Identification of mesothelial-to-mesenchymal gene signature in ascitic fluid-isolated mesothelial cells through RNA-sequencing
ABSTRACT: RNA-sequencing analysis was carried out on ascetic fluid-isolated mesothelial cells from ovarian cancer patients compared to control human peritoneal mesothelial cells to identify a mesothelial-mesenchymal gene signature. Overall design: Three control human peritoneal mesothelial cell samples isolated from omentum obtained from non-oncologic patients undergoing abdominal surgery and three ascitic fluid-isolated mesothelial cell samples obtained from the peritoneal effucsions of stage III/IV ovarian serous carcinoma patients
Project description:RNA-sequencing analysis was carried out on ascitic fluid-isolated mesothelial cells from ovarian cancer patients compared to control human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Overall design: Three control human peritoneal mesothelial cell samples isolated from omentum obtained from non-oncologic patients undergoing abdominal surgery and four ascitic fluid-isolated mesothelial cell samples obtained from the peritoneal effucsions of stage III/IV
Project description:Ascitic multicellular aggregates (MCAs) promote peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of cancer?associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in MCA formation and metastasis in patients with high?grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the cell phenotypes and the presence of CAFs in ascitic MCAs. The role of CAFs in tumor?cell MCA formation was assessed by co?culture in suspension. Primary ascitic tumor cells and omental CAFs were used to generate ex vivo MCAs in hanging drops, and the invasiveness of MCAs was evaluated by mesothelial clearance and adhesion assays in vitro and in vivo. MCAs containing CAFs and tumor cells were identified in the ascitic fluid. CAFs facilitated tumor cell aggregation and compaction to form MCAs, and enhanced the mesothelial clearance and adhesion abilities of tumor?cell MCAs. These findings suggest that ascitic CAFs promote peritoneal metastasis by forming heterotypic aggregates with tumor cells, and that they may serve as potential targets for the treatment of HGSOC.
Project description:Introduction:Malignant ascites (MA) is a major cause of morbidity that occurs in 37% of ovarian cancer patients. The accumulation of MA in the peritoneal cavity due to cancer results in debilitating symptoms and extremely poor quality of life. There is an urgent unmet need to expand the understanding of MA to design effective treatment strategies, and to improve MA diagnosis. Objective:Our purpose here is to contribute to a better characterization of MA metabolic composition in ovarian cancer. Method:We determined the metabolic composition of ascitic fluids resulting from orthotopic growth of two ovarian cancer cell lines, the mouse ID8-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-Defb29 cell line and the human OVCAR3 cell line using high-resolution 1H MRS. ID8-VEGF-Defb29 tumors induce large volumes of ascites, while OVCAR3 tumors induce ascites less frequently and at smaller volumes. To better understand the factors driving the metabolic composition of the fluid, we characterized the metabolism of these ovarian cancer cells in culture by analyzing cell lysates and conditioned culture media with 1H NMR. Results:Distinct metabolite patterns were detected in ascitic fluid collected from OVCAR3 and ID8-VEGF-Defb29 tumor bearing mice that were not reflected in the corresponding cell culture or conditioned medium. Conclusion:High-resolution 1H NMR metabolic markers of MA can be used to improve characterization and diagnosis of MA. Metabolic characterization of MA can provide new insights into how MA fluid supports cancer cell growth and resistance to treatment, and has the potential to identify metabolic targeting strategies to reduce or eliminate the formation of MA.
Project description:Organ-specific colonization suggests that specific cell-cell recognition is essential. Yet, very little is known about this particular interaction. Moreover, tumor cell lodgement requires binding under shear stress, but not static, conditions. Here, we successfully isolate the metastatic populations of cancer stem/tumor-initiating cells (M-CSCs). We show that the M-CSCs tether more and roll slower than the non-metastatic (NM)-CSCs, thus resulting in the preferential binding to the peritoneal mesothelium under ascitic fluid shear stress. Mechanistically, this interaction is mediated by P-selectin expressed by the peritoneal mesothelium. Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 carrying an uncommon non-sulfated sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) epitope serves as a distinct P-selectin binding determinant. Several glycosyltransferases, particularly α1,3-fucosyltransferase with rate-limiting activity for sLex synthesis, are highly expressed in M-CSCs. Tumor xenografts and clinical samples corroborate the relevance of these findings. These data advance our understanding on the molecular regulation of peritoneal metastasis and support the therapeutic potential of targeting the sLex-P-selectin cascade.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inflammation may lead to tissue injury. We have studied the modulation of inflammatory milieu-induced tissue injury, as exemplified by the mesothelium. Peritoneal dialysis is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium. Proinflammatory cytokines are increased in the peritoneal cavity during peritonitis episodes. However there is scarce information on the modulation of cell death by combinations of cytokines and on the therapeutic targets to prevent desmesothelization. METHODOLOGY: Human mesothelial cells were cultured from effluents of stable peritoneal dialysis patients and from omentum of non-dialysis patients. Mesothelial cell death was studied in mice with S. aureus peritonitis and in mice injected with tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma alone do not induce apoptosis in cultured mesothelial cells. By contrast, the cytokine combination increased the rate of apoptosis 2 to 3-fold over control. Cell death was associated with the activation of caspases and a pancaspase inhibitor prevented apoptosis. Specific caspase-8 and caspase-3 inhibitors were similarly effective. Co-incubation with both cytokines also impaired mesothelial wound healing in an in vitro model. However, inhibition of caspases did not improve wound healing and even impaired the long-term recovery from injury. By contrast, a polymeric nanoconjugate Apaf-1 inhibitor protected from apoptosis and allowed wound healing and long-term recovery. The Apaf-1 inhibitor also protected mesothelial cells from inflammation-induced injury in vivo in mice. CONCLUSION: Cooperation between tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma contributes to mesothelial injury and impairs the regenerative capacity of the monolayer. Caspase inhibition attenuates mesothelial cell apoptosis but does not facilitate regeneration. A drug targeting Apaf-1 allows protection from apoptosis as well as regeneration in the course of inflammation-induced tissue injury.
Project description:The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD.
Project description:The interplay between peritoneal mesothelial cells and ovarian cancer cells is critical for the initiation and peritoneal dissemination of, and ascites formation in, ovarian cancer. The production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by both peritoneal mesothelial cells and ovarian cancer cells has been shown to promote metastatic phenotype in ovarian cancer. Herein, we report that exogenous addition or ectopic overexpression of the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) significantly attenuated LPA-induced proliferation, chemotaxis, and invasion in both highly metastatic SKOV3 and less metastatic OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cell lines. SPARC appears to modulate these functions, at least in part, through the regulation of LPA receptor levels and the attenuation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and protein kinase B/AKT signaling. Moreover, our results show that SPARC not only significantly inhibited both basal and LPA-induced interleukin (IL) 6 production in both cell lines but also attenuated IL-6-induced mitogenic, chemotactic, and proinvasive effects, in part, through significant suppression of ERK1/2 and, to a lesser extent, of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 signaling pathways. Our results strongly suggest that SPARC exerts a dual inhibitory effect on LPA-induced mesothelial-ovarian cancer cell crosstalk through the regulation of both LPA-induced IL-6 production and function. Taken together, our findings underscore the use of SPARC as a potential therapeutic candidate in peritoneal ovarian carcinomatosis.
Project description:Patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are classified according to their peritoneal permeability as low transporter (low solute permeability) or High transporter (high solute permeability). Factors that determine the differences in permeability between them have not been fully disclosed. We investigated morphological features of cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells from low or high transporter patients and its response to All trans retinoic Acid (ATRA, vitamin A active metabolite), as compared to non-uremic human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Control cells were isolated from human omentum. High or low transporter cells were obtained from dialysis effluents. Cells were cultured in media containing ATRA (0, 50, 100 or 200 nM). We studied length and distribution of microvilli and cilia (scanning electron microscopy), epithelial (cytokeratin, claudin-1, ZO-1 and occludin) and mesenchymal (vimentin and ?-smooth muscle actin) transition markers by immunofluorescence and Western blot, and transforming growth factor ?1 expression by Western blot. Low and high transporter exhibited hypertrophic cells, reduction in claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, cytokeratin and vimentin disorganization and positive ?-smooth muscle actin label. Vimentin, ?-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-?1 were overexpressed in low transporter. Ciliated cells were diminished in low and high transporters. Microvilli number and length were severely reduced in high transporter. ATRA reduced hypertrophic cells number in low transporter. It also improved cytokeratin and vimentin organization, decreased vimentin and ?-smooth muscle actin expression, and increased claudin 1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, in low and high transporter. In low transporter, ATRA reduced transforming growth factor-?1 expression. ATRA augmented percentage of ciliated cells in low and high transporter. It also augmented cilia length in high transporter. Alterations in structure, epithelial mesenchymal markers and transforming growth factor-?1 expression were differential between low and high transporter. Beneficial effects of ATRA were improved human peritoneal mesothelial cells morphology tending to normalize structures.
Project description:Ovarian cancer (OvCa) metastasizes to organs in the abdominal cavity, such as the omentum, which are covered by a single layer of mesothelial cells. Mesothelial cells are generally thought to be "bystanders" to the metastatic process and simply displaced by OvCa cells to access the submesothelial extracellular matrix. Here, using organotypic 3D cultures, we found that primary human mesothelial cells secrete fibronectin in the presence of OvCa cells. Moreover, we evaluated the tumor stroma of 108 human omental metastases and determined that fibronectin was consistently overexpressed in these patients. Blocking fibronectin production in primary mesothelial cells in vitro or in murine models, either genetically (fibronectin 1 floxed mouse model) or via siRNA, decreased adhesion, invasion, proliferation, and metastasis of OvCa cells. Using a coculture model, we determined that OvCa cells secrete TGF-?1, which in turn activates a TGF-? receptor/RAC1/SMAD-dependent signaling pathway in the mesothelial cells that promotes a mesenchymal phenotype and transcriptional upregulation of fibronectin. Additionally, blocking ?5 or ?1 integrin function with antibodies reduced metastasis in an orthotopic preclinical model of OvCa metastasis. These findings indicate that cancer-associated mesothelial cells promote colonization during the initial steps of OvCa metastasis and suggest that mesothelial cells actively contribute to metastasis.