Expression data of the NOTCH1 leukemia mouse model
ABSTRACT: We established the NOTCH1 leukemia mouse model, and then established the iPS model from the leukemia cells. We used microarrays to detail the gene expression of leukemia cells, the partially reprogrammed cells and the iPS cells. Overall design: Colonies were picked up for RNA extraction on Affymetrix microarrays. We handled the groups at four stages: Leukemia cells, GFP+ cells, GFP- cells, iPS cells..
Project description:Growth factor independent 1 (Gfi1) is a transcriptional repressor originally identified as a common integration site in Moloney-murine-leukemia-virus-induced T-cell leukemia. Gfi1-/- mice display increased apoptosis of developing thymocytes and T lymphopenia; however, there are contradictory reports of the absolute number of Gfi1-/- early T lineage progenitors. We used floxed alleles of Gfi1 crossed to various T-cell-specific Cre transgenes to map the requirements for Gfi1 during lymphoid priming and development. We show that Gfi1 is necessary for the proper formation and function of both lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors and early T lineage progenitors. These defects correlate with a global inability of Gfi1-/- progenitors to enforce the activation of lymphoid genes including IL7R, Rag1, Flt3 and Notch1. Forced expression of intracellular Notch1 fails to rescue the Gfi1-/- defective lymphoid gene signature or Gfi1-/- T cell development. Instead, activation of Notch1 in Gfi1-/- cells results in a potent synthetic lethal phenotype that is most dramatic in immature thymocytes, but absent in mature peripheral T cells where developmental transcriptional programs are silent. Moreover, we find that the requirement for Gfi1-transcriptional integration of Notch-driven lymphoid transcriptional programs is cell autonomous. Our data indicate that Gfi1 is required at multiple independent stages of lymphoid development. In hematopoietic progenitors Gfi1 is necessary to integrate Notch1 signaling, mediate lymphoid priming, the formation of early T lineage progenitors and subsequent T lineage commitment. Lineage negative cells were purified by magnetic beads from RosaCreERT2 Gfi1 ex4-5 floxed mice and an activated Notch1 signal was introduced using a GFP+ retroviral vector. GFP+ progenitors were FACS-sorted and cultured in semi-solid media for one week to allow sufficient time to to instruct lymphoid differentiation, then replated in 1uM 4-OHT or EtOH control. After an additional 7 days, CFU were disrupted and RNA was isolated for global gene expression using microarrays.
Project description:Activating mutations of NOTCH1 (a well-known oncogene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) are present in ?4-13% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, where they are associated with disease progression and chemorefractoriness. However, the specific role of NOTCH1 in leukemogenesis remains to be established. Here, we report that the active intracellular portion of NOTCH1 (ICN1) is detectable in ?50% of peripheral blood CLL cases lacking gene mutations. We identify a "NOTCH1 gene-expression signature" in CLL cells, and show that this signature is significantly enriched in primary CLL cases expressing ICN1, independent of NOTCH1 mutation. NOTCH1 target genes include key regulators of B-cell proliferation, survival, and signal transduction. In particular, we show that NOTCH1 transactivates MYC via binding to B-cell-specific regulatory elements, thus implicating this oncogene in CLL development. These results significantly extend the role of NOTCH1 in CLL pathogenesis, and have direct implications for specific therapeutic targeting.
Project description:Leukemia initiating cells (LIC) contribute to therapeutic resistance through acquisition of mutations in signaling pathways, such as NOTCH1, that promote self-renewal and survival within supportive niches. Activating mutations in NOTCH1 occur commonly in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and have been implicated in therapeutic resistance. However, the cell type and context specific consequences of NOTCH1 activation, its role in human LIC regeneration, and sensitivity to NOTCH1 inhibition in hematopoietic microenvironments had not been elucidated.We established humanized bioluminescent T-ALL LIC mouse models transplanted with pediatric T-ALL samples that were sequenced for NOTCH1 and other common T-ALL mutations. In this study, CD34(+) cells from NOTCH1(Mutated) T-ALL samples had higher leukemic engraftment and serial transplantation capacity than NOTCH1(Wild-type) CD34(+) cells in hematopoietic niches, suggesting that self-renewing LIC were enriched within the NOTCH1(Mutated) CD34(+) fraction. Humanized NOTCH1 monoclonal antibody treatment reduced LIC survival and self-renewal in NOTCH1(Mutated) T-ALL LIC-engrafted mice and resulted in depletion of CD34(+)CD2(+)CD7(+) cells that harbor serial transplantation capacity.These results reveal a functional hierarchy within the LIC population based on NOTCH1 activation, which renders LIC susceptible to targeted NOTCH1 inhibition and highlights the utility of NOTCH1 antibody targeting as a key component of malignant stem cell eradication strategies.
Project description:NOTCH1 is a transcription factor involved in T-cell development and mutations that occur in NOTCH1 gene affects more than 60% of patients affected by T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In order to identify microRNAs regulated following NOTCH1 inhibition in T-ALL, murine NOTCH1-induced T-cell leukemia were treated with a NOTCH1 inhibitor (DBZ, Dibenzazepine). Tumors were established in irradiated C57BL/6 mice injected with lineage negative progenitors cells transduced with a mutated NOTCH1 allele (HD-?PEST NOTCH1). Mice were treated three times, 8 hours apart, with vehicle only (DMSO) or DBZ (5mg/Kg). Total RNA was extracted from tumor samples (spleens of sick mice) and hybridized on Agilent mouse miRNA 8x60K arrays (release 19.0). Each sample was derived from a different mouse (n=3 mice/group). Raw microarray data, preprocessed data matrix and results of differential expression analysis are available together with the applied protocols.
Project description:NOTCH1 is a transcription factor involved in T-cell development and mutations that occur in NOTCH1 gene affects more than 60% of patients affected by T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In order to identify genes and pathways regulated following NOTCH1 inhibition in T-ALL, murine NOTCH1-induced T-cell leukemia were treated with a NOTCH1 inhibitor (DBZ, Dibenzazepine). Tumors were established in irradiated C57BL/6 mice injected with lineage negative progenitors cells transduced with a mutated NOTCH1 allele (HD-?PEST NOTCH1). Mice were treated three times, 8 hours apart, with vehicle only (DMSO) or DBZ (5mg/Kg). Total RNA was extracted from tumor samples (spleens of sick mice) and hybridized on Agilent SurePrint G3 Mouse GE 8x60K arrays. Each sample was derived from a different mouse (n=3 mice/group). Raw microarray data and results of differential expression analysis are available together with the applied protocols.
Project description:Notch1 signaling plays a critical role in maintaining and determining neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) fate, yet the transcriptional mechanism controlling Notch1 specific expression in NSPCs remains incomplete. Here, we show transcription factor Nkx6.1 interacts with a cis-element (CR2, an evolutionarily conserved non-coding fragment in the second intron of Notch1 locus) and regulates the expression of Notch1 in ventral NSPCs of the developing spinal cord. We show that the Notch1 expression is modulated by the interaction of Nkx6.1 with a 139?bp enhancer sequence within CR2. Knockdown or overexpression of Nkx6.1 leads to down- or up-regulated Notch1 expression, respectively. In CR2-GFP transgenic mouse, GFP expression was found prominent in the ventricular zone and neural progenitor cells from embryonic day 9.5 to postnatal day 7. GFP+ cells were mainly neural progenitors for interneurons and not for motoneurons or glial cells. Moreover, GFP expression persisted in a subset of ependymal cells in the adult spinal cord, suggesting that CR2 is active in both embryonic and adult NSPCs. Together our data reveal a novel mechanism of Notch1 transcriptional regulation in the ventral spinal cord by Nkx6.1 via its binding with Notch1 enhancer CR2 during embryonic development.
Project description:On-target drug delivery remains a challenge in cancer precision medicine; it is difficult to deliver a targeted therapy to cancer cells without incurring toxicity to normal tissues. The SERCA (sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase) inhibitor thapsigargin inhibits mutant NOTCH1 receptors compared with wild type in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), but its administration is predicted to be toxic in humans. Leveraging the addiction of ALL to folic acid, we conjugated folate to an alcohol derivative of thapsigargin via a cleavable ester linkage. JQ-FT is recognized by folate receptors on the plasma membrane and delivered into leukemia cells as a potent antileukemic agent. In mechanistic and translational models of T-ALL, we demonstrate NOTCH1 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. These proof-of-concept studies support the further optimization of this first-in-class NOTCH1 inhibitor with dual selectivity: leukemia over normal cells and NOTCH1 mutants over wild-type receptors. Furthermore, tumor-specific disruption of Notch signaling may overcome legitimate concerns associated with the tumor suppressor function of nontargeted Notch pathway inhibitors.
Project description:Gain-of-function NOTCH1 mutations are found in 50%-70% of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) cases. Gain-of-function NOTCH1 alleles that initiate strong downstream signals induce leukemia in mice, but it is unknown whether the gain-of-function NOTCH1 mutations most commonly found in individuals with T-ALL generate downstream signals of sufficient strength to induce leukemia. We addressed this question by expressing human gain-of-function NOTCH1 alleles of varying strength in mouse hematopoietic precursors. Uncommon gain-of-function NOTCH1 alleles that initiated strong downstream signals drove ectopic T cell development and induced leukemia efficiently. In contrast, although gain-of-function alleles that initiated only weak downstream signals also induced ectopic T cell development, these more common alleles failed to efficiently initiate leukemia development. However, weak gain-of-function NOTCH1 alleles accelerated the onset of leukemia initiated by constitutively active K-ras and gave rise to tumors that were sensitive to Notch signaling pathway inhibition. These data show that induction of leukemia requires doses of Notch1 greater than those needed for T cell development and that most NOTCH1 mutations found in T-ALL cells do not generate signals of sufficient strength to initiate leukemia development. Furthermore, low, nonleukemogenic levels of Notch1 can complement other leukemogenic events, such as activation of K-ras. Even when Notch1 participates secondarily, the resulting tumors show "addiction" to Notch, providing a further rationale for evaluating Notch signaling pathway inhibitors in leukemia.
Project description:Higher Notch signaling is known to be associated with hematological and solid cancers. We developed a potential immunotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the Negative Regulatory Region of Notch1 (NRR). The MAb604.107 exhibited higher affinity for the "Gain-of-function" mutants of Notch1 NRR associated with T Acute lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). Modeling of the mutant NRR with 12 amino-acid insertion demonstrated "opening" resulting in exposure of the S2-cleavage site leading to activated Notch1 signaling. The MAb, at low concentrations (1-2 μg/ml), inhibited elevated ligand-independent Notch1 signaling of NRR mutants, augmented effect of Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of mutant Notch1, but had no effect on the wild-type Notch1. The antibody decreased proliferation of the primary T-ALL cells and depleted leukemia initiating CD34/CD44 high population. At relatively high concentrations, (10-20 μg/ml), the MAb affected Notch1 signaling in the breast and colon cancer cell lines. The Notch-high cells sorted from solid-tumor cell lines exhibited characteristics of cancer stem cells, which were inhibited by the MAb. The antibody also increased the sensitivity to Doxorubucinirubicin. Further, the MAb impeded the growth of xenografts from breast and colon cancer cells potentiated regression of the tumors along with Doxorubucin. Thus, this antibody is potential immunotherapeutic tool for different cancers.
Project description:Acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy affecting both children and adults. Previous studies of T-ALL mouse models induced by different genetic mutations have provided highly diverse results on the issues of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma-initiating cells (T-LICs) and potential mechanisms contributing to T-LIC transformation. Here, we show that oncogenic Kras (Kras G12D) expressed from its endogenous locus is a potent inducer of T-ALL even in a less sensitized BALB/c background. Notch1 mutations, including exon 34 mutations and recently characterized type 1 and 2 deletions, are detected in 100% of Kras G12D-induced T-ALL tumors. Although these mutations are not detected at the pre-leukemia stage, incremental up-regulation of NOTCH1 surface expression is observed at the pre-leukemia and leukemia stages. As secondary genetic hits in the Kras G12D model, Notch1 mutations target CD8(+) T-cells but not hematopoietic stem cells to further promote T-ALL progression. Pre-leukemia T-cells without detectable Notch1 mutations do not induce T-ALL in secondary recipient mice compared with T-ALL tumor cells with Notch1 mutations. We found huge variations in T-LIC frequency and immunophenotypes of cells enriched for T-LICs. Unlike Pten deficiency-induced T-ALL, oncogenic Kras-initiated T-ALL is not associated with up-regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Our results suggest that up-regulation of NOTCH1 signaling, through either overexpression of surface NOTCH1 or acquired gain-of-function mutations, is involved in both T-ALL initiation and progression. Notch1 mutations and Kras G12D contribute cooperatively to leukemogenic transformation of normal T-cells.