RNA sequencing for tumor-initiating stem-like cells (TICs) treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)
ABSTRACT: TIC population plays a vital role for tumor recurrence and therapy resistnace. In this study, we identified the drug combination of ATRA and SAHA can specifically target TICs in vitro and in vivo. By conducting RNA sequencing and genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we comprehesively illustrate that the combination treatment epigenetically regulates TICs. Overall design: The TICs were treated with 5ug/ml of ATRA, 0.5ug/ml of SAHA or both for RNA sequencing by using Illumina HiSeq2500 system.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (Hdac) inhibitors are used clinically to treat cancer and epilepsy. Although Hdac inhibition accelerates osteoblast maturation and suppresses osteoclast maturation in vitro, the effects of Hdac inhibitors on the skeleton are not understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how the pan-Hdac inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; a.k.a. vorinostat or Zolinza(TM)) affects bone mass and remodeling in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice received daily SAHA (100mg/kg) or vehicle injections for 3 to 4weeks. SAHA decreased trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular number in the distal femur. Cortical bone at the femoral midshaft was not affected. SAHA reduced serum levels of P1NP, a bone formation marker, and also suppressed tibial mRNA levels of type I collagen, osteocalcin and osteopontin, but did not alter Runx2 or osterix transcripts. SAHA decreased histological measures of osteoblast number but interestingly increased indices of osteoblast activity including mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate. Neither serum (TRAcP 5b) nor histological markers of bone resorption were affected by SAHA. P1NP levels returned to baseline in animals which were allowed to recover for 4weeks after 4weeks of daily SAHA injections, but bone density remained low. In vitro, SAHA suppressed osteogenic colony formation, decreased osteoblastic gene expression, induced cell cycle arrest, and caused DNA damage in bone marrow-derived adherent cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that bone loss following treatment with SAHA is primarily due to a reduction in osteoblast number. Moreover, these decreases in osteoblast number can be attributed to the deleterious effects of SAHA on immature osteoblasts, even while mature osteoblasts are resistant to the harmful effects and demonstrate increased activity in vivo, indicating that the response of osteoblasts to SAHA is dependent upon their differentiation state. These studies suggest that clinical use of SAHA and other Hdac inhibitors to treat cancer, epilepsy or other conditions may potentially compromise skeletal structure and function.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia features a clonal proliferation of CD3(-) NK cells that can be classified into either aggressive or chronic categories. The NKL cell line, derived from an aggressive Asian NK cell leukaemia, and patient samples from chronic NK-LGL leukaemia were used in our study to probe for synergistic efficacy of the epigenetic drugs vorinostat (SAHA) and cladribine in this disease. We demonstrate that histone deacetylases (HDACs) are over-expressed in both aggressive and chronic NK leukaemia. Administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA reduces class I and II HDAC expression and enhances histone acetylation in leukaemic NK cells. In vitro combination treatment with SAHA and cladribine dose-dependently exerts synergistic cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on leukaemic NK cells. Expression profiling of apoptotic regulatory genes suggests that both compounds led to caspase-dependent apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways. Collectively, these data show that combined epigenetic therapy, using HDAC and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, may be a promising therapeutic approach for NK-LGL leukaemia.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are targets for cancer therapy. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an HDAC inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. To obtain a better mechanistic understanding of the Sin3/HDAC complex in cancer, we extended its protein-protein interaction network and identified a mutually exclusive pair within the complex. We then assessed the effects of SAHA on the disruption of the complex network through six homologous baits. SAHA perturbs multiple protein interactions and therefore compromises the composition of large parts of the Sin3/HDAC network. A comparison of the effect of SAHA treatment on gene expression in breast cancer cells to a knockdown of the ING2 subunit indicated that a portion of the anticancer effects of SAHA may be attributed to the disruption of ING2's association with the complex. Our dynamic protein interaction network resource provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of SAHA action and demonstrates the potential for drugs to rewire networks.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes that modulate gene expression and cell state by deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins. A variety of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have already undergone clinical testing in cancer. Real-time in vivo imaging of HDACs and their inhibition would be invaluable; however, the development of appropriate imaging agents has remained a major challenge. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of (18)F-suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid ((18)F-SAHA 1a), a close analogue of the most clinically relevant HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We demonstrate that 1a has near identical biochemical activity profiles to that of SAHA and report findings from pharmacokinetic studies. Using a murine ovarian cancer model, we likewise show that HDAC inhibitor target binding efficacy can be quantitated within 24 h of administration. 1a thus represents the first (18)F-positron emission tomography (PET) HDAC imaging agent, which also exhibits low nanomolar potency and is pharmacologically analogous to a clinically relevant HDAC inhibitor.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Approximately 50% of serous epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) contain molecular defects in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) have efficacy in HR-deficient, but not in HR-proficient, EOC tumors as a single agent. Our goal was to determine whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), can sensitize HR-proficient ovarian cancer cells to the PARPi AZD-2281 (olaparib). METHODS:Ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3, OVCAR-8, NCI/ADR-Res, UWB1.289 BRCA1null and UWB1.289+BRCA1 wild-type) were treated with saline vehicle, olaparib, SAHA or olaparib/SAHA. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assessed cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence and Western blot assays assessed markers of apoptosis (cleaved PARP) and DNA damage (pH2AX and RAD51). Drug effects were also tested in SKOV-3 xenografts in Nude mice. Affymetrix microarray experiments were performed in vehicle and SAHA-treated SKOV-3 cells. RESULTS:In a microarray analysis, SAHA induced coordinated down-regulation of HR pathway genes, including RAD51 and BRCA1. Nuclear co-expression of RAD51 and pH2AX, a marker of efficient HR repair, was reduced approximately 40% by SAHA treatment alone and combined with olaparib. SAHA combined with olaparib induced apoptosis and pH2AX expression to a greater extent than either drug alone. Olaparib reduced cell viability at increasing concentrations and SAHA enhanced these effects in 4 of 5 cell lines, including BRCA1 null and wild-type cells, in vitro and in SKOV-3 xenografts in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These results provide preclinical rationale for targeting DNA damage response pathways by combining small molecule PARPi with HDACi as a mechanism for reducing HR efficiency in ovarian cancer.
Project description:?1-Antitrypsin (?1AT) deficiency (?1ATD) is a consequence of defective folding, trafficking, and secretion of ?1AT in response to a defect in its interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis machineries. The most common and severe form of ?1ATD is caused by the Z-variant and is characterized by the accumulation of ?1AT polymers in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver leading to a severe reduction (>85%) of ?1AT in the serum and its anti-protease activity in the lung. In this organ ?1AT is critical for ensuring tissue integrity by inhibiting neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades elastin. Given the limited therapeutic options in ?1ATD, a more detailed understanding of the folding and trafficking biology governing ?1AT biogenesis and its response to small molecule regulators is required. Herein we report the correction of Z-?1AT secretion in response to treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), acting in part through HDAC7 silencing and involving a calnexin-sensitive mechanism. SAHA-mediated correction restores Z-?1AT secretion and serpin activity to a level 50% that observed for wild-type ?1AT. These data suggest that HDAC activity can influence Z-?1AT protein traffic and that SAHA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for ?1ATD and other protein misfolding diseases.
Project description:Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been assessed in clinical trials as part of a "shock and kill" strategy to cure HIV-infected patients. While it was effective at inducing expression of HIV RNA ("shock"), treatment with SAHA did not result in a reduction of reservoir size ("kill"). We therefore utilized a combined analysis of effects of SAHA on the host transcriptome and proteome to dissect its mechanisms of action that may explain its limited success in "shock and kill" strategies. CD4+ T cells from HIV seronegative donors were treated with 1?M SAHA or its solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 24h. Protein expression and post-translational modifications were measured with iTRAQ proteomics using ultra high-precision two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Gene expression was assessed by Illumina microarrays. Using limma package in the R computing environment, we identified 185 proteins, 18 phosphorylated forms, 4 acetylated forms and 2982 genes, whose expression was modulated by SAHA. A protein interaction network integrating these 4 data types identified the HIV transcriptional repressor HMGA1 to be upregulated by SAHA at the transcript, protein and acetylated protein levels. Further functional category assessment of proteins and genes modulated by SAHA identified gene ontology terms related to NF?B signaling, protein folding and autophagy, which are all relevant to HIV reactivation. In summary, SAHA modulated numerous host cell transcripts, proteins and post-translational modifications of proteins, which would be expected to have very mixed effects on the induction of HIV-specific transcription and protein function. Proteome profiling highlighted a number of potential counter-regulatory effects of SAHA with respect to viral induction, which transcriptome profiling alone would not have identified. These observations could lead to a more informed selection and design of other HDACi with a more refined targeting profile, and prioritization of latency reversing agents of other classes to be used in combination with SAHA to achieve more potent induction of HIV expression.
Project description:Acquisition of chemoresistance and metastatic phenotype are the major causes of treatment failure and mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to be overexpressed in many tumor types and directly linked to poor prognosis. In this study, we demonstrate that HDACs are markedly elevated in HNSCC. HDACs expression was further increase in cisplatin resistant cell lines (CisR). In addition, cisplatin-resistant cells showed enhanced stem cell properties and tumor metastasis. Depletion of HDAC1 and 2 in CisR cell lines significantly reversed cisplatin resistance and tumorsphere formation. Next, we tested the efficacy of Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an HDAC inhibitor, by using both in vitro and in vivo models. SAHA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of cisplatin. In addition, SAHA significantly decreased tumorsphere formation by markedly reducing nanog expression. In a SCID mouse xenograft model, SAHA significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin treatment with no added systemic toxicity. Furthermore, SAHA and cisplatin combination treatment significantly decreased tumor metastasis and nanog expression, in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting HDACs with SAHA could be an effective treatment strategy for the treatment of HNSCC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer for the woman in the world. It is caused by the oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV). The inhibition activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is widely known as a low toxicity HDAC inhibitor. This research presents in silico SAHA modification by utilizing triazole, in order to obtain a better inhibitor. We conducted docking of the SAHA inhibitor and 12 modified versions to six class II HDAC enzymes, and then proceeded with drug scanning of each one of them. RESULTS: The docking results show that the 12 modified inhibitors have much better binding affinity and inhibition potential than SAHA. Based on drug scan analysis, six of the modified inhibitors have robust pharmacological attributes, as revealed by drug likeness, drug score, oral bioavailability, and toxicity levels. CONCLUSIONS: The binding affinity, free energy and drug scan screening of the best inhibitors have shown that 1c and 2c modified inhibitors are the best ones to inhibit class II HDAC.
Project description:Most prostate, colon and breast cancer cells are resistant to growth inhibitory effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We have examined whether the high oxidative stress in these cells causes a loss of SAHA activity and if so, whether pretreatment with an anti-oxidant can sensitize these cells to SAHA.A DNA-Hoechst dye fluorescence measured cell growth and dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCF-DA) dye fluorescence measured reactive oxygen species (ROS). Growth inhibitory and ROS-generating activities of SAHA in androgen-treated or untreated LNCaP cells and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, HT-29 and HCT-115 colon cancer cells, MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells and A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells with or without pretreatment with an anti-oxidant Vitamin E was determined. SAHA activity against LNCaP cells treated with another anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was also determined. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to determine intracellular SAHA level.SAHA treatment markedly inhibits LNCaP cell growth, when the cells are at a low ROS level. SAHA is, however, inactive against the same cell line, when the cells are at a high ROS level. A significant decrease in SAHA level was observed in LNCaP cells with high ROS after 24- and 72-h treatment when compared to cells with low ROS. Vitamin E pretreatment that reduces cellular ROS, synergistically sensitizes oxidatively stressed LNCaP, PC-3, HT-29, HCT-115 and MDA-MB231 cells, but not the A-549 and NCI-H460 cells with low ROS to SAHA. NAC treatment also sensitized androgen-treated LNCaP cells to the growth inhibitory effects of SAHA.Response to SAHA could be improved by combining anti-oxidants such as Vitamin E with SAHA for the treatment of oxidatively stressed human malignancies that are otherwise resistant to SAHA.