MLL2 conveys transcription-independent H3K4me3 in the oocyte
ABSTRACT: Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) is classically thought of as a mark of active promoters and yet it occurs at untranscribed domains. Partial redundancy of H3K4 methyltransferases has made it difficult to delineate the mechanisms underlying genomic targeting of H3K4me3. The oocyte provides an attractive system to investigate this, because extensive acquisition of H3K4me3 occurs in a non-dividing cell and ablation of a single H3K4 methyltransferase, Mll2, prevents most H3K4me3. We developed low-input chromatin immunoprecipitation to interrogate promoter associated histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K27ac and H3K27me3 throughout oogenesis. In non-growing oocytes, H3K4me3 was restricted to transcriptionally active promoters, but as oogenesis progresses, H3K4me3 accumulates in a transcription-independent manner: targeted to broad inter-genic regions, putative enhancers, and transcriptionally silent H3K27me3-marked promoters. Consequently, thousands of bivalent domains are established during oogenesis. Ablation of Mll2 resulted in loss of transcription-independent H3K4me3, with limited effects on transcription-coupled H3K4me3 or gene expression. Deletion of Dnmt3a/b showed that DNA methylation protects regions from acquiring H3K4me3. Our findings show that there are two independent mechanisms of targeting H3K4me3 to genomic elements, with MLL2 recruited to unmethylated CpG-rich regions independently of transcription. Overall design: We first characterised histone modifications associated with transcriptional regulation (H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3) in oocytes by adapting an ultra-low input native ChIP (ULI-nChIP) sequencing method. This allowed us to obtain high-resolution chromatin maps throughout oogenesis, from non-growing oocytes (NGOs) to fully-grown germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, and to compare these profiles to gene expression and DNA methylation. Furthermore, this has enabled the first molecular interrogation of H3K4me3 in the conditional Dnmt3a/b and Mll2 KO oocytes.
Project description:Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at promoters of actively transcribed genes is a universal epigenetic mark and a key product of Trithorax-Group action. Here we show that Mll2, one of the six Set1/Trithorax-type H3K4 methyltransferases in mammals, is required for trimethylation of bivalent promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells. Mll2 is bound to bivalent promoters but also to most active promoters, which do not require Mll2 for H3K4me3 or mRNA expression. In contrast, the Set1 complex (Set1C) subunit Cxxc1 is primarily bound to active but not bivalent promoters. This indicates that bivalent promoters rely on Mll2 for H3K4me3 whereas active promoters have more than one bound H3K4 methyltransferase including Set1C. Removal of Mll1, sister to Mll2, had almost no effect on any promoter unless Mll2 was also removed indicating functional back-up between these enzymes. Except for a subset, loss of H3K4me3 on bivalent promoters did not prevent responsiveness to retinoic acid thereby arguing against a priming model for bivalency. In contrast, we propose that Mll2 is the pioneer trimethyltransferase for promoter definition in the naïve epigenome and Polycomb-Group action on bivalent promoters blocks premature establishment of active, Set1C bound, promoters. ChIP-Seq to study MLL2 function using H3K4me3 (12 samples), H3K27me3 (4 samples), Pol2 (1 sample) or GFP (7 samples) antibody, and 6 RNA-Seq profiles
Project description:Promoters of many developmentally regulated genes, in the embryonic stem cell state, have a bivalent mark of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, proposed to confer precise temporal activation upon differentiation. Although Polycomb repressive complex 2 is known to implement H3K27 trimethylation, the COMPASS family member responsible for H3K4me3 at bivalently marked promoters was previously unknown. Here, we identify Mll2 (KMT2b) as the enzyme catalyzing H3K4 trimethylation at bivalently marked promoters in embryonic stem cells. Although H3K4me3 at bivalent genes is proposed to prime future activation, we detected no substantial defect in rapid transcriptional induction after retinoic acid treatment in Mll2-depleted cells. Our identification of the Mll2 complex as the COMPASS family member responsible for H3K4me3 marking at bivalent promoters provides an opportunity to reevaluate and experimentally test models for the function of bivalency in the embryonic stem cell state and in differentiation. ChIP-Seq in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells for MLL2. ChIP-seq of H3K4me1, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 for mES cells with RNAi against MLL2(shMLL2) and control (shGFP). ChIP-seq of H3K4me3 in mES cells with RNAi against MLL3 (shMLL3). RNA-seq of mES cells with RNAi against MLL2 and control (shGFP). RNA-seq of control mES cells (shGFP) or MLL2 RNAi mES cells (shMLL2) induced with RA for 6h and 12h.
Project description:The spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression is central for cell-lineage specification during embryonic development and is achieved through the combinatorial action of transcription factors/co-factors and the epigenetic states at cis-regulatory elements. Previously, we reported that Mll2 (KMT2B)/COMPASS is responsible for the implementation of H3K4me3 at promoters of bivalent genes. Here, we show that Mll2/COMPASS can also implements H3K4me3 at some of the non-TSS regulatory elements, a subset of which share epigenetic signatures of active enhancers. Our mechanistic studies reveal that the association of Mll2’s CXXC domain with CpG-rich regions plays an instrumental role for chromatin targeting and subsequent implementation of H3K4me3. Although Mll2/COMPASS is required for H3K4me3 implementation on thousands of sites, it appears to be essential for the expression of a subset of genes, including those functioning in the control of transcriptional programs during embryonic development, indicating that not all H3K4 trimethylations implemented by MLL2/COMPASS are functionally equivalent. Overall design: Characterization of H3K4me3 and Mll2 occupancy by ChIP-seq in mouse embryonic stem cells and identifying their role in gene expression and during differentiation by RNA-seq studies. A high resolution 4C-seq experiments involving two restriction digests (HindIII and NlaIII) were performed to investigate the interaction bewteen promoters of Prdm1 and Prdm14 (viewponts) and cis-regulatory elements whose H3K4me3 is catalyzed by Mll2 in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Project description:Erasure and subsequent re-instatement of DNA methylation in the germline, especially at imprinted CpG islands (CGIs), is crucial to embryogenesis in mammals. The mechanisms underlying DNA methylation establishment remain poorly understood, but a number of post-translational modifications of histones are implicated in antagonizing or recruiting the de novo DNA methylation complex. In mouse oogenesis, DNA methylation establishment occurs on a largely unmethylated genome and in non-dividing cells, making it a highly informative model for examining how histone modifications can shape the DNA methylome. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome-wide sequencing (ChIP-Seq) protocol optimized for low cell numbers and novel techniques for isolating primary and growing oocytes, profiles were generated for histone modifications implicated in promoting or inhibiting DNA methylation. CGIs destined for DNA methylation show reduced protective H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 in both primary and growing oocytes, while permissive H3K36me3 increases specifically at these CGIs in growing oocytes. Methylome profiling of oocytes deficient in H3K4 demethylases KDM1A or KDM1B indicated that removal of H3K4 methylation is necessary for proper methylation establishment at CGIs. This work represents the first systematic study performing ChIP-Seq in oocytes, and shows that histone remodeling in the mammalian oocyte helps direct de novo DNA methylation events. Overall design: ChIP-Seq in duplicate of four histone modifications in primary and growing oocytes, bisulfite sequencing in triplicate of mature oocytes lacking KDM1A/LSD1 or KDM1B/AOF1, RNA-Seq of mature oocytes lacking KDM1B/AOF1, and RNA-Seq of primary E18.5 oocytes.
Project description:Using ChIP-seq to assess changes of histone modifications in response to Dnmt3a or Tet1 deficiency. Overall design: Examination of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in WT, Dnmt3a-/- and Tet1-/- ES cells.
Project description:Neuronal histone H3-lysine 4 methylation landscapes are defined by sharp peaks at gene promoters and other cis-regulatory sequences, but molecular and cellular phenotypes after neuron-specific deletion of H3K4 methyl-regulators remain largely unexplored. We report that neuronal ablation of the H3K4-specific methyltransferase, Kmt2a/Mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (Mll1), in mouse postnatal forebrain and adult prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with increased anxiety and robust cognitive deficits without locomotor dysfunction. In contrast, only mild behavioral phenotypes were observed after ablation of the Mll1 ortholog Kmt2b/Mll2 in PFC. Impaired working memory after Kmt2a/Mll1 ablation in PFC neurons was associated with loss of training-induced transient waves of Arc immediate early gene expression critical for synaptic plasticity. Medial prefrontal layer V pyramidal neurons, a major output relay of the cortex, demonstrated severely impaired synaptic facilitation and temporal summation, two forms of short-term plasticity essential for working memory. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing in Mll1-deficient cortical neurons revealed downregulated expression and loss of the transcriptional mark, trimethyl-H3K4, at <50 loci, including the homeodomain transcription factor Meis2. Small RNA-mediated Meis2 knockdown in PFC was associated with working memory defects similar to those elicited by Mll1 deletion. Therefore, mature prefrontal neurons critically depend on maintenance of Mll1-regulated H3K4 methylation at a subset of genes with an essential role in cognition and emotion. Overall design: This array was used to chararacterize transcription in the Mll1 mutant mouse PFC N=4 mouse PFCs / genotype @ basal, resting condtions
Project description:Using ChIP-seq to assess changes of histone modifications in response to Dnmt3a or Tet1 deficiency. Overall design: Examination of H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and Suz12 in WT, Dnmt3a-/-, Tet1-/- and DKO ES cells.
Project description:Histone H3K4 methylation is a feature of meiotic recombination hotspots shared by many organisms including plants and mammals. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double strand break (DSB) formation that in budding yeast is directed in gene promoters by histone H3K4 di/trimethylation. This histone modification is indeed recognized by Spp1, a PHD-finger containing protein that belongs to the conserved histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 complex. During meiosis, Spp1 binds H3K4me and recruits a DSB protein, Mer2, to promote DSB formation close to gene promoters. How Set1C and Mer2 related functions of Spp1 are connected is not clear.
Project description:We investigate the dynamics for Histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 during Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b knockout in mouse hematopoietic stem cells. The term dko represents double knockout of both Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, while the term sko denotes single knockout of Dnmt3a. The Wildtype profiles were generated in study GSE47765. Mouse hematopoietic stem cell histone methylation profiles of sko and dko mice were generated generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina Hiseq 2000
Project description:Of the six members of the COMPASS (complex of proteins associated with Set1) family of histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4) methyltransferases identified in mammals, Set1A has been shown to be essential for early embryonic development and the maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. Like its familial relatives, Set1A possesses a catalytic SET domain responsible for histone H3K4 methylation. Whether H3K4 methylation by Set1A/COMPASS is required for ESC maintenance and during differentiation has not yet been addressed. Here, we generated ESCs harboring the deletion of the SET domain of Set1A (Set1AΔSET); surprisingly, the Set1A SET domain is dispensable for ESC proliferation and self-renewal. The removal of the Set1A SET domain does not diminish bulk H3K4 methylation in ESCs; instead, only a subset of genomic loci exhibited reduction in H3K4me3 in Set1AΔSET cells, suggesting a role for Set1A independent of its catalytic domain in ESC self-renewal. However, Set1AΔSET ESCs are unable to undergo normal differentiation, indicating the importance of Set1A-dependent H3K4 methylation during differentiation. Our data also indicate that during differentiation, Set1A but not Mll2 functions as the H3K4 methylase on bivalent genes and is required for their expression, supporting a model for transcriptional switch between Mll2 and Set1A during the self-renewing-to-differentiation transition. Together, our study implicates a critical role for Set1A catalytic methyltransferase activity in regulating ESC differentiation but not self-renewal and suggests the existence of context-specific H3K4 methylation that regulates transcriptional outputs during ESC pluripotency. Overall design: Determining the role of Set1A methyltransferase activity in ESC self-renewal and differentiation by investigating histone methylation and gene expression.