ABSTRACT: The proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN processes immature pro-proteins into functional end- products. FURIN is upregulated in activated immune cells and it regulates T-cell dependent peripheral tolerance and the Th1/Th2 balance. FURIN also promotes the infectivity of pathogens by activating bacterial toxins and by processing viral proteins. Here, we evaluated the role of FURIN in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Mice with a conditional deletion of FURIN in their myeloid cells (LysMCre-fur(fl/fl)) were healthy and showed unchanged proportions of neutrophils and macrophages. Instead, LysMCre-fur(fl/fl) mice had elevated serum IL-1β levels and reduced numbers of splenocytes. An LPS injection resulted in accelerated mortality, elevated serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulated numbers of pro-inflammatory macrophages. A genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed the overexpression of several pro-inflammatory genes in resting FURIN-deficient macrophages. Moreover, FURIN inhibited Nos2 and promoted the expression of Arg1, which implies that FURIN regulates the M1/M2-type macrophage balance. FURIN was required for the normal production of the bioactive TGF-β1 cytokine, but it inhibited the maturation of the inflammation-provoking TACE and Caspase-1 enzymes. In conclusion, FURIN has an anti-inflammatory function in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo.
Project description:The proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN processes immature pro-proteins into functional end- products. FURIN is upregulated in activated immune cells and it regulates T-cell dependent peripheral tolerance and the Th1/Th2 balance. FURIN also promotes the infectivity of pathogens by activating bacterial toxins and by processing viral proteins. Here, we evaluated the role of FURIN in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Mice with a conditional deletion of FURIN in their myeloid cells (LysMCre-fur(fl/fl)) were healthy and showed unchanged proportions of neutrophils and macrophages. Instead, LysMCre-fur(fl/fl) mice had elevated serum IL-1? levels and reduced numbers of splenocytes. An LPS injection resulted in accelerated mortality, elevated serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulated numbers of pro-inflammatory macrophages. A genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed the overexpression of several pro-inflammatory genes in resting FURIN-deficient macrophages. Moreover, FURIN inhibited Nos2 and promoted the expression of Arg1, which implies that FURIN regulates the M1/M2-type macrophage balance. FURIN was required for the normal production of the bioactive TGF-?1 cytokine, but it inhibited the maturation of the inflammation-provoking TACE and Caspase-1 enzymes. In conclusion, FURIN has an anti-inflammatory function in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most common Gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia. Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is essential for the trafficking and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins. To determine the role of gp96 in myeloid cells in host defence during Klebsiella pneumonia, mice homozygous for the conditional Hsp90b1 allele encoding gp96 were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under control of the LysM promoter to generate LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice. LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice showed absence of gp96 protein in macrophages and partial depletion in monocytes and granulocytes. This was accompanied by almost complete absence of TLR2 and TLR4 on macrophages. Likewise, integrin subunits CD11b and CD18 were not detectable on macrophages, while being only slightly reduced on monocytes and granulocytes. Gp96-deficient macrophages did not release pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Klebsiella and displayed reduced phagocytic capacity independent of CD18. LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice were highly vulnerable to lower airway infection induced by K. pneumoniae, as reflected by enhanced bacterial growth and a higher mortality rate. The early inflammatory response in Hsp90b1-flox mice was characterized by strongly impaired recruitment of granulocytes into the lungs, accompanied by attenuated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the inflammatory response during late-stage pneumonia was not dependent on the presence of gp96. Blocking CD18 did not reproduce the impaired host defence of LysMcre-Hsp90b1-flox mice during Klebsiella pneumonia. These data indicate that macrophage gp96 is essential for protective immunity during Gram-negative pneumonia by regulating TLR expression.
Project description:Macrophages regulate innate immunity to maintain intestinal homeostasis and play pathological roles in intestinal inflammation. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and wound closure in several cell types. However, the impact of EGFR in macrophages remains unclear. This study was to investigate whether EGFR activation in macrophages regulates cytokine production and intestinal inflammation. We found that EGFR was activated in colonic macrophages in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and in patients with ulcerative colitis. DSS-induced acute colitis was ameliorated, and recovery from colitis was promoted in Egfr(fl/fl)LysM-Cre mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of EGFR, compared with LysM-Cre mice. DSS treatment increased IL-10 and TNF levels during the acute phase of colitis, and increased IL-10 but reduced TNF levels during the recovery phase in Egfr(fl/fl)LysM-Cre mice. An anti-IL-10 neutralizing Ab abolished these effects of macrophage-specific EGFR deletion on DSS-induced colitis in Egfr(fl/fl)LysM-Cre mice. LPS stimulated EGFR activation and inhibition of EGFR kinase activity enhanced LPS-stimulated NF-?B activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, induction of IL-10 production by EGFR kinase-blocked RAW 264.7 cells, in response to LPS plus IFN-?, correlated with decreased TNF production. Thus, although selective deletion of EGFR in macrophages leads to increases in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to inflammatory stimuli, the increase in the IL-10 level plays a role in suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production, resulting in protection of mice from intestinal inflammation. These results reveal an integrated response of macrophages regulated by EGFR in intestinal inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Macrophages form an important component of the innate immune system and serve as first responders against invading pathogens. While pathways critical for initiation of inflammatory responses between macrophages and other LysM+ myeloid cells are largely similar, it remains unknown whether a specific pathway has differential effects on inflammatory responses mediated between these cells. Recent studies demonstrated that depletion of SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, blocked inflammatory responses generated by macrophages and dendritic cells in response to LPS in cell culture settings. However, the in vivo role of Sag on modulation of macrophages and neutrophil is not known. Here we generated LysM-Cre/Sag fl/fl mice with selective Sag deletion in myeloid lineage, and found that in contrast to in vitro observations, LysM-Cre/Sag fl/fl mice showed increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced mortality in response to LPS. Interestingly, while Sag -/- macrophages released less proinflammatory cytokines, Sag -/- neutrophils released more. Mechanistically, expression of a list of genes response to LPS was significantly altered in bone marrow cells from LysM-Cre +/Sag fl/fl mice after LPS challenge. Specifically, induction by LPS of myeloperoxidase (Mpo), a key neutrophil enzyme, and Elane, neutrophil expressed elastase, was significantly decreased upon Sag depletion. Collectively, our study revealed that Sag plays a differential role in the activation of macrophages and neutrophils.
Project description:Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a class III histone deacetylase that exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in airway diseases. Activated macrophages play an important role in asthma. However, the roles of SIRT1 on allergic airway inflammation in macrophages remain largely unexplored. In this study, we aimed to determine the roles of SIRT1 on allergic airway inflammation in macrophages. The effect of myeloid-specific SIRT1 deletion (<i>Sirt1<sup>fl/fl</sup></i>-<i>LysMcre</i>) on airway inflammation was assessed by using <i>in vivo</i> models of asthma following allergen exposure and <i>in vitro</i> culture of primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) exposed to house dust mite (HDM). We observed that <i>Sirt1<sup>fl/fl</sup></i>-<i>LysMcre</i> mice substantially enhanced airway inflammation and mucus production in response to allergen exposure. Expression of chemokine ligand (CXCL) 2, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were reduced in BMDMs with myeloid-specific deletion of <i>Sirt1</i> after stimulation of HDM. Moreover, SIRT1 suppressed the inflammatory cytokines expression in BMDMs partially via the ERK/p38 MAPK pathways. Our study demonstrated that SIRT1 suppresses the allergic airway inflammation in macrophages, and suggested that activation of SIRT1 in macrophages may represent therapeutic strategy for asthma.
Project description:CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of important pro-inflammatory genes in microglia. Mice deficient for C/EBP? show protection against excitotoxic and ischemic CNS damage, but the involvement in this neuroprotective effect of the various C/EBP?-expressing cell types is not solved. Since C/EBP?-deficient microglia show attenuated neurotoxicity in culture, we hypothesized that specific C/EBP? deficiency in microglia could be neuroprotective in vivo. In this study, we have tested this hypothesis by generating mice with myeloid C/EBP? deficiency.Mice with myeloid C/EBP? deficiency were generated by crossing LysMCre and C/EBP?fl/fl mice. Primary microglial cultures from C/EBP?fl/fl and LysMCre-C/EBP?fl/fl mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide ± interferon ? (IFN?) for 6 h, and gene expression was analyzed by RNA sequencing. Gene expression and C/EBP? deletion were analyzed in vivo in microglia isolated from the brains of C/EBP?fl/fl and LysMCre-C/EBP?fl/fl mice treated systemically with lipolysaccharide or vehicle. Mice of LysMCre-C/EBP?fl/fl or control genotypes were subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalitis and analyzed for clinical signs for 52 days. One- or two-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis with their appropriate post hoc tests were used.LysMCre-C/EBP?fl/fl mice showed an efficiency of C/EBP? deletion in microglia of 100 and 90% in vitro and in vivo, respectively. These mice were devoid of female infertility, perinatal mortality and reduced lifespan that are associated to full C/EBP? deficiency. Transcriptomic analysis of C/EBP?-deficient primary microglia revealed C/EBP?-dependent expression of 1068 genes, significantly enriched in inflammatory and innate immune responses GO terms. In vivo, microglial expression of the pro-inflammatory genes Cybb, Ptges, Il23a, Tnf and Csf3 induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide injection was also blunted by C/EBP? deletion. CNS expression of C/EBP? was upregulated in experimental autoimmune encephalitis and in multiple sclerosis samples. Finally, LysMCre-C/EBP?fl/fl mice showed robust attenuation of clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalitis.This study provides new data that support a central role for C/EBP? in the biology of activated microglia, and it offers proof of concept for the therapeutic potential of microglial C/EBP? inhibition in multiple sclerosis.
Project description:Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2) mediates demethylation of DNA. We here sought to determine the expression and function of Tet2 in macrophages upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in the host response to LPS induced lung and peritoneal inflammation, and during <i>Escherichia (E.) coli</i> induced peritonitis. LPS induced <i>Tet2</i> expression in mouse macrophages and human monocytes in vitro, as well as in human alveolar macrophages after bronchial instillation in vivo. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from myeloid Tet2 deficient (<i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i>) mice displayed enhanced production of IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 upon stimulation with several Toll-like receptor agonists; similar results were obtained with LPS stimulated alveolar and peritoneal macrophages. Histone deacetylation was involved in the effect of Tet2 on IL-6 production, whilst methylation at the <i>Il6</i> promoter was not altered by Tet2 deficiency. <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> mice showed higher IL-6 and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar and peritoneal lavage fluid after intranasal and intraperitoneal LPS administration, respectively, whilst other inflammatory responses were unaltered. <i>E. coli</i> induced stronger production of IL-1β and IL-6 by Tet2 deficient peritoneal macrophages but not in peritoneal lavage fluid of <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> mice after in vivo intraperitoneal infection. <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> mice displayed enhanced bacterial growth during <i>E. coli</i> peritonitis, which was associated with a reduced capacity of <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> peritoneal macrophages to inhibit the growth of <i>E. coli</i> in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that Tet2 is involved in the regulation of macrophage functions triggered by LPS and during <i>E. coli</i> infection.
Project description:Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are feedback inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway. SOCS3 has a crucial role in inhibiting STAT3 activation, cytokine signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in macrophages/microglia. To determine the role of SOCS3 in myeloid cells in neuroinflammation, mice with conditional SOCS3 deletion in myeloid cells (LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl)) were tested for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice are vulnerable to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE, with a severe, nonresolving atypical form of disease. In vivo, enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination is prominent in the cerebellum of myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice, as is enhanced STAT3 signaling and expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and an immune response dominated by Th1 and Th17 cells. In vitro, SOCS3-deficient macrophages exhibit heightened STAT3 activation and are polarized toward the classical M1 phenotype. SOCS3-deficient M1 macrophages provide the microenvironment to polarize Th1 and Th17 cells and induce neuronal death. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages into myeloid SOCS3-deficient mice leads to delayed onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE by decreasing STAT3 activation, Th1/Th17 cells, and proinflammatory mediators in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that myeloid cell SOCS3 provides protection from EAE through deactivation of neuroinflammatory responses.
Project description:Biliverdin reductase (BVR)-A is a pleotropic enzyme converting biliverdin to bilirubin and a signaling molecule that has cytoprotective and immunomodulatory effects. We recently showed that biliverdin inhibits the expression of complement activation fragment 5a receptor one (C5aR1) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of BVR-A in determining macrophage inflammatory phenotype and function via regulation of C5aR1. We assessed expression of C5aR1, M1-like macrophage markers, including chemokines (RANTES, IP-10), as well as chemotaxis in response to LPS and C5a in bone marrow-derived macrophages from BVR fl/fl and LysM-Cre:BVR fl / fl mice (conditional deletion of BVR-A in myeloid cells). In response to LPS, macrophages isolated from LysM-Cre:BVR fl/fl showed significantly elevated levels of C5aR1 as well as chemokines (RANTES, IP10) but not proinflammatory markers, such as iNOS and TNF. An increase in C5aR1 expression was also observed in peritoneal macrophages and several tissues from LysM-Cre:BVR fl/fl mice in a model of endotoxemia. In addition, knockdown of BVR-A resulted in enhanced macrophage chemotaxis toward C5a. Part of the effects of BVR-A deletion on chemotaxis and RANTES expression were blocked in the presence of a C5aR1 neutralizing Ab, confirming the role of C5a-C5aR1 signaling in mediating the effects of BVR. In summary, BVR-A plays an important role in regulating macrophage chemotaxis in response to C5a via modulation of C5aR1 expression. In addition, macrophages lacking BVR-A are characterized by the expression of M1 polarization-associated chemokines, the levels of which depend in part on C5aR1 signaling.
Project description:Comparative analysis of gene expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from trsp knockout mice (Trspfl/fl-LysM-Cre+/-) and Control (Trspfl/fl-LysM-Cre-/-) mice. Selenium, a micronutrient whose deficiency in the diet causes immune dysfunction and inflammatory disorders, exerts its physiological effects partly in the form of selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins). Incorporation of selenium into the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), and subsequently into selenoproteins, is mediated by Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec. To identify macrophage-specific selenoprotein function, we generated mice with the Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec gene specifically deleted in myeloid cells. These mutant mice were devoid of the selenoproteome in macrophages, yet exhibited largely normal inflammatory responses. However, selenoprotein deficiency led to aberrant expression of extracellular matrix-related genes, and diminished migration of macrophages in a protein gel matrix. Therefore, selenium status may affect immune defense and tissue homeostasis through its effect on selenoprotein expression and the trafficking of tissue macrophages. We have generated mice in which we have selectively removed the selenocysteine tRNA gene (trsp) in macrophages under the control of LysM-Cre promoter. Microarray analysis was performed on RNA samples taken from bone marrow-derived macrophages in knockout and control mice. 1. Control unstimulated 2. Knockout unstimulated 3. Control lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated (4h) 4. Knockout LPS stimulated (4h). Three replicates for each condition. Thus, a total of 12 samples.