Acute loss of TET function results in aggressive myeloid cancer in mice [RNA-Seq]
ABSTRACT: TET-family dioxygenases oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA, and exert tumor suppressor activity in many types of cancers. Even in the absence of TET coding region mutations, TET loss-of-function is strongly associated with cancer. We show that acute elimination of TET function induces the rapid development of an aggressive, fully-penetrant and cell-autonomous myeloid leukemia in mice, pointing to a causative role for TET-loss-of-function in this myeloid malignancy. Phenotypic and transcriptional profiling showed aberrant differentiation of hematopoietic stem/ progenitor cells, impaired erythroid and lymphoid differentiation and strong skewing to the myeloid lineage, with only a mild relation to changes in DNA modification. We also observed progressive accumulation of DNA damage and strong impairment of DNA break repair, suggesting a key role for TET proteins in maintaining genomic integrity. Overall design: Jungeun, An
Project description:TET-family dioxygenases oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA, and exert tumour suppressor activity in many types of cancers. Even in the absence of TET coding region mutations, TET loss-of-function is strongly associated with cancer. Here we show that acute elimination of TET function induces the rapid development of an aggressive, fully-penetrant and cell-autonomous myeloid leukaemia in mice, pointing to a causative role for TET loss-of-function in this myeloid malignancy. Phenotypic and transcriptional profiling shows aberrant differentiation of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, impaired erythroid and lymphoid differentiation and strong skewing to the myeloid lineage, with only a mild relation to changes in DNA modification. We also observe progressive accumulation of phospho-H2AX and strong impairment of DNA damage repair pathways, suggesting a key role for TET proteins in maintaining genome integrity.
Project description:The importance of eukaryotic DNA methylation [5-methylcytosine (5mC)] in transcriptional regulation and development was first suggested almost 40 years ago. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the dynamic nature of this epigenetic mark was not understood until recently, following the discovery that the TET proteins, a family of AlkB-like Fe(II)/?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, can oxidize 5mC to generate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Since then, several mechanisms that are responsible for processing oxidized 5mC derivatives to achieve DNA demethylation have emerged. Our biochemical understanding of the DNA demethylation process has prompted new investigations into the biological functions of DNA demethylation. Characterization of two additional AlkB family proteins, FTO and ALKBH5, showed that they possess demethylase activity toward N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) in RNA, indicating that members of this subfamily of dioxygenases have a general function in demethylating nucleic acids. In this review, we discuss recent advances in this emerging field, focusing on the mechanism and function of TET-mediated DNA demethylation.
Project description:DNA methylation has been linked to aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer, and an imbalance in DNA methylation-demethylation cycles is intimately implicated in the onset and progression of tumors. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases that successively oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), thereby mediating active DNA demethylation. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiological role of TET proteins and 5hmC in cancer. We present an overview of loss-of-function mutations and abnormal expression and regulation of TET proteins in hematological malignancies and solid tumors, and discuss the potential prognostic value of assessing TET mutations and 5hmC levels in cancer patients. We also address the crosstalk between TET and two critical enzymes involved in cell metabolism: O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Lastly, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting TET proteins and aberrant DNA methylation in cancer.
Project description:Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family proteins are dioxygenases that oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine in DNA, early steps of active DNA demethylation. TET2, the second member of TET protein family, is frequently mutated in patients with hematological malignancies, leading to aberrant DNA methylation profiling and decreased 5hmC levels. Located in the nucleus and acting as a DNA-modifying enzyme, TET2 is thought to exert its function via TET2-containing protein complexes. Identifying the interactome network of TET2 likely holds the key to uncover the mechanisms by which TET2 exerts its function in cells. Here, we review recent literature on TET2 interactors and discuss their possible roles in TET2 loss-mediated dysregulation of hematopoiesis and pathogenesis of hematological malignancies.
Project description:TET enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and other oxidized methylcytosines in DNA. Here we examine the role of TET proteins in regulatory T (Treg) cells. Tet2/3fl/flFoxp3Cre mice lacking Tet2 and Tet3 in Treg cells develop inflammatory disease, and Treg cells from these mice show altered expression of Treg signature genes and upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage and cancer. In littermate mice with severe inflammation, both CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+Foxp3- cells show strong skewing towards Tfh/Th17 phenotypes. Wild-type Treg cells in mixed bone marrow chimeras and in Tet2/3fl/flFoxp3WT/Cre heterozygous female mice are unable to rescue the aberrant properties of Tet2/3fl/flFoxp3Cre Treg cells. Treg cells from Tet2/3fl/flFoxp3Cre mice tend to lose Foxp3 expression, and transfer of total CD4+ T cells isolated from Tet2/3fl/flFoxp3Cre mice could elicit inflammatory disease in fully immunocompetent mice. Together, these data indicate that Tet2 and Tet3 are guardians of Treg cell stability and immune homeostasis.
Project description:Cytosine methylation at carbon-5 (5mC) in DNA plays crucial roles in epigenetic transcriptional regulation during metazoan development. The iron (II), 2-oxoglutarate-dependent Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET)-family dioxygenases initiate active demethylation of 5mC. TET2 oxidizes 5mC in nucleic acids into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine by iterative oxidation. Mutations in the TET2 gene are frequently detected in myeloid malignancies. Despite the established and emerging roles of TET oxygenases in health and diseases, <i>in vitro</i> characterization of these enzymes and their mutants is still in rudimentary stages. Here, we describe an improved positive/negative ion-switching<b>-</b>based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that can separate and quantify modified cytosine bases produced by TET-family 5-methylcytosine dioxygenases. This method will help in further elucidate the function of epigenetically important cytosine modifications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting ion-switching<b>-</b>based LC-MS/MS method to analyse cytosine variants produced in TET catalysed reactions.
Project description:TET proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and other oxidation products. We found that simultaneous deletion of Tet2 and Tet3 in mouse CD4+CD8+ double-positive thymocytes resulted in dysregulated development and proliferation of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). Tet2-Tet3 double-knockout (DKO) iNKT cells displayed pronounced skewing toward the NKT17 lineage, with increased DNA methylation and impaired expression of genes encoding the key lineage-specifying factors T-bet and ThPOK. Transfer of purified Tet2-Tet3 DKO iNKT cells into immunocompetent recipient mice resulted in an uncontrolled expansion that was dependent on the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein CD1d, which presents lipid antigens to iNKT cells. Our data indicate that TET proteins regulate iNKT cell fate by ensuring their proper development and maturation and by suppressing aberrant proliferation mediated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR).
Project description:DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic modification that plays central roles in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and silencing of retrotransposon elements. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a characteristic feature of cancers and associated with abnormal expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes or repair genes. Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins are recently characterized dioxygenases that catalyze progressive oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to produce 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further oxidized derivatives. These oxidized methylcytosines not only potentiate DNA demethylation but also behave as independent epigenetic modifications per se. The expression or activity of TET proteins and DNA hydroxymethylation are highly dysregulated in a wide range of cancers including hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, and accumulating evidence points TET proteins as a novel tumor suppressor in cancers. Here we review DNA demethylation-dependent and -independent functions of TET proteins. We also describe diverse TET loss-of-function mutations that are recurrently found in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies and their potential roles in hematopoietic transformation. We discuss consequences of the deficiency of individual Tet genes and potential compensation between different Tet members in mice. Possible mechanisms underlying facilitated oncogenic transformation of TET-deficient hematopoietic cells are also described. Lastly, we address non-mutational mechanisms that lead to suppression or inactivation of TET proteins in cancers. Strategies to restore normal 5mC oxidation status in cancers by targeting TET proteins may provide new avenues to expedite the development of promising anti-cancer agents.
Project description:TET dioxygenases successively oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in mammalian genomes to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). 5fC/5caC can be excised and repaired to regenerate unmodified cytosines by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) and base excision repair (BER) pathway, but it is unclear to what extent and at which part of the genome this active demethylation process takes place. Here, we have generated genome-wide distribution maps of 5hmC/5fC/5caC using modification-specific antibodies in wild-type and Tdg-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In wild-type mouse ESCs, 5fC/5caC accumulates to detectable levels at major satellite repeats but not at nonrepetitive loci. In contrast, Tdg depletion in mouse ESCs causes marked accumulation of 5fC and 5caC at a large number of proximal and distal gene regulatory elements. Thus, these results reveal the genome-wide view of iterative 5mC oxidation dynamics and indicate that TET/TDG-dependent active DNA demethylation process occurs extensively in the mammalian genome.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations in TET2 occur frequently in patients with clonal hematopoiesis, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a DNA hypermethylation phenotype. To determine the role of TET2 deficiency in leukemia stem cell maintenance, we generated a reversible transgenic RNAi mouse to model restoration of endogenous Tet2 expression. Tet2 restoration reverses aberrant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) self-renewal in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with vitamin C, a co-factor of Fe2+ and ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases, mimics TET2 restoration by enhancing 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation in Tet2-deficient mouse HSPCs and suppresses human leukemic colony formation and leukemia progression of primary human leukemia PDXs. Vitamin C also drives DNA hypomethylation and expression of a TET2-dependent gene signature in human leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, TET-mediated DNA oxidation induced by vitamin C treatment in leukemia cells enhances their sensitivity to PARP inhibition and could provide a safe and effective combination strategy to selectively target TET deficiency in cancer. PAPERCLIP.