ABSTRACT: Examine the global gene expression changes from E16 (day 16.5) to E19 (day 18.5) in fetal SD rat skin samples E19 samples were renamed as E18 samples in the relative manuscript Overall design: Four E16 samples were pooled and three E19 samples are pooled.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-014879 Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K G4131F (Feature Number version)
Project description:Prenatal viral infection has been associated with the development of schizophrenia and autism. Our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) and late second trimester (E18) administration of influenza virus. We hypothesized that middle second trimester infection (E16) in mice may lead to a different pattern of brain gene expression and structural defects in the developing offspring. C57BL6 mice were infected on E16 with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus or sham-infected using vehicle solution. Male offspring of the infected mice were collected at P0, P14, P35, and P56, their brains removed and cerebella dissected and flash frozen. Microarray, DTI and MRI scanning, as well as qRT-PCR and SDS-PAGE and western blotting analyses were performed to detect differences in gene expression and brain atrophy. Expression of several genes associated with myelination, including Mbp, Mag, and Plp1 were found to be altered, as were protein levels of Mbp, Mag, and DM20. Brain imaging revealed significant atrophy in cerebellum at P14, reduced fractional anisotropy in white matter of the right internal capsule at P0, and increased fractional anisotropy in white matter in corpus callosum at P14 and right middle cerebellar peduncle at P56. We propose that maternal infection in mouse impacts myelination genes.
Project description:At present, thousands of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been found in cancer and various tissues from different species. However, the expression of circRNAs during rat lung development remains largely unknown. In the present study, circRNA expression profiles were screened in three mixed rat lung tissues at 3 time‑points [embryonic day (E) 19, E21 and post‑natal (P) day 3] during fetal rat development with circRNA high‑throughput sequencing. Preliminary results were verified by reverse transcription‑PCR (RT‑PCR) at 4 time‑points (E16, E19, E21 and P3). A total of 375 circRNAs were differently expressed in E19 vs. E21 (fold change ≥1.5; P<0.05). At the same time, a total of 358 circRNAs were differently expressed in E21 vs. P3 (fold change ≥1.5; P<0.05). A total of 3 circRNAs (rno_circ:chr7:24777879‑24784993, rno_circ:chr14:14620910‑14624933 and rno_circ:chr3:1988750‑1998592) were characterized by having consistent fold changes (≥1.5) between 3 time‑points (E19, E21 and P3) and were selected for RT‑PCR at 4 time‑points (E16, E19, E21 and P3). Subsequently, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis of parent genes of the differentially expressed circRNAs revealed that these circRNAs may serve important roles in lung development. The present results support that these new found circRNAs participate in lung development. Furthermore, these findings may help to clarify the physiopathological mechanism of normal rat lung development, and may further provide a physiopathological basis of lung developmental diseases.
Project description:Early fetuses heal wounds without the formation of a scar. Many studies have attempted to explain this remarkable phenomenon. However, the exact mechanism remains unknown. Herein, we examine the predominant cell types of the epidermis and dermis--the keratinocyte and fibroblast--during different stages of fetal development to better understand the changes that lead to scarring wound repair versus regeneration.Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were harvested and cultured from the dorsal skin of time-dated BALB/c fetuses. Total RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was performed using chips with 42,000 genes. Significance analysis of microarrays was used to select genes with >2-fold expression differences with a false discovery rate<2. Enrichment analysis was performed on significant genes to identify differentially expressed pathways.By comparing the gene expression profile of keratinocytes from E16 versus E18 fetuses, we identified 24 genes that were downregulated at E16. Analysis of E16 and E18 fibroblasts revealed 522 differentially expressed genes. Enrichment analysis showed the top 20 signaling pathways that were downregulated in E16 keratinocytes and upregulated or downregulated in E16 fibroblasts.Our data reveal 546 differentially expressed genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts between the scarless and scarring transition. In addition, a total of 60 signaling pathways have been identified to be either upregulated or downregulated in these cell types. The genes and pathways recognized by our study may prove to be essential targets that may discriminate between fetal wound regeneration and adult wound repair.
Project description:Intrauterine growth restriction is a common complication of pregnancy. We induce IUGR in rats by bilateral uterine artery ligation at e18 of a 23 day gestation. This mimics placental insufficiency. This array experiment compares gene expression changes in isolated pancreatic islets from e19, 24 hours post-surgery , or sham operated animals. RNA from isolated pancreatic islets from e19 fetuses, pooled from an entire litter. There are 4 control (sham) operated litters and 4 IUGR litters.
Project description:Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of non-small cell lung cancer. Some causative genomic alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), including deletions in exon 19 (E19 dels) and a point mutation in E21, are known to have favourable prognoses due to sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors; however, the prognoses of other uncommon mutations are unclear. This study analysed the clinical significance of EGFR mutation types in lung adenocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 1,020 subjects (mean age: 66.8 years, female: 41.7%) who were diagnosed with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, had EGFR mutation data, and did not undergo surgery from five medical institutes between 2010 and 2016. Subjects were classified according to EGFR mutation status, particularly for exon-specific mutations. EGFR positivity was defined as the presence of mutation and EGFR negativity was defined as wild-type EGFR. EGFR positivity was 38.0%, with the incidence of mutations in E18, E19, E20, and E21 was 3.6%, 51.0%, 3.4%, and 42.0%, respectively. The EGFR positive group survived significantly longer than the negative group (p<0.001), and there was a significant difference in survival among the four EGFR mutation sites (p = 0.003); E19 dels were the only significant factor that lowered mortality (HR: 0.678, p = 0.002), while an E21 mutation was the prognostic factor associated with the most increased mortality (HR: 1.365, p = 0.015). Amongst EGFR positive subjects, the proportion of E19 dels in TKI-responders was significantly higher and that of E21 mutations significantly lower, compared with non-responders. In TKI treatment, mutations in E18 and E20 were not worse factors than the E21 L858R mutation. In conclusion, the presence of EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma can predict a good prognosis; E19 dels prospect to have a better prognosis than other mutations, while an E21 mutation is expected to increase mortality.
Project description:Once generated, neurons are thought to permanently exit the cell cycle and become irreversibly differentiated. However, neither the precise point at which this post-mitotic state is attained nor the extent of its irreversibility is clearly defined. Here we report that newly born neurons from the upper layers of the mouse cortex, despite initiating axon and dendrite elongation, continue to drive gene expression from the neural progenitor tubulin ?1 promoter (T?1p). These observations suggest an ambiguous post-mitotic neuronal state. Whole transcriptome analysis of sorted upper cortical neurons further revealed that neurons continue to express genes related to cell cycle progression long after mitotic exit until at least post-natal day 3 (P3). These genes are however down-regulated thereafter, associated with a concomitant up-regulation of tumor suppressors at P5. Interestingly, newly born neurons located in the cortical plate (CP) at embryonic day 18-19 (E18-E19) and P3 challenged with calcium influx are found in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and still able to undergo division at E18-E19 but not at P3. At P5 however, calcium influx becomes neurotoxic and leads instead to neuronal loss. Our data delineate an unexpected flexibility of cell cycle control in early born neurons, and describe how neurons transit to a post-mitotic state.
Project description:The concentration values of direct and indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption were detected in blood (indirect) or hair (direct) samples from a pool of 125 individuals classified as either chronic (i.e. positive) and non-chronic (i.e. negative) alcohol drinkers. These experimental values formed the dataset under examination (Table 1). Indirect biomarkers included: aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT). The following direct biomarkers were also detected in hair: ethyl myristate (E14:0), ethyl palmitate (E16:0), ethyl stearate (E18:1), ethyl oleate (E18:0), the sum of their four concentrations (FAEEs, i.e. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG; pg/mg). Body mass index (BMI) was also collected as a potential influencing factor. Likelihood ratio (LR) approaches have been used to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers, as described in "Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes" (E. Alladio, A. Martyna, A. Salomone, V. Pirro, M. Vincenti, G. Zadora, 2017) .
Project description:Endocrine factors and signals of fetal organ maturation are reported determinants of birth timing. To test the hypothesis that paracrine signaling by exosomes are key regulators of parturition, maternal plasma exosomes from CD-1 mice were isolated and characterized throughout gestation and the biological pathways associated with differentially-expressed cargo proteins were determined. Results indicate that the shape and size of exosomes remained constant throughout gestation; however, a progressive increase in the quantity of exosomes carrying inflammatory mediators was observed from gestation day (E)5 to E19. In addition, the effects of late-gestation (E18) plasma exosomes derived from feto-maternal uterine tissues on parturition was determined. Intraperitoneal injection of E18 exosomes into E15 mice localized in maternal reproductive tract tissues and in intrauterine fetal compartments. Compared to controls that delivered at term, preterm birth occurred in exosome-treated mice on E18 and was preceded by increased inflammatory mediators on E17 in the cervix, uterus, and fetal membranes but not in the placenta. This effect was not observed in mice injected with early-gestation (E9) exosomes. This study provides evidence that exosomes function as paracrine mediators of labor and delivery.
Project description:The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus) is a classic model system for studying developmental biology. During chick development, embryonic day 8 (E8) retina are packed with multipotent neuronal precursors on the cusp of differentiation into all retinal cell types. By E18 the retina is nearly fully mature with all major retinal cell types differentiated and expressing cell type-specific genes. Whole retina were harvested from embryonic day 8 (E8), E16, and E18 developing chicken embryos. Whole cornea were also collected from E18 embryos as a reference tissue. Duplicates were obtained for each time point and total RNA was extracted from samples using a Qiagen AllPrep Mini Kit. To characterize differential gene expression in these tissues, Illumina stranded TrueSeq RNA-Seq libraries were prepared from total RNA and 125 PE sequencing reads were obtained. These data will be used to characterize retina-specific patters of gene expression as well as global changes in gene expression between critical developmental time points in the chicken retina. Overall design: 4 samples in duplicate; 3 developmental time points of the retina E8, E16, E18) and 1 reference tissue (cornea)
Project description:Maturation of pulmonary fetal type II cells to initiate adequate surfactant production is crucial for postnatal respiratory function. Little is known about specific mechanisms of signal transduction controlling type II cell maturation. The ErbB4 receptor and its ligand neuregulin (NRG) are critical for lung development. ErbB4 is cleaved at the cell membrane by the ?-secretase enzyme complex whose active component is either presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) or presenilin-2. ErbB4 cleavage releases the 80kDa intracellular domain (4ICD), which associates with chaperone proteins such as YAP (Yes-associated protein) and translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. We hypothesized that PSEN-1 and YAP have a development-specific expression in fetal type II cells and are important for ErbB4 signaling in surfactant production. In primary fetal mouse E16, E17, and E18 type II cells, PSEN-1 and YAP expression increased at E17 and E18 over E16. Subcellular fractionation showed a strong cytosolic and a weaker membrane location of both PSEN-1 and YAP. This was enhanced by NRG stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitations showed ErbB4 associated separately with PSEN-1 and with YAP. Their association, phosphorylation, and co-localization were induced by NRG. Confocal immunofluorescence and nuclear fractionation confirmed these associations in a time-dependent manner after NRG stimulation. Primary ErbB4-deleted E17 type II cells were transfected with a mutant ErbB4 lacking the ?-secretase binding site. When compared to transfection with wild-type ErbB4, the stimulatory effect of NRG on surfactant protein mRNA expression was lost. We conclude that PSEN-1 and YAP have crucial roles in ErbB4 signal transduction during type II cell maturation.