Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in HTR8/SVneo cells treated with ZNF554 siRNA
ABSTRACT: Analysis of the effect of ZNF554 knock-down on genome-wide gene expression in trophoblastic cells. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that ZNF554 regulates the expression of genes involved in trophoblastic cell migration and invasion. The results provide important information on the functions of ZNF554 in trophoblastic cells. Overall design: Total RNA was obtained from HTR8/SVneo cells subjected to either ZNF554 (n=3) or scrambled (n=3) siRNA treatment.
Project description:Placental trophoblast invasion involves a cellular transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. Cytotrophoblasts undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) when differentiating into extravillous trophoblasts and gaining the capacity of invasion. In this research, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in trophoblasts during this EMT. First, using BeWo and HTR8/SVneo cell lines as models of cytotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, respectively, we analyzed the gene expression and DNA methylation status of the known epithelial marker genes, E-Cadherin and Cytokeratin7. We found that, in HTR8/SVneo cells, both genes were silenced and their promoters hypermethylated, as compared with the high-level gene expression and promoter hypomethylation observed in BeWo cells. This result suggests that dynamic DNA methylation of epithelial marker genes plays a critical role in the trophoblast EMT process. To verify these results, we treated HTR8/SVneo cells with 5-aza-dC, a known inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, for three days. Five-Aza-dC treatment significantly increased the expression of epithelial marker genes and slightly decreased the expression of mesenchymal genes, as detected by qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Furthermore, 5-aza-dC treated HTR8/SVneo cells changed their morphology from mesenchymal into epithelial phenotype, indicating that 5-aza-dC induced mesenchymal to epithelial transition. Lastly, we examined the effect of 5-aza-dC on trophoblast migration and invasion capacity. We applied 5-aza-dC to HTR8/SVneo cells in trans-well cell migration and invasion assays and found that 5-aza-dC treatment decreased trophoblast migration and invasion capacity. In conclusion, DNA methylation of epithelial marker genes represents a molecular mechanism for the process of trophoblast EMT.
Project description:Pregnancy complications are associated with oxidative stress induced by accumulation of trophoblastic ROS in the placenta. We employed the human trophoblast HTR8/SVneo cell line to determine the effect of curcumin pre-treatment on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in HTR8/Sveo cells. Cells were pretreated with 2.5 or 5 ?M curcumin for 24 h, and then incubated with 400 ?M H2O2 for another 24 h. The results showed that H2O2 decreased the cell viability and induced excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HTR8/Sveo cells. Curcumin pre-treatment effectively protected HTR8/SVneo cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreasing the protein expression level of cleaved-caspase 3. Moreover, curcumin pre-treatment alleviated the excessive oxidative stress by enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes. The antioxidant effect of curcumin was achieved by activating Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant proteins. In addition, knockdown of Nrf2 by Nrf2-siRNA transfection abolished the protective effects of curcumin on HTR8/SVneo cells against oxidative damage. Taken together, our results show that curcumin could protect HTR8/SVneo cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Project description:Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder associated with shallow placentation, forcing placental cells to live in hypoxic conditions. This activates the transcription factor kappa B (NFκB) in maternal and placental cells. Although the role of NFκB in preeclampsia is well documented, its mechanism of activation in trophoblastic cells has been never studied. This study investigates the mechanism of NFκB activation in a first trimester trophoblastic cell line (HTR8/SVneo) stimulated by a medium containing serum from preeclamptic (PE) or normotensive (C) women in hypoxic (2% O<sub>2</sub>) or normoxic (8% O<sub>2</sub>) conditions. The results indicate that in HTR8/SVneo cells, the most widely studied NFκB pathways, i.e., canonical, non-canonical and atypical, are downregulated in environment PE 2% O<sub>2</sub> in comparison to C 8% O<sub>2</sub>. Therefore, other pathways may be responsible for NFκB activation. One such pathway depends on the activation of NFκB by the p53/RSK1 complex through its phosphorylation at Serine 536 (pNFκB Ser536). The data generated by our study show that inhibition of the p53/RSK1 pathway by p53-targeted siRNA results in a depletion of pNFκB Ser536 in the nucleus, but only in cells incubated with PE serum at 2% O<sub>2</sub>. Thus, the p53/RSK1 complex might play a critical role in the activation of NFκB in trophoblastic cells and preeclamptic placentas.
Project description:<h4>Problem</h4>Does aquaporin 3 (AQP3) affect the migration and invasion of human extravillous trophoblast (HTR8/Svneo) cells?<h4>Method of study</h4>A lentivirus infection system was used to construct stable cell lines with either AQP3 knockdown or overexpression. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to verify the efficiencies of AQP3 knockdown or overexpression in HTR8/Svneo cells at mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry assays were used to detect the influence of AQP3 knockdown or overexpression on proliferation and apoptosis of HTR8/Svneo cells. In addition, wound healing and Transwell invasion assays were used to detect the effects of AQP3 knockdown or overexpression on migration and invasion capabilities of HTR8/Svneo cells. An Agilent gene chip was used to screen for significant differentially expressed genes after AQP3 knockdown. Finally, mechanisms by which AQP3 influences the migration and invasion of HTR8/Svneo cells were explored using bioinformatic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with controls, migration and invasion capabilities of HTR8/Svneo cells were significantly reduced after AQP3 knockdown, and significantly increased after AQP3 overexpression. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis of gene chip expression profiles indicated downregulation of genes related to adhesion such as PDGF-B, as well as signaling pathways (such as PIK3/AKT, NF-κB, and TNF) after AQP3 knockdown.<h4>Conclusions</h4>AQP3 could significantly promote migration and invasion capabilities of human extravillous trophoblasts, it may mediate embryo invasion and adhesion to endometrium by regulating PDGF-B, PIK3/AKT signaling pathways, although this requires further verification.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is reported to be down-regulated in pregnancy complications like intrauterine growth retardation and preeclampsia, which are associated with abnormal trophoblast migration/invasion. In this study, role of HGF and associated signaling pathways has been investigated in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells migration/invasion under normoxia (20% O2) and hypoxia (2% O2). HTR-8/SVneo cells exposed to hypoxia showed increase in migration and invasion as compared to cells incubated under normoxic conditions. The migration/invasion under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions was further enhanced after treatment with HGF. Subsequent to treatment with HGF, a significant increase in expression of MMP2 & MMP3 under normoxia and MMP1 & MMP9 under hypoxia was observed. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells with HGF under hypoxia also led to decrease in TIMP1. Treatment of the cells with HGF led to activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways. Inhibition of MAPK by U0126 and PI3K by LY294002 led to concomitant decrease in the HGF-mediated migration/invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells. HGF treatment under hypoxia also led to a significant increase in hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1?) expression. Additionally, inhibition of HIF-1? by siRNA led to decrease in HGF-mediated migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of HGF activated MAPK and PI3K signaling led to reduction in HIF-1? expression under hypoxia. In conclusion, HGF facilitates HTR-8/SVneo cell migration/invasion by activation of MAPK/PI3K signaling pathways and increased expression of MMPs. HIF-1? has a role in HGF-mediated increase in migration under hypoxic conditions.
Project description:Here, we have undertaken comparative label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomic profiling of the proteins expressed in BeWo and HTR8/SVneo cell lines using a mass spectrometry approach. We have identified 1557 proteins in total. 915 proteins were expressed in both cell lines including various transcription factors, chaperones and transport proteins. A further 338 and 304 proteins were uniquely expressed in BeWo and HTR8/SVneo cells respectively. Our bioinformatics analysis reflects the known epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes of these cell models with principal differences in GO observed in ‘Cell junction’, ‘Catenin complex’ as well as ‘Cell adhesion’ and ‘Cell differentiation’. Our novel comparative proteomic analysis of these trophoblastic cell lines will set the stage for the use of trophoblastic cell lines for the study of pregnancy disorders and further research focusing on placental function.
Project description:PROBLEM:During normal pregnancy, delicate crosstalk is established between fetus-derived trophoblasts and maternal immune cells to ensure maternal-fetal tolerance and successful placentation. Dysfunction in these interactions has been highly linked to certain pregnancy complications. METHOD OF STUDY:Naïve CD4+ T cells were cultivated with or without 1st trimester derived trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells in the absence or presence of T helper 17 (Th17) or regulatory (Treg)cell-inducing differentiation conditions. After 5 days of co-culture, HTR8/SVneo cells and CD4+ T cells were harvested and analyzed using flow cytometry. RESULTS:CD4+ T cells exposed to HTR8/SVneo cells showed enhanced induction of CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg cells with strong expression of TGF-β1 and inhibitory molecules (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4 [CTLA-4], T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 [Tim-3], and programmed cell death-1 [PD-1]). Though not effecting Th17 differentiation, exposure to HTR8/SVneo cells promoted increased expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers on Th17 cells. Co-culture with Th0 cells, or differentiated Th17 or Treg cells, down-regulated Caspase-3 and MMP-9 (but not MMP-2) expression in HTR8/SVneo cells, while promoting Ki67 expression. CONCLUSIONS:HTR8/SVneo cells regulated maternal CD4+ T-cell differentiation, resulting in the expansion of immunosuppressive Treg cells, while CD4+ T cells might promote the growth, and control the invasiveness of HTR8/SVneo cells. Thus, a bidirectional regulatory loop might exist between trophoblasts and maternal immune cell subsets, thereby promoting harmonious maternal-fetal crosstalk.
Project description:Cold shock Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) coordinates several molecular processes between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and plays a crucial role in cell function. Moreover, it is involved in cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis. As trophoblast cells share similar characteristics with cancer cells, we hypothesized that YB-1 might also be necessary for trophoblast functionality. In samples of patients with intrauterine growth restriction, YB-1 mRNA levels were decreased, while they were increased in preeclampsia and unchanged in spontaneous abortions when compared to normal pregnant controls. Studies with overexpression and downregulation of YB-1 were performed to assess the key trophoblast processes in two trophoblast cell lines HTR8/SVneo and JEG3. Overexpression of YB-1 or exposure of trophoblast cells to recombinant YB-1 caused enhanced proliferation, while knockdown of YB-1 lead to proliferative disadvantage in JEG3 or HTR8/SVneo cells. The invasion and migration properties were affected at different degrees among the trophoblast cell lines. Trophoblast expression of genes mediating migration, invasion, apoptosis, and inflammation was altered upon YB-1 downregulation. Moreover, IL-6 secretion was excessively increased in HTR8/SVneo. Ultimately, YB-1 directly binds to NF-κB enhancer mark in HTR8/SVneo cells. Our data show that YB-1 protein is important for trophoblast cell functioning and, when downregulated, leads to trophoblast disadvantage that at least in part is mediated by NF-κB.
Project description:Invasion of trophoblast cells is spatio-temporally regulated by various cytokines and growth factors. In pregnancy, complications like preeclampsia, shallow invasion of trophoblast cells and low amounts of epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been reported. In the present study, regulatory mechanisms associated with EGF-mediated invasion in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells have been delineated. Treatment of HTR-8/SVneo cells with EGF (10 ng/ml) led to eight fold increase (p < 0.05) in invasion. Increased invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells by EGF was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of ERK½. In addition, significant phosphorylation of STAT1 (ser 727) and STAT3 (both tyr 705 and ser 727 residues) was also observed, accompanied by a decrease in total STAT1. Inhibition of ERK½ phosphorylation by U0126 (10 ?M) led to a significant decrease in EGF-mediated invasion with simultaneous decrease in the phosphorylated forms of STAT3 and STAT1. Decrease in total STAT1 was also reversed on inhibition of ERK½. Interestingly, inhibition of STAT3 by siRNA led to a significant decrease in EGF-mediated invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells and phosphorylation of STAT1, but it did not have any effect on the activation of ERK½. On the other hand, inhibition of STAT1 by siRNA, also led to a significant decrease in the EGF-mediated invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells, showed concomitant decrease in ERK½ phosphorylation and STAT3 phosphorylation at ser 727 residue. These results suggest cross-communication between ERK½ and JAK-STAT pathways during EGF-mediated increase in invasion of trophoblast cells; phosphorylation at ser 727 residue of both STAT3 and STAT1 appears to be critical.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Well-controlled trophoblast invasion at maternal-fetal interface is a critical event for the normal development of placenta. CD82 is a member of transmembrane 4 superfamily, which showed important role in inhibiting tumor cell invasion and migration. We surmised that CD82 are participates in trophoblast differentiation during placenta development.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>CD82 was found to be strongly expressed in human first trimester placental villous and extravillous trophoblast cells as well as in trophoblast cell lines. To investigate whether CD82 plays a role in trophoblast invasion and migration, we further utilized human villous explants culture model on matrigel and invasion/migration assay of trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo. CD82 siRNA significantly promoted outgrowth of villous explants in vitro (P<0.01), as well as invasion and migration of HTR8/SVneo cells (P<0.05), whereas the trophoblast proliferation was not affected. The enhanced effect of CD82 siRNA on invasion and migration of trophoblast cells was found associated with increased gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 while over-expression of CD82 markedly decreased trphoblast cell invasion and migration as well as MMP9 activities.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>These findings suggest that CD82 is an important negative regulator at maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy, inhibiting human trophoblast invasion and migration.