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Conservation of parental genomic imprinting by cortex generated from embryonic stem cells [RRBS-seq]

ABSTRACT: In vitro cortex generated from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a model system to investigate corticogenesis and a promising tool for cortical therapy. A fundamental question that has implications for understanding corticogenesis and for using stem cells therapeutically is to determine whether in vitro cortex reproduces some fine-tuned epigenetic modifications that are important for corticogenesis and function in vivo such as parent-of-origin dependent DNA methylation and expression of imprinted genes (IGs). Here, we have compared at single-base resolution the parent-of-origin dependent DNA methylation and expression of IGs in hybrid cortices generated either in vivo or in vitro from ESCs using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-seq. We report that in vitro cortex strictly reproduced the in vivo parental expression of 41 IGs, including those involved in corticogenesis such as Mest (paternal) and Cdkn1c (maternal). The expressed allele was set in ESCs and maintained during in vitro corticogenesis for most IGs but some switched from a biallelic expression in ESCs to the monoallelic expression observed in vivo. RRBS experiments revealed that parent-of-origin dependent methylation at imprinted loci were also largely similar in in vitro and in vivo cortices except at a few loci. The most discordant locus was Gpr1-Zdbf2: Zdbf2 RNA was paternal in vivo and biallelic in vitro, and this was concomitant with an aberrant gain of methylation on the maternal allele in vitro. Thus, we conclude that the epigenetic mechanisms at imprinted loci are largely but not strictly preserved in vitro. We propose that in vitro corticogenesis, with its set of IGs displaying faithful parent-of-origin dependent expression and methylation, helps to define the poorly known mechanisms regulating imprinting in the brain and roles of IGs during corticogenesis. Overall design: Global and parental allele specific genomic DNA methylation of in vivo cortex and ESC-derived in vitro cortex was determined by RRBS. Biological duplicates were used for the 13 analyzed conditions. In vitro samples were: E14 ESCs (d0) and E14 ESC-derived cortex (at d12 and d21), hybrid BJ1 (mother C57BL/6J x father JF1) and JB6 (mother JF1 x father C57BL/6J) at d0, d12, d21. In vivo samples were hybrid BJ1 and JB6 dorsal telencephalon (DT) at E13.5 and cortex (Ctx) at P0.

INSTRUMENT(S): Illumina HiSeq 2000 (Mus musculus)

SUBMITTER: Tristan Bouschet  

PROVIDER: GSE75485 | GEO | 2016-04-21



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In vitro corticogenesis from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is an attractive model of cortical development and a promising tool for cortical therapy. It is unknown to which extent epigenetic mechanisms crucial for cortex development and function, such as parental genomic imprinting, are recapitulated by in vitro corticogenesis. Here, using genome-wide transcriptomic and methylation analyses on hybrid mouse tissues and cells, we find a high concordance of imprinting status between in vivo and ESC-de  ...[more]

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