Fibroblast transcription pattern in Salmonella infected Vs uninfected cells
ABSTRACT: Human fibroblasts were infected with GFP-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typmimurium and further separated by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting. RNA from infected and uninfected cells sub-populations were used for genome-wide expression studies Overall design: 3 independent experiments enabled us to obtain 3 infected and 3 uninfected sub-populations.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-028004 SurePrint G3 Human GE 8x60K Microarray (Feature Number version)
Project description:Human fibroblasts were infected with GFP-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typmimurium and further separated by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting. RNA from infected and uninfected cells sub-populations were used for genome-wide expression studies 3 independent experiments enabled us to obtain 3 infected and 3 uninfected sub-populations.
Project description:Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ?guaBA ?clpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:Gene expression in murine dendritic cells (DCs) infected with green fluorescent protein-expressing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium BRD509 was studied by mRNA differential display. Infected DCs were sorted from uninfected cells by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression patterns of infected and uninfected cells revealed a number of differentially expressed transcripts, which included the macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). Up-regulation of MDC transcription in infected DCs was confirmed by Northern blotting, and the kinetics of MDC expression was examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, with which 31- and 150-fold increases were detected at 2 and 6 h postinfection, respectively. The increased release by DCs of MDC into culture media was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological activity of MDC was investigated in in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro, supernatants from S. enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected DCs were chemoattractive to T cells, and neutralization of MDC in these supernatants inhibited T-cell migration. Passive transfer of anti-MDC antibody to mice infected with BRD509 revealed that neither growth of the bacterium nor resistance of the mice to reinfection was affected and that in vivo inhibition of MDC did not affect T-cell responses, as measured by the gamma interferon ELISPOT method 3 days after challenge infection.
Project description:The gut microbiota confers resistance to pathogens of the intestinal ecosystem, yet the dynamics of pathogen-microbiome interactions and the metabolites involved in this process remain largely unknown. Here, we use gnotobiotic mice infected with the virulent pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans in combination with metagenomics and discovery metabolomics to identify changes in the community and metabolome during infection. To isolate the role of the microbiota in response to pathogens, we compared mice monocolonized with the pathogen, uninfected mice "humanized" with a synthetic human microbiome, or infected humanized mice. In Salmonella-infected mice, by 3 days into infection, microbiome community structure and function changed substantially, with a rise in Enterobacteriaceae strains and a reduction in biosynthetic gene cluster potential. In contrast, Candida-infected mice had few microbiome changes. The LC-MS metabolomic fingerprint of the cecum differed between mice monocolonized with either pathogen and humanized infected mice. Specifically, we identified an increase in glutathione disulfide, glutathione cysteine disulfide, inosine 5'-monophosphate, and hydroxybutyrylcarnitine in mice infected with Salmonella in contrast to uninfected mice and mice monocolonized with Salmonella These metabolites potentially play a role in pathogen-induced oxidative stress. These results provide insight into how the microbiota community members interact with each other and with pathogens on a metabolic level.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized for playing a critical role in human health and disease, especially in conferring resistance to both virulent pathogens such as Salmonella, which infects 1.2 million people in the United States every year (E. Scallan, R. M. Hoekstra, F. J. Angulo, R. V. Tauxe, et al., Emerg Infect Dis 17:7-15, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1701.P11101), and opportunistic pathogens like Candida, which causes an estimated 46,000 cases of invasive candidiasis each year in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013, 2013). Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, we investigate potential changes in gut microbial community structure and function during infection using metagenomics and metabolomics. We observe that changes in the community and in biosynthetic gene cluster potential occur within 3 days for the virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, but there are minimal changes with a poorly colonizing Candida albicans In addition, the metabolome shifts depending on infection status, including changes in glutathione metabolites in response to Salmonella infection, potentially in response to host oxidative stress.
Project description:The objective of this research was to determine whether variation in the presence of fimbrial protein SefD would impact efficacy of bacterins as measured by recovery of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) from the spleens of hens. Two bacterins were prepared that varied in SefD content. Also, two adjuvants were tested, namely, water-in-oil and aluminum hydroxide gel (alum). Control groups for both adjuvant preparations included infected nonvaccinated hens and uninfected nonvaccinated hens. At 21 days postinfection, Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered from 69.7%, 53.1%, and 86.0% from the spleens of all hens vaccinated with bacterins lacking SefD, bacterins that included SefD, and infected nonvaccinated control hens, respectively. No Salmonella was recovered from uninfected nonvaccinates. Results from individual trials showed that both bacterins reduced positive spleens, but that the one with SefD was more efficacious. Alum adjuvant had fewer side effects on hens and egg production as compared to water-in-oil. However, adjuvant did not change the relative recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from spleens. These results suggest that SefD is a promising target antigen for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in hens, and is intended to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in the food supply.
Project description:A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has recently been documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium). We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium populations. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates fell within two closely related, highly clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ?52 and ?35 years ago in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. Clonal replacement of isolates from lineage I by those from lineage II was potentially influenced by the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of iNTS disease. Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment.
Project description:Biofilm formation is a common strategy utilized by bacterial pathogens to establish persistence in a host niche. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the etiological agent of Typhoid fever, relies on biofilm formation in the gallbladder to chronically colonize asymptomatic carriers, allowing for transmission to uninfected individuals. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes biofilms to achieve persistence in human and animal hosts, an issue of both clinical and agricultural importance. Here, we identify a compound that selectively inhibits biofilm formation in both S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium serovars at early stages of biofilm development with an EC50 of 21.0 and 7.4 ?M, respectively. We find that this compound, T315, also reduces biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii, a nosocomial and opportunistic pathogen with rising antibiotic resistance. T315 treatment in conjunction with sub-MIC dosing of ciprofloxacin further reduces S. enterica biofilm formation, demonstrating the potential of such combination therapies for therapeutic development. Through synthesis of two biotin-labeled T315 probes and subsequent pull-down and proteomics analysis, we identified a T315 binding target: WrbA, a flavin mononucleotide-dependent NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Using a S. Typhimurium strain lacking WrbA we demonstrate that this factor contributes to endogenous S. enterica biofilm formation processes and is required for full T315 anti-biofilm activity. We suggest WrbA as a promising target for further development of anti-biofilm agents in Salmonella, with potential for use against additional bacterial pathogens. The development of anti-biofilm therapeutics will be essential to combat chronic carriage of Typhoid fever and thus accomplish a meaningful reduction of global disease burden.
Project description:Purpose:To investigate the characteristics of gastrointestinal infections in Southwest Shanghai. Methods:Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with Salmonella infections between 1998 and 2017 admitted to the Jinshan Hospital in the Southwest of Shanghai were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 565 isolated Salmonella strains were classified by serotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results:From 1998 to 2006, diarrhea was mainly caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus followed by Shigella and Salmonella. From 2007 to 2010, Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was the major cause of diarrhea followed by Salmonella and Shigella. From 2011 to 2017, Salmonella infections became the main cause of diarrhea after Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Salmonella infections increased from 2006 on and peaked between May and October, accounting for 82.48% of yearly infections. Patients with Salmonella infections (90.5%) had a history of eating unclean food, abdominal pain (58.05%), diarrhea ?5 times a day (50.44%), moderate fever (24.96%) and increased fecal leukocytes (41.42%). From 1998 to 2017, infected specimens from clinical cases were dominated by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) (21.59%) followed by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritis (S. Enteritidis) (16.81%), Salmonella enterica serotype London (6.55%) and Salmonella group B (13.10%). Other species included Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson, Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul, Salmonella group D, Salmonella group C, Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis and Salmonella enterica serovar Aberdeen. The PFGE classification of Salmonella serovars in 2008-2017 demonstrated that S. Enteritidis had 9 PFGE banding patterns and S. Typhimurium 16 with varying degrees of similarity among S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The results of antibiotic susceptibility tests for the 330 Salmonella strains revealed that fosfomycin had the highest sensitivity rate (97.5%) followed by levofloxacin and ceftriaxone (81%), and ampicillin/sulbactam (78.2%). The resistance to piperacillin and ciprofloxacin was 60.9 and 50.61%, respectively. Conclusion:The features of onset, epidemiological characteristics and molecular subtyping of Salmonella were conducive to clinical diagnosis, rational use of antibiotics and improved therapeutic efficacy.
Project description:Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).
Project description:Day-old chicks are very susceptible to infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies. The gut mucosa is the initial site of host invasion and provides the first line of defense against the bacteria. To study the potential of different S. enterica serovars to invade the gut mucosa and trigger an immune response, day-old chicks were infected orally with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Hadar, or S. enterica serovar Infantis, respectively. The localization of Salmonella organisms in gut mucosa and the number of immune cells in cecum were determined by immunohistochemistry in the period between 4 h and 9 days after infection. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, mRNA expression of various cytokines, chemokines, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was examined in cecum. As a result, all S. enterica serovars were able to infect epithelial cells and the lamina propria. Notably, serovar Enteritidis showed the highest invasiveness of lamina propria tissue, whereas serovars Typhimurium and Hadar displayed moderate invasiveness and serovar Infantis hardly any invasion capabilities. Only a limited number of bacteria of all serovars were found within intestinal macrophages. Elevated numbers of granulocytes, CD8+ cells, and TCR1+ cells and mRNA expression rates for interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha factor, and iNOS in cecum correlated well with the invasiveness of serovars in the lamina propria. In contrast, changes in numbers of TCR2+ and CD4+ cells and IL-2 mRNA expression seemed to be more dependent on infection of epithelial cells. The data indicate that the capability of Salmonella serovars to enter the cecal mucosa and invade lower regions affects both the level and character of the immune response in tissue.