Gene expression change in placental labyrinth zone from Pregnancy-Associated Hypertension (PAH) mice with different Nrf2 expression.
ABSTRACT: We analyzed differences in placental gene expressions. We examined the mRNA expression profile in placental labyrinth zone from normal pregnant mice, and PAH mice with different Nrf2 expressions (WT, Nrf2 Knockout [KO], Keap1 Knockdown [KD]) Overall design: Human Angiotensinogen (hAGT) transgenic female mice showes perinatal hypertension (PAH mice) by mating male human Renin (hREN) transgenic mice. But hAGT female mice did not showes gestational hypertension (Normal pregnancy; NP mice) by mating male hAGT mice. We performed microarray analyses using placental labyrinth zone from NP mice and three types of PAH mice with different Nrf2 expression(PAH mice, PAH-Nrf2KO mice PAH-Keap1KD mice), n = 2 each.
Project description:Smoking increases the risk of pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion and low birth weight (LBW). By cigarette smoke exposure (gestational day, GD3-17), normal-litter-size pregnancy with low birth weight (NP-LBW) and small-litter-size pregnancy with normal birth weight (SP-NBW) in rats were induced. The placental weight in SP-NBW was twice the weight of the normal in contrast with the smaller placenta in NP-LBW. Compared with the normal, placental efficiency (expressed as fetus-to-placenta weight ratio) and placental vascularisation were significantly decreased in smoke exposed placentas with more obvious decrease in SP-NBW. For NP-LBW, decreased placental vascularisation was due to decreased labyrinth vascularisation which was caused by both decreased number density and diameter of fetal capillary. For SP-NBW, decreased placental vascularisation was due to reduced proportion of labyrinth in placenta and decreased labyrinth vascularisation which was caused by decreased fetal capillary number density. Real time RT-PCR analysis showed a tendency for decreased placental mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and tyrosine kinase receptor-2 (Tie2) in NP-LBW(P<0.1), and the tendency became obvious in SP-NBW(P<0.05). A tendency for decreased placental mRNA level of fms-like tyrosine kinase-1(Flt1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) was also observed in SP-LBW(P<0.1). Our data demonstrated the synergistic negative effect of gestational smoke-exposure and small litter size on placental efficiency, placental vascularisation and placental angiogenic growth factor mRNA expression in rat.
Project description:Several studies have demonstrated that maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy can have negative consequences for the health of children born to these pregnancies, but the physiological mechanisms by which this occurs are not completely understood. During periods of food restriction, concentrations of leptin decline, whereas leptin is elevated in obesity, suggesting that it may play a role in the response to altered nutrition during pregnancy. This study compares placental development and global placental gene expression profiles at Day 11.5 in pregnant control mice, mice that were undernourished, and mice that were undernourished but given leptin. Placentas from mothers exposed to food restriction preserved the placental labyrinth zone at the expense of the junctional zone, an effect abrogated in the restricted plus leptin group, which had a significant decrease in the labyrinth zone area compared with controls. Similarly, there were more significant differences in gene expression between placentas from control and restricted plus leptin mothers (1128 differentially expressed genes) than between placentas of control and restricted mothers (281 differentially expressed genes). We conclude that the presence of high concentrations of circulating leptin during food restriction disrupts the normal adaptive response of the placenta to reduced energy availability.
Project description:Accurate analysis of placental and fetal oxygenation is critical during pregnancy. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) combines laser technology with ultrasound in real time. We tested the sensitivity and accuracy of PAI for analysis of placental and fetal oxygen saturation (sO2) in mice. The placental labyrinth (L) had a higher sO2 than the junctional zone plus decidua region (JZ+D) in C57Bl/6 mice. Changing maternal O2 from 100 to 20% in C57Bl/6 mice lowered sO2 in these regions. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with the NO synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) from gestational day (GD) 11 to GD18 to induce hypertension. L-NAME decreased sO2 in L and JZ+D at GD14 and GD18 in association with fetal growth restriction and higher blood pressure. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? immunostaining was higher in L-NAME vs control mice at GD14. Fetal sO2 levels were similar between l-NAME and control mice at GD14 and GD18. In contrast to untreated C57Bl/6, L-NAME decreased placental sO2 at GD14 and GD18 vs GD10 or GD12. Placental sO2 was lower in fetal growth restriction in an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 knockout mouse model characterized by placental hypoxia. On phantom studies, patterns of sO2 measured directly correlated with those measured by PAI. In summary, PAI enables the detection of placental and fetal oxygenation during normal and pathologic pregnancies in mice.-Yamaleyeva, L. M., Sun, Y., Bledsoe, T., Hoke, A., Gurley, S. B., Brosnihan, K. B. Photoacoustic imaging for in vivo quantification of placental oxygenation in mice.
Project description:Whether and how gestational protein restriction (PR) affects placental development and function remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that PR can affect trophoblast differentiation in mid-and late pregnancy, rats were fed a 20% or an isocaloric 6% protein diet from Day 1 to 14 or 18 of pregnancy and effects of PR on trophoblast differentiation were determined by changes in expressions of marker gene(s) for trophoblast lineages. At Day 18 of pregnancy, PR increased expressions of Esrrb, Id1 andId2 (trophoblast stem cell markers), decreased expressions of Ascl2 (spongiotrophblast cell marker) and Prl2c1 (trophoblast giant cell marker), but did not alter expressions of Gjb3 and Pcdh12(glycogen cell markers) in the junctional zone (JZ). In the labyrinth zone (LZ), PR did not change expressions of Prl2b1 (trophoblast giant cell marker), Gcm1 and Syna (syncytiotrophoblast cell markers), but decrease expression of Ctsq (sinusoidal trophoblast giant cell marker). These results indicate that PR impairs the differentiation of trophoblast stem cell into spongiotrophoblast and trophoblast giant cells in JZ, and formation of sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells in LZ.
Project description:It is widely accepted that diabetes mellitus impairs placental development, but the mechanism by which the disease operates to impair development remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in placental development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes of morphological structure of placenta. The alteration of differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells rather than cell proliferation/apoptosis is responsible for the phenotypes found in mouse placenta. Meanwhile, excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling were observed in the placenta of mice suffering from PGDM. Using BeWo cells, we also demonstrated that excess ROS was produced and Nrf2 signalling molecules were activated in settings characterized by a high concentration of glucose. More interestingly, differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells were altered when endogenous Nrf2 expression is manipulated by transfecting Nrf2-wt or Nrf2-shRNA. In addition, PGDM interferes with autophagy in both mouse placenta and BeWo cells, implying that autophagy is also involved, directly or indirectly, in PGDM-induced placental phenotypes. Therefore, we revealed that dysfunctional oxidative stress-activated Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are probably responsible for PGDM-induced defects in the placental development of mice. The mechanism was through the interference with differentiation-related gene expression in trophoblast cells.
Project description:Placental development is essential for implantation and growth of foetus in the uterus of eutherian mammals. Numerous growth factors are responsible for placental development and cell lineage differentiation. Gene knockout mice have shown role of various genes in the placenta. Here using Wdr13 knockout mice, we show that this gene is important for proper placental development. Wdr13, a X-linked gene, expresses in multiple trophoblast cell types of placenta and the mutant placenta had reduced size after 17.5 dpc due to reduction of junctional zone (JZ) and labyrinth zone (LZ). We observed reduction in levels of angiopoietin-2 and cd44 mRNA in Wdr13 mutant placenta as compared to that in the wild type. Our findings show that Wdr13 is required for normal placental development and cell differentiation. Wdr13 heterozygous female placenta when the mutant allele was of maternal origin showed similar defects as those in case of Wdr13 null placenta. Using two types of heterozygous females carrying either maternally and paternally derived mutant Wdr13 allele we provide genetic evidence that development of placenta determines body weight of mice for the entire life.
Project description:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by excessive placental fat and glucose transport, resulting in fetal overgrowth. Earlier we demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation normalizes fetal growth in GDM mice at mid-gestation. In this study, we further assess how choline and its oxidation product betaine influence determinants of placental nutrient transport in GDM mice and human trophoblasts. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet 4 weeks prior to and during pregnancy to induce GDM or fed a control normal fat (NF) diet. The HF mice also received 25 mM choline, 85 mM betaine, or control drinking water. We observed that GDM mice had an expanded placental junctional zone with an increased area of glycogen cells, while the thickness of the placental labyrinth zone was decreased at E17.5 compared to NF control mice (p < 0.05). Choline and betaine supplementation alleviated these morphological changes in GDM placentas. In parallel, both choline and betaine supplementation significantly reduced glucose accretion (p < 0.05) in in vitro assays where the human choriocarcinoma BeWo cells were cultured in high (35.5 mM) or normal (5.5 mM) glucose conditions. Expression of angiogenic genes was minimally altered by choline or betaine supplementation in either model. In conclusion, both choline and betaine modified some but not all determinants of placental transport in response to hyperglycemia in mouse and in vitro human cell line models.
Project description:Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), an enzyme that cleaves vasoactive peptides including oxytocin and vasopressin, is suggested to play a role in pregnancy and the onset of preeclampsia. Our aim was to examine the contribution of IRAP to arterial pressure regulation and placental development during pregnancy in mice. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were measured via radiotelemetry in 12-week-old female wild-type and IRAP knockout mice. Females were time-mated with males of the same genotype. Placentae were collected at embryonic day 18.5 for histological analysis. Basal heart rate was ?40 bpm lower in IRAP knockout females compared with wild-type females. The increase in heart rate across gestation was greater in IRAP knockout females than wild-type females. Neither basal nor gestational mean arterial pressure was different between wildtype and IRAP knockout females. Urine output and water intake of IRAP knockout mice were ?45% less than wild-type mice at late gestation. IRAP deficiency had no effect on fetal weight. Morphological assessment of placentae revealed that IRAP deficiency was associated with reduced labyrinth surface area and accumulation of glycogen in the junctional zone. Our data demonstrate that IRAP deficiency alters maternal fluid handling and impairs placental labyrinth expansion at late gestation, indicating that IRAP contributes to the normal adaptions to pregnancy.
Project description:In a previous study, 50% calorie restriction in mice from days 1.5-11.5 of pregnancy resulted in reduced placental weights and areas, relatively sparing of labyrinth zone area compared to junctional zone area, and dramatic changes in global gene expression profiles. Here we examined placental gene expression at day 18.5, after the return to normal feeding to see whether differences were reversible Mice were randomized to 2 treatment groups on day 1.5 of pregnancy: (1) ad libitum fed (control) (2) 50% food restriction (restricted). Mice were returned to ad libitum feed on d11.5, sacrificed on d18.5 and placentas were collected.