Osteogenic differentiation-related miRNA expression profile of human mesenchymal stem cells
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the multipotent stem cells of adult human tissues that have the ability to replicate with high proliferative rates and are responsible for the tissue renewal and regeneration. Effective osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) encourages clinical application of the cells in bone regeneration. Regeneration of damaged joints is highly dependent on the presence of MSC in synovia. Synovial membrane-derived MSCs (SM-MSCs) show good multi-lineage differentiation potential, low degree of invasiveness, and are considered as an alternative treatment strategy for arthritis-damaged tissues. Studies in MSCs from different sources identified several miRNAs important for osteogenesis. Less is known about the participation of particular miRNAs in osteogenic differentiation of SM-MSCs, the potential source of MSCs for authologous cell therapy in arthritis. In the present study, the changes in miRNA expression profile occurring during osteogenic differentiation were analyzed in human ADSCs and SM-MSCs by microarray-based and quantitative PCR approaches. We aimed at the identification of miRNAs involved in the maintenance of these MSCs and regulation of osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs and SM-MSCs. Overall design: MiRNA expression profile was analyzed in synovial membrane-derived (SM-MSCs, 3 cell lines) and adipose-derived (ADSCs, 4 cell lines) stem cells differentiated into osteogenic lineage and compared to undifferentiated cells from the same donors. Two ADSCs cell lines of adipogenic differentiation were included for comparison.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-031181 Unrestricted_Human_miRNA_V16.0_Microarray (miRBase release 16.0 miRNA ID version)
Project description:The successful implementation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in bone regeneration depends on efficient osteogenic differentiation. However, a literature survey and our own experience demonstrated that current differentiation methods are not effective enough. Since the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes can be regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we investigated the effects of cAMP activator, forskolin, and inhibitor, SQ 22,536, on the early and late osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs cultured in spheroids or in a monolayer. Intracellular cAMP concentration, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) expression examination confirmed cAMP up- and downregulation. cAMP upregulation inhibited the cell cycle and protected ADSCs from osteogenic medium (OM)-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, the upregulation of cAMP level at the early stages of osteogenic differentiation downregulated the expression of osteogenic markers RUNX2, Osterix, and IBSP, which was more significant in spheroids, and it is used for the more efficient commitment of ADSCs into preosteoblasts, according to the previously reported protocol. However, cAMP upregulation in a culture of ADSCs in spheroids resulted in significantly increased osteocalcin production and mineralization. Thus, undifferentiated and predifferentiated ADSCs respond differently to cAMP pathway stimulation in terms of osteogenesis, which might explain the ambiguous results from the literature.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering and have great potential for bone regeneration and defect repair. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) has been demonstrated to modulate osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, its roles during ADSC differentiation and therapeutic potentials for bone regeneration have as yet not been well established.TAZ expression was measured during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs in vitro. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches by TAZ knockdown or enforced overexpression were utilized to determine its functions during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. TM-25659, a chemical activator of TAZ, was used to determine whether pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying TAZ in promoting osteogenesis of ADSCs were also explored.Increased TAZ expression was observed during osteogenic differentiation of human ADSCs. TAZ knockdown resulted in compromised osteogenic differentiation and enhanced adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. In contrast, enforced TAZ overexpression yielded increased osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vivo, and impaired adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Pharmacological activation of TAZ by its chemical activator TM-25659 facilitated osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Noticeably, transient treatment of ADSCs with TM-25659 or intraperitoneal injection of TM-25659 significantly enhanced bone regeneration of ADSCs loaded with porous ?-TCP in vivo. Mechanistically, TM-25659 exposure significantly promoted TAZ phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and potentiated the assembly of the TAZ-Runx2 complex. Subsequently, the TAZ-Runx2 complex was further recruited to the promoter of osteocalcin and in turn enhanced its transcription.Our findings indicate that TAZ is a key mediator that promotes ADSC commitment to the osteoblast lineage. Pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs might become a feasible and promising approach to enhance bone regeneration and repair.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as important regulators of stem cell lineage commitment and bone development. MiRNA-26a (miR-26a) is one of the important miRNAs regulating osteogenic differentiation of both bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, miR-26a functions oppositely in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs, suggesting distinct post-transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific MSC differentiation. However, the molecular basis is largely unknown. Here, we report that the function of miR-26a is largely depended on the intrinsic signaling regulation network of MSCs. Using bioinformatics and functional assay, we confirmed that miR-26a potentially targeted on GSK3? and Smad1 to regulate Wnt and BMP signaling pathway. Overall comparative analysis revealed that Wnt signaling was enhanced more potently and played a more important role than BMP signaling in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas BMP pathway was more essential for promoting osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. The distinct activation pattern and role of signaling pathways determined that miR-26a majorly targeted on GSK3? to activate Wnt signaling for promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas it inhibited Smad1 to suppress BMP signaling for interfering with the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Taken together, our study demonstrated that BMSCs and ADSCs applied different signaling pathway to facilitate their osteogenic differentiation, which determined the inverse function of miR-26a. The distinct transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation network suggested the intrinsic molecular differences between tissue-specific MSCs and the complexity in MSC research and MSC-based cell therapy.
Project description:Introduction. The participation of an inflammatory joint milieu has been described in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes. Based on previous studies in an allogeneic T-cell coculture model, we aimed at further determining the role of synovial MSCs in OA pathogenesis. Methods. Bone-marrow (BM) and synovial membrane (SM) MSCs from hip joints of late stage OA patients and CD4+ T-cells from healthy donors were analysed regarding surface marker expression before and after coculture. Proliferation upon CD3/CD28 stimulation and cytokine analyses were compared between MSCs. Results. SM-MSCs differed from BM-MSCs in several surface markers and their osteogenic differentiation potential. Cocultures of both MSCs with CD4+ T-cells resulted in recruitment of CD45RA+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells. Upon stimulation, only SM-MSCs suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation, while both SM-MSCs and BM-MSCs modified cytokine profiles through suppressing IL-2 and TNF-? as well as increasing IL-6 secretion. Conclusions. Synovial MSCs from OA joints are a unique fraction that can be distinguished from their bone-marrow derived counterparts. Their unique ability to suppress CD3/CD28 induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation makes them a potential target for future therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Extracorporeal shockwave (ESW) has been shown of great potential in promoting the osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), but it is unknown whether this osteogenic promotion effect can also be achieved in other MSCs (i.e., tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)). In the current study, we aimed not only to compare the osteogenic effects of BMSCs induced by ESW to those of TDSCs and ADSCs; but also to investigate the underlying mechanisms. We show here that ESW (0.16?mj/mm(2)) significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation in all the tested types of MSCs, accompanied with the downregulation of miR-138, but the activation of FAK, ERK1/2, and RUNX2. The enhancement of osteogenesis in these MSCs was consistently abolished when the cells were pretreated with one of the following conditions: overexpression of miR-138, FAK knockdown using specific siRNA, and U0126, implying that all of these elements are indispensable for mediating the effect of ESW. Moreover, our study provides converging genetic and molecular evidence that the miR-138-FAK-ERK1/2-RUNX2 machinery can be generally activated in ESW-preconditioned MSCs, suggesting that ESW may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the enhancement of osteogenesis of MSCs, regardless of their origins.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:It is of profound significance for clinical bone regeneration to clarify the specific molecular mechanism from which we found that osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) will be probably promoted by exosomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:By means of lentiviral transfection, miR-130a-3p overexpression and knockdown ADSCs were constructed. Alizarin Red S was used to detect the calcium deposits, and qPCR was used to detect osteogenesis-related genes, to verify the effect of miR-130a-3p on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. CCK-8 was used to detect the effect of miR-130a-3p on the proliferation of ADSCs. The target binding between miR-130a-3p and SIRT7 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Furthermore, the role of Wnt signalling pathway in the regulation of ADSCs osteogenesis and differentiation by miR-130a-3p was further verified by detecting osteogenic-related genes and proteins and alkaline phosphatase activity. RESULTS:(a) Overexpression of miR-130a-3p can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs while reducing protein and mRNA levels of SIRT7, a target of miR-130a-3p. (b) Our study further found that overexpression of miR-130a-3p leads to down-regulation of SIRT7 expression with up-regulation of Wnt signalling pathway-associated protein. (c) Overexpression of miR-130a-3p inhibited proliferation of ADSCs, while knockdown promoted it. CONCLUSIONS:The obtained findings indicate that exosomal miR-130a-3p can promote osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs partly by mediating SIRT7/Wnt/?-catenin axis, which will hence promote the application of exosomal microRNA in the field of bone regeneration.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) loaded bio-scaffold transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for bone regeneration and repair. However, growing evidence shows that pro-inflammatory mediators from injured tissues suppress osteogenic differentiation and impair bone formation. To improve MSC-based bone regeneration, it is important to understand the mechanism of inflammation mediated osteogenic suppression. In the present study, we found that synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1?, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor ?, stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) expression and impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, overexpression of ICAM-1 in MSCs using a genetic approach also inhibited osteogenesis. In contrast, ICAM-1 knockdown significantly reversed the osteogenic suppression. In addition, after transplanting a traceable MSC-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) construct in rat calvarial defects, we found that ICAM-1 suppressed MSC osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that ICAM-1 enhances MSC proliferation but causes stem cell marker loss. Furthermore, overexpression of ICAM-1 stably activated the MAPK and NF-?B pathways but suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway in MSCs. More importantly, specific inhibition of the ERK/MAPK and NF-?B pathways or activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway partially rescued osteogenic differentiation, while inhibition of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway caused more serious osteogenic suppression. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function of ICAM-1 in osteogenesis and suggest a new molecular target to improve bone regeneration and repair in inflammatory microenvironments.
Project description:Background:Bone tissue engineering is a widely growing field that requires the combination of cells, scaffolds and signaling molecules. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an accessible and abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells with high plasticity. Polycaprolactone/alginate (PCL/Alg) composite scaffolds have been used in bone regeneration and nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is used as a reinforcing, osteoconductive component in scaffold fabrication. This study was conducted to assess the ability of three different PCL/Alg based scaffolds to induce osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs and to compare between them. Methods:The study comprised 5 groups; negative control group with ADSCs cultured in complete culture media, positive control group with ADSCs cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, and 3 experimental groups with ADSCs seeded onto 3 scaffolds: S1 (PCL/Alg), S2 (PCL/Alg/Ca) and S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) respectively and cultured in osteogenic media. Mineralization and gene expression were assessed by Alizarin red S (ARS) staining and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Evaluation was done at 7, 14 and 21 days. Results:ARS staining reflected a time dependent increase through days 7, 14 and 21, with S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) group showing the highest mineralization levels. RT-qPCR detected upregulation of ALP gene expression at day 7 and decline thereafter. S2 (PCL/Alg/Ca) and S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) groups showed significantly higher gene expression levels than S1 (PCL/Alg). Conclusions:ADSCs and PCL/Alg-based scaffolds compose a good tissue engineering complex for bone regeneration. Addition of n-HA to PCL/Alg scaffolds and crosslinking with CaCl2 efficiently improve the osteogenic potential of ADSCs.
Project description:There is a current clinical need for the development of bone void fillers and bioactive bone graft substitutes. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are seeded into 3D scaffolds and induce bone generation in the event of MSCs osteogenic differentiation is highly promising. Since calcium ions and phosphates promote the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, the use of the calcium complexes of phosphate-containing polymers is highly prospective in the development of osteogenic scaffolds. Calcium poly(ethylene phosphate)s (PEP-Ca) appear to be potentially suitable candidates primarily because of PEP's biodegradability. In a series of experiments with human adipose-tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), we demonstrated that PEP-Ca are non-toxic and give rise to osteogenesis gene marker, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and mineralization of the intercellular matrix. Owing to the synthetic availability of poly(ethylene phosphoric acid) block copolymers, these results hold out the possibility for the development of promising new polymer composites for orthopaedic and maxillofacial surgery.
Project description:Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are being explored for the repair of craniofacial defects due to their multi-differentiation potential and ease of isolation and expansion. Crucial to using ADSCs for craniofacial repair is the availability of materials with appropriate biomechanical properties that can support their differentiation into bone and cartilage. We tested the hypothesis that different modifications of chemical groups on the surface of a nanocomposite polymer could increase human ADSC adhesion and selectively enhance their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. We show that the COOH modification significantly promoted initial cell adhesion and proliferation over 14days compared to NH2 surfaces. Expression of focal adhesion kinase and vinculin was enhanced after plasma surface polymerisation at 24h. The COOH modification significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by up-regulation of aggrecan and collagen II transcripts. In contrast, NH2 group functionalised scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation with significantly enhanced expression of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin both at the gene and protein level. Finally, chorioallantoic membrane grafting demonstrated that both NH2 and COOH functionalised scaffolds seeded with ADSCs were biocompatible and supported vessel ingrowth apparently to a greater degree than unmodified scaffolds. In summary, our study shows the ability to direct ADSC chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation by deposition of different chemical groups through plasma surface polymerisation. Hence this approach could be used to selectively enhance bone or cartilage formation before implantation in vivo to repair skeletal defects.Human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are an exciting stem cell source for regenerative medicine due to their plentiful supply and ease of isolation. However, the optimal environmental cues to direct stem cells towards certain lineages change have to has not been identified. We have shown that by modifying the surface of the scaffold with specific chemical groups using plasma surface polymerisation techniques we can control ADSCs differentiation. This study shows that ADSCs can be differentiated towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages on amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) modified scaffolds respectively. Plasma polymerisation can be easily applied to other biomaterial surfaces to direct stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of bone and cartilage.