branchiomeric head muscles. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates many aspects of cardiomyocyte specification, and modulates a balance between skeletal and cardiac myogenesis during vertebrate head muscle development. However, the role of Wnt signaling during ascidian cardiopharyngeal development remains elusive. Here, we documented the expression of Wnt pathway components during cardiopharyngeal development in Ciona, and generated tools to investigate potential roles for Wnt signaling, and its transcriptional effector Tcf, on heart vs. pharyngeal muscle fate specification. Neither focused functional analyses nor lineage-specific transcriptome profiling uncovered a significant role for Tcf during early cardiac vs. pharyngeal muscle fate choice. By contrast, Wnt gene expression patterns of Frizzled4 and Lrp4/8 and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Tcf knock-down suggested a later requirement for Wnt signaling during heart morphogenesis and/or cardiomyocyte differentiation. This study provides a provisional set of reagents to study Wnt signaling function in Ciona, and promising insights for future analyses of Wnt functions during heart organogenesis.
Project description:The HMG-box factor Tcf1 is required during T-cell development in the thymus and mediates the nuclear response to Wnt signals. Tcf1-/- mice have previously been characterized and show developmental blocks at the CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) to CD4+CD8+ double positive transition. Due to the blocks in T-cell development, Tcf1-/- mice normally have a very small thymus. Unexpectedly, a large proportion of Tcf1-/- mice spontaneously develop thymic lymphomas with 50% of mice developing a thymic lymphoma/leukemia at the age of 16 wk. These lymphomas are clonal, highly metastatic, and paradoxically show high Wnt signaling when crossed with Wnt reporter mice and have high expression of Wnt target genes Lef1 and Axin2. In wild-type thymocytes, Tcf1 is higher expressed than Lef1, with a predominance of Wnt inhibitory isoforms. Loss of Tcf1 as repressor of Lef1 leads to high Wnt activity and is the initiating event in lymphoma development, which is exacerbated by activating Notch1 mutations. Thus, Notch1 and loss of Tcf1 functionally act as collaborating oncogenic events. Tcf1 deficiency predisposes to the development of thymic lymphomas by ectopic up-regulation of Lef1 due to lack of Tcf1 repressive isoforms and frequently by cooperating activating mutations in Notch1. Tcf1 therefore functions as a T-cell‚Äìspecific tumor suppressor gene, besides its established role as a Wnt responsive transcription factor. Thus, Tcf1 acts as a molecular switch between proliferative and repressive signals during T-lymphocyte development in the thymus. Using the Tcf1-/- DeltaVII/DeltaVII knockout mouse (Verbeek et al. Nature 1995), thymocytes of 17 mice (5 control Tcf+/-, 4 Tcf-/- and 8 Tcf-/- with thymic lymphoma) were homogenized for RNA isolation using Qiagen RNeasy minicolumns. The quantity and quality of total RNA was determined using spectrophotometry (Nanodrop) and an Agilent Bioanalyzer. One ¬µg of RNA was used to generate cRNA using Affymetrix One cycle cDNA synthesis kit (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA), after which the samples were biotinylated using an Affymetrix IVT labeling kit (Affymetrix). The samples were hybridized overnight at 42¬∞C to GeneChip mouse genome 430 2.0 Arrays (Affymetrix). Washing and staining steps were performed on a Fluidics station 450, and the Genechips were scanned using a GeneChip scanner 3000 (Affymetrix) at the Department of Immunology, Erasmus Medical Center. Raw data were normalized and summarized using Robust Multichip Average (RMA) method. The experiment consists of 5 control Tcf+/- thymi, 4 Tcf-/- thymi and 8 Tcf-/- thymus samples with thymic lymphoma.
Project description:The binding of the T cell receptor (TCR) to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the thymus determines fates of TCRalphabeta lymphocytes that subsequently home to secondary lymphoid tissue. TCR transgenic models have been used to study thymic selection and lineage commitment. Most TCR transgenic mice express the rearranged TCRalphabeta prematurely at the double negative stage and abnormal TCRalphabeta populations of T cells that are not easily detected in non-transgenic mice have been found in secondary lymphoid tissue of TCR transgenic mice.To determine developmental pathways of TCR-transgenic thymocytes, we used Cre-LoxP-mediated fate mapping and show here that premature expression of a transgenic TCRalphabeta diverts some developing thymocytes to a developmental pathway which resembles that of gamma delta cells. We found that most peripheral T cells with the HY-TCR in male mice have bypassed the RORgammat-positive CD4(+)8(+) (double positive, DP) stage to accumulate either as CD4(-)8(-) (double negative, DN) or as CD8alpha(+) T cells in lymph nodes or gut epithelium. Likewise, DN TCRalphabeta cells in lymphoid tissue of female mice were not derived from DP thymocytes.The results further support the hypothesis that the premature expression of the TCRalphabeta can divert DN thymocytes into gamma delta lineage cells.
Project description:The Wnts are secreted proteins that play important roles in skeletal myogenesis, muscle fiber type diversification, neuromuscular junction formation and muscle stem cell function. How Wnt proteins orchestrate such diverse activities remains poorly understood. Canonical Wnt signaling stabilizes ?-catenin, which subsequently translocate to the nucleus to activate the transcription of TCF/LEF family genes.We employed TCF-reporter mice and performed analysis of embryos and of muscle groups. We further isolated fetal myoblasts and performed cell and molecular analyses.We found that canonical Wnt signaling is strongly activated during fetal myogenesis and weakly activated in adult muscles limited to the slow myofibers. Muscle-specific transgenic expression of a stabilized ?-catenin protein led to increased oxidative myofibers and reduced muscle mass, suggesting that canonical Wnt signaling promotes slow fiber types and inhibits myogenesis. By TCF-luciferase reporter assay, we identified Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a as potent activators of canonical Wnt signaling in myogenic progenitors. Consistent with in vivo data, constitutive overexpression of Wnt-1 or Wnt-3a inhibited the proliferation of both C2C12 and primary myoblasts. Surprisingly, Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a overexpression up-regulated BMP-4, and inhibition of BMP-4 by shRNA or recombinant Noggin protein rescued the myogenic inhibitory effect of Wnt-1 and Wnt-3a. Importantly, Wnt-3a or BMP-4 recombinant proteins promoted slow myosin heavy chain expression during myogenic differentiation of fetal myoblasts.These results demonstrate a novel interaction between canonical Wnt and BMP signaling that induces myogenic differentiation towards slow muscle phenotype.
Project description:The Wnt/Wg signaling pathway functions during development to regulate cell fate determination and patterning in various organisms. Two pathways are reported to lie downstream of Wnt signaling in vertebrates. The canonical pathway relies on the activation of target genes through the beta-catenin-Lef/TCF complex, while the noncanonical pathway employs the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and increases in intracellular calcium to induce target gene expression. cDNA subtractive hybridization between a cell line that overexpresses Wnt-1 (C57MG/Wnt-1) and the parental cell line (C57MG) was performed to identify downstream target genes of Wnt-1 signaling. Among the putative Wnt-1 target genes, we have identified a mouse homolog of the gene encoding human transcription factor basic transcription element binding protein 2 (mBTEB2). The mBTEB2 transcript is found at high levels in mammary tissue taken from a transgenic mouse overexpressing Wnt-1 (both tissue prior to active proliferation and tumor tissue) but is barely detectable in wild-type mouse mammary glands. The regulation of mBTEB2 by Wnt-1 signaling in tissue culture occurs through a beta-catenin-Lef/TCF-independent mechanism, as it is instead partially regulated by PKC. The Wnt-1-induced, PKC-dependent activation of mouse BTEB2 in C57MG cells, as well as the ability of Wnt-1 to stabilize beta-catenin in these cells, is consistent with the hypothesis that both the noncanonical and canonical Wnt pathways are activated concomitantly in the same cell. These results suggest that mBTEB2 is a biologically relevant target of Wnt-1 signaling that is activated through a beta-catenin-independent, PKC-sensitive pathway in response to Wnt-1.