Project description:Only a small proportion of cases suspected to have Lynch Syndrome (LS) can be explained by mutation in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This study aimed to identify rare CNVs that may contribute to an increased risk for hereditary colorectal cancer in patients with MMR proficiency. Overall design: Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 26 unrelated patients who met criteria for LS (Amsterdam or Bethesda). Genomic alterations were evaluated using the CytoScan HD microarray platform.
Project description:Only a small proportion of cases suspected to have Lynch Syndrome (LS) can be explained by mutation in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This study aimed to identify rare CNVs that may contribute to an increased risk for hereditary colorectal cancer in patients with MMR proficiency. Overall design: Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 54 unrelated patients who met criteria for LS (Amsterdam or Bethesda). Genomic alterations were evaluated using the Agilent-022060 4x180K microarray platform. The reference was a pool of normal male DNA (Promega, cat. no. G1471) or normal female DNA (Promega, cat.no. G1521).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) tumours without MLH1 methylation or germline MMR pathogenic variants (PV) were previously thought to have Lynch syndrome (LS). It is now appreciated that they can have double somatic (DS) MMR PVs. We explored the clinical characteristics between patients with DS tumours and LS in two population-based cohorts. METHODS:We included patients with CRC from Ohio 2013-2016 and Iceland 2000-2009. All had microsatellite instability testing and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) of MMR proteins, and MLH1 methylation testing when indicated. Germline next-generation sequencing was performed for all with dMMR tumours; tumour sequencing followed for patients with unexplained dMMR. Clinical characteristics of DS patients and patients with LS were compared. RESULTS:Of the 232 and 51 patients with non-methylated dMMR tumours in the Ohio and Iceland cohorts, respectively, 57.8% (n=134) and 45.1% (n=23) had LS, 32.8% (n=76) and 31.4% (n=16) had DS PVs, 6% (n=14) and 9.8% (n=5) were unexplained and 4.3% (n=10) and 13.7% (n=7) had incorrect IHC. Age of diagnosis for DS patients was older than patients with LS (p=3.73×10-4) in the two cohorts. Patients with LS were more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria (OR=15.81, p=8.47×10-6) and have multiple LS-associated tumours (OR=6.67, p=3.31×10-5). Absence of MLH1/PMS2 was predictive of DS PVs; isolated MSH6 and PMS2 absence was predictive of LS in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:Individuals with LS are 15× more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria and >5×?more likely to have multiple cancers as compared with those with DS tumours. Furthermore, isolated loss of MSH6 or PMS2 protein predicts LS.
Project description:Causative germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes can only be identified in ~50% of families with a clinical diagnosis of the inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)/Lynch syndrome (LS). Identification of these patients are critical as they are at substantially increased risk of developing multiple primary tumors, mainly colorectal and endometrial cancer (EC), occurring at a young age. This demonstrates the need to develop new and/or more thorough mutation detection approaches. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen 22 genes involved in the DNA MMR pathway in constitutional DNA from 14 HNPCC and 12 sporadic EC patients, plus 2 positive controls. Several softwares were used for analysis and functional annotation. We identified 5 exonic indel variants, 42 exonic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 1 intronic variant of significance. Three of these variants were class 5 (pathogenic) or class 4 (likely pathogenic), 5 were class 3 (uncertain clinical relevance) and 40 were classified as variants of unknown clinical significance. In conclusion, we have identified two LS families from the sporadic EC patients, one without a family history of cancer, supporting the notion for universal MMR screening of EC patients. In addition, we have detected three novel class 3 variants in EC cases. We have, in addition discovered a polygenic interaction which is the most likely cause of cancer development in a HNPCC patient that could explain previous inconsistent results reported on an intronic EXO1 variant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) represents around 50% of the patients fulfilling the Amsterdam Criteria II/revised Bethesda Guidelines, characterized by a strong family history of Lynch Syndrome (LS) associated cancer, where a causative variant was not identified during genetic testing for LS. METHODS:Using data extracted from a larger gene panel, we have analyzed next-generation sequencing data from 22 mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MSH3, PMS1, MLH3, EXO1, POLD1, POLD3 RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, RFC4, RFC5, PCNA, LIG1, RPA1, RPA2, RPA3, POLD2, POLD4, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) in 274 LLS patients. Detected variants were annotated and filtered using ANNOVAR and FILTUS software. RESULTS:Thirteen variants were revealed in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6, all genes previously linked to LS. Five additional genes (EXO1, POLD1, RFC1, RPA1, and MLH3) were found to harbor 11 variants of unknown significance in our sample cohort, two of them being frameshift variants. CONCLUSION:We have shown that other genes associated with the process of DNA MMR have a high probability of being associated with LLS families. These findings indicate that the spectrum of genes that should be tested when considering an entity like Lynch-like syndrome should be expanded so that a more inclusive definition of this entity can be developed.
Project description:Missense alterations of the mismatch repair gene MLH1 have been identified in a significant proportion of individuals suspected of having Lynch syndrome, a hereditary syndrome that predisposes for cancer of colon and endometrium. The pathogenicity of many of these alterations, however, is unclear. A number of MLH1 alterations are located in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of MLH1, which is responsible for constitutive dimerization with PMS2. We analyzed which alterations may result in pathogenic effects due to interference with dimerization. We used a structural model of CTD of MLH1-PMS2 heterodimer to select 19 MLH1 alterations located inside and outside two candidate dimerization interfaces in the MLH1-CTD. Three alterations (p.Gln542Leu, p.Leu749Pro, p.Tyr750X) caused decreased coexpression of PMS2, which is unstable in the absence of interaction with MLH1, suggesting that these alterations interfere with dimerization. All three alterations are located within the dimerization interface suggested by our model. They also compromised mismatch repair, suggesting that defects in dimerization abrogate repair and confirming that all three alterations are pathogenic. Additionally, we provided biochemical evidence that four alterations with uncertain pathogenicity (p.Ala586Pro, p.Leu636Pro, p.Thr662Pro, and p.Arg755Trp) are deleterious because of poor expression or poor repair efficiency, and confirm the deleterious effect of eight further alterations.
Project description:The current algorithm for Lynch syndrome diagnosis is highly complex with multiple steps which can result in an extended time to diagnosis while depleting precious tumor specimens. Here we describe the analytical validation of a custom probe-based NGS tumor panel, TumorNext-Lynch-MMR, which generates a comprehensive genetic profile of both germline and somatic mutations that can accelerate and streamline the time to diagnosis and preserve specimen. TumorNext-Lynch-MMR can detect single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions in 39 genes that are frequently mutated in Lynch syndrome and colorectal cancer. Moreover, the panel provides microsatellite instability status and detects loss of heterozygosity in the five Lynch genes; MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2 and EPCAM. Clinical cases are described that highlight the assays ability to differentiate between somatic and germline mutations, precisely classify variants and resolve discordant cases.
Project description:Pediatric glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor prognosis as a result of recurrence after treatment of surgery and radiochemotherapy. A small subset of pediatric GBMs presenting with an ultra-high tumor mutational burden (TMB) may be sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibition. Here we report a 16-yr-old male with an ultra-hypermutated GBM. After incomplete surgical resection, molecular analysis of the tumor identified unusually high numbers of mutations and intratumor heterogeneity by a hotspot next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel. Further comprehensive molecular profiling identified a TMB of 343 mutations/Mb. An ultra-hypermutation genotype in pediatric GBMs is suggestive of a constitutive mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMRD), which often acquires additional somatic driver mutations in replicating DNA polymerase genes. Tumor sequencing identified two MSH6 nonsense variants, a hotspot POLE mutation and a mutational signature supportive of a germline MMR deficiency with a somatic POLE mutation. However, constitutional testing identified only one nonsense MSH6 variant consistent with a Lynch syndrome diagnosis. This case represents the first confirmed Lynch syndrome case mimicking CMMRD by manifesting as an ultra-hypermutated pediatric GBM, following somatic mutations in MSH6 and POLE These findings permitted the patient's enrollment in an anti-PD-1 clinical trial for children with ultra-hypermutated GBM. Immunotherapy response has resulted in the patient's stable condition for over more than 1 year postdiagnosis.
Project description:Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Both microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and immunohistochemical analyses (IHC) of colon cancers are valuable diagnostic strategies for Lynch syndrome. We sought to determine whether these markers of MMR deficiency were also detectable in pre-cancerous colorectal adenomas. Fifteen subjects with a germline MMR gene mutation who had 44 adenomas removed during surveillance colonoscopy were identified. MSI testing and IHC for MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 were performed. MSI was detected in 23 adenomas. There was a significant association between MSI and high-grade dysplasia (P = 0.006) and distal location (P = 0.0008). Loss of MMR protein by IHC was detected in 31 adenomas. A significant association was observed between loss of staining by IHC and high-grade dysplasia (P = 0.04). Among the 40 adenomas in which both MSI tests and IHC were performed, the presence of a germline mutation correlated with an abnormal MSI result in 58% of cases, an abnormal IHC result in 70% of cases, and either an abnormal MSI or IHC result in 73% of cases. The combination of MSI and IHC testing in colorectal adenomas is a sensitive screen for the detection of Lynch syndrome and may be particularly useful when Lynch syndrome is suspected and adenomatous polyps are the only tissues available for analysis.
Project description:Few studies reported patients who harbored three kinds of primary tumors simultaneously. Here, we present a 9-year-old boy with colon carcinoma, brain medulloblastoma, and lymphoma. Genetic mutation detection was explored with next-generation sequencing, and compound heterozygous mutations in gene <i>MSH6</i> c.3103C>T p.Arg1035Ter and c.3261dupC p.Phe1088LeufsTer were discovered.