MicroRNA expression signatures of imatinib-treated and non-treated gastrointestinal stromal tumors
ABSTRACT: We performed microRNA expression profiling in a series of fresh-frozen neoadjuvantly imatinib-treated and non-treated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), using a microarray approach. Significant differentially expressed microRNAs among imatinib-treated and non-treated groups were identified using SAM analysis. Overall design: Agilent microarray platform with probes matching 903 human microRNAs was used to determine miRNA expression profiles in 34 GISTs (19 imatinib-treated and 15 non-treated). Re-analysis of GSE45901 for 17 imatinib-treated GISTs. To validate the microarray platform, the expression levels of selected microRNAs were evaluated using qRT-PCR.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-029297 Human miRNA Microarray v14 Rev.2 (miRNA ID version)
Project description:We performed microRNA expression profiling in a series of fresh-frozen neoadjuvantly imatinib-treated and non-treated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), using a microarray approach. Significant differentially expressed microRNAs among imatinib-treated and non-treated groups were identified using SAM analysis. Agilent microarray platform with probes matching 903 human microRNAs was used to determine miRNA expression profiles in 34 GISTs (19 imatinib-treated and 15 non-treated). Re-analysis of GSE45901 for 17 imatinib-treated GISTs. To validate the microarray platform, the expression levels of selected microRNAs were evaluated using qRT-PCR.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is mainly initialised by receptor tyrosine kinase gene mutations. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate considerably improved the outcome of patients, imatinib resistance still remains a major therapeutic challenge in GIST therapy. Herein we evaluated the clinical impact of microRNAs in imatinib-treated GISTs. METHODS: The expression levels of microRNAs were quantified using microarray and RT-qPCR in GIST specimens from patients treated with neoadjuvant imatinib. The functional roles of miR-125a-5p and PTPN18 were evaluated in GIST cells. PTPN18 expression was quantified by western blotting in GIST samples. RESULTS: We showed that overexpression levels of miR-125a-5p and miR-107 were associated with imatinib resistance in GIST specimens. Functionally, miR-125a-5p expression modulated imatinib sensitivity in GIST882 cells with a homozygous KIT mutation but not in GIST48 cells with double KIT mutations. Overexpression of miR-125a-5p suppressed PTPN18 expression, and silencing of PTPN18 expression increased cell viability in GIST882 cells upon imatinib treatment. PTPN18 protein levels were significantly lower in the imatinib-resistant GISTs and inversely correlated with miR-125a-5p. Furthermore, several microRNAs were significantly associated with metastasis, KIT mutational status and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight a novel functional role of miR-125a-5p on imatinib response through PTPN18 regulation in GIST.
Project description:We performed miRNA expression profiling in a series of fresh-frozen neoadjuvantly imatinib treated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), using a microarray approach. Significant differentially expressed miRNAs among imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive groups were identified using SAM analysis. Agilent microarray platform with probes matching 903 human miRNAs was used to determine miRNA expression profiles in 17 GISTs (imatinib-sensitive and 7 imatinib-resistant). To validate the microarray platform, the expression levels of selected miRNAs were evaluated using qRT-PCR.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs express the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, and the majority of GISTs present KIT gain-of-function mutations that cluster in the 5' end of the receptor juxtamembrane domain. On the other hand, little information is known about GISTs carrying mutations in the 3' end of the KIT juxtamembrane domain. Here we report and discuss a clinical case of localized duodenal GIST whose molecular characterization revealed the presence of a new 21 nucleotide/7 amino acid deletion in the 3' end of KIT juxtamembrane domain (?574-580). The patient was treated with Imatinib at standard regimen dose (400 mg/day), and responded well as the original tumor mass reduced, ultimately allowing conservative surgery. In line with these clinical evidences computer simulations, biophysical techniques and in vitro experiments demonstrated that the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT carrying the ?574-580 mutation displays constitutive phosphorylation, which can be switched-off upon Imatinib treatment. In addition, results from this study showed that a clinical useful procedure, neoadjuvant treatment, can occasionally be of value for the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of GIST.
Project description:Approximately 5% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) originate in the rectum, and historically, radical resection was commonly performed. Little is known about the outcome for rectal GIST in the era of imatinib.Using a prospectively maintained database, this study retrospectively analyzed 47 localized primary rectal GISTs treated at our center from 1982 to 2016, stratified by when imatinib became available in 2000. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.Rectal GISTs represented 7.1% of 663 primary GISTs. The findings showed 17 patients in the pre-imatinib era and 30 patients in the imatinib era. The two groups had similar follow-up evaluation, age, gender, Miettinen risk, and distance to the anal verge. In the imatinib era, tumors were smaller at diagnosis (median 4 vs. 5 cm; p = 0.029), and 24 of the 30 patients received perioperative imatinib. In the high-risk patients, organ preservation and negative margins were more common among the 13 patients treated with neoadjuvant imatinib than among the 21 patients treated directly with surgery. High-risk patients who received perioperative imatinib (n = 15) had greater (or nearly significantly greater) 5-year OS, DSS, local RFS, and distant RFS than those who did not (n = 19) (91, 100, 100, and 71% vs. 47, 65, 74, and 41%; p = 0.049, 0.052, 0.077, 0.051, respectively). In the imatinib era, no patient has had a local recurrence or death due to GIST.The use of imatinib is associated with organ preservation and improved oncologic outcome for patients with rectal GIST.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are frequently driven by auto-activated, mutant KIT and have durable response to KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, acquired resistance is an increasing clinical issue in GIST patients receiving front-line imatinib therapy. Our previous studies showed the colocalization of KIT with DAPI-stained nuclei in GIST cells without knowing the role of nuclear KIT in GIST tumorigenesis. In this article, we first identified the binding of nuclear KIT to the promoter of NFKB inhibitor beta (NFKBIB) by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing and ChIP assays, which was accompanied with enhanced NFKBIB protein expression in GIST cells. Clinically, high NCCN risk GISTs had significantly higher mean expression levels of nuclear phospho-KIT and NFKBIB as compared with those of intermediate or low/very low-risk GISTs. Conversely, downregulation of NFKBIB by siRNA led to RELA nuclear translocation that could bind to the KIT promoter region and subsequently reduced KIT transcription/expression and the viability of GIST cells. These findings were further confirmed by either RELA overexpression or NFKB/RELA inducer, valproic acid, treatment to result in reduced KIT expression and relative cell viability of imatinib-resistant GIST cells. Combining valproic acid with imatinib showed significantly better growth inhibitory effects on imatinib-resistant GIST48 and GIST430 cells in vitro, and in the GIST430 animal xenograft model. Taken together, these results demonstrate the existence of a nuclear KIT-driven NFKBIB-RELA-KIT autoregulatory loop in GIST tumorigenesis, which are potential targets for developing combination therapy to overcome imatinib-resistant of KIT-expressing GISTs.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare and therefore often neglected disease. Introduction of the kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate radically improved the clinical response of patients with GIST; however, its effects are often short-lived, with GISTs demonstrating a median time-to-progression of approximately two years. Although many investigational drugs, approved first for other cancers, have been subsequently evaluated for the management of GIST, few have greatly affected the overall survival of patients with advanced disease. We employed a novel, focused, drug-repurposing effort for GIST, including imatinib mesylate-resistant GIST, evaluating a large library of FDA-approved drugs regardless of current indication. As a result of the drug-repurposing screen, we identified eight FDA-approved drugs, including fludarabine phosphate (F-AMP), that showed synergy with and/or overcame resistance to imatinib mesylate. F-AMP induces DNA damage, Annexin V, and caspase-3/7 activities as the cytotoxic effects on GIST cells, including imatinib mesylate-resistant GIST cells. F-AMP and imatinib mesylate combination treatment showed greater inhibition of GIST cell proliferation when compared with imatinib mesylate and F-AMP alone. Successful in vivo experiments confirmed the combination of imatinib mesylate with F-AMP enhanced the antitumor effects compared with imatinib mesylate alone. Our results identified F-AMP as a promising, repurposed drug therapy for the treatment of GISTs, with potential to be administered in combination with imatinib mesylate or for treatment of imatinib mesylate-refractory tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Imatinib has become the standard first line treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the advanced phase and adjuvant setting. We carried out an up-to-date meta-analysis to determine the practical role of mutation analysis for imatinib treatment in patients with advanced GIST. METHODS: Eligible studies were limited to imatinib treatment for patients with advanced GIST and reported on mutation analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using fixed-effects and random-effects models. RESULTS: A total of 2834 patients from 3 randomized controlled trials and 12 cohort studies were included. The ORs of response rates in KIT exon 11-mutant GISTs were 3.504 (95% CI 2.549-4.816, p<0.001) and 3.521 (95% CI 1.731-7.165, p=0.001) compared with KIT exon 9-mutant and wild type GISTs, respectively. The HRs of progression-free survival in KIT exon 11-mutant GISTs were 0.365 (95% CI 0.301-0.444, p<0.001) and 0.375 (95% CI 0.270-0.519, p<0.001) compared with KIT exon 9-mutant and wild type GISTs. The HRs of overall survival in KIT exon 11-mutant GISTs were 0.388 (95% CI 0.293-0.515, p<0.001) and 0.400 (95% CI 0.297-0.538, p<0.001) compared with KIT exon 9-mutant and wild type GISTs. No statistical significant differences were found between KIT exon 9-mutant and wild type. The overall response rate in KIT-exon 11-mutant GISTs were 70.5% (65%-75.9%) compared with 57.1% (51%-63.2%) in KIT-positive GISTs. No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced GIST harboring a KIT exon 11 mutation have the best response rate and long-term survival with imatinib treatment. Mutation analysis would be more helpful than KIT expression analysis to decide appropriate therapy for a specific patient.
Project description:Background:cKIT kinase overexpression and gain-of-function mutations are the critical pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Although the multiple kinase inhibitors such as imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib have been approved for GISTs, the acquisition of polyclonal secondary resistance mutations in KIT is still a limitation for GIST treatment. Here we explored the KIT inhibitory activity of axitinib in preclinical models and describe initial characterization of its activity in GIST patient-derived primary cells. Methods:The activities of axitinib against mutant KIT were evaluated using protein-based assay and a panel of engineered and GIST-derived cell lines. The binding modes of axitinib-KIT/KIT mutants were analyzed. Four primary cells derived from GIST patients were also used to assess the drug response of axitinib. Results:Axitinib exhibited potent activities against a variety of cKIT associated primary and secondary mutations. It displayed better activity against cKIT wild-type, cKIT V559D/A/G, and L576P primary gain-of-function mutations than imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib. In addition, it could inhibit imatinib resistant cKIT T670I and V654A mutants in vitro and in vivo GIST preclinical models. Conclusion:Our results provide the basis for extending the application of axitinib to GISTs patients who are unresponsive or intolerant to the current therapies.
Project description:Imatinib is the first-line drug for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), as mutated KIT is closely associated with the occurrence of GIST. However, Imatinib resistance (IMA-resistance) occurs inevitably in most GIST patients. Although the over-expression of KIT in GIST is one of the major factors contributing to IMA-resistance, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that p55PIK, an isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), increases KIT expression, leading to IMA-resistance in GISTs by activating NF-?B signaling pathway. Furthermore, down-regulation of p55PIK significantly decreases KIT expression and re-sensitizes IMA-resistance-GIST cells to Imatinib in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the expression of both p55PIK and KIT proteins is significantly increased in tumor samples from IMA-resistance-GIST patients, suggesting that p55PIK up-regulation may be important for IMA-resistance in the clinical setting. Altogether, our data provide evidence that p55PIK-PI3K signaling can contribute to IMA-resistance in GIST by increasing KIT expression. Moreover, p55PIK may be a novel potential drug target for treating tumors that develop IMA-resistance.