LSD1 inhibition induces neurodegeneration and provides a common link to Alzheimer's disease and Frontotemporal dementia
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the two most common forms of dementia that occur during aging. Both AD and FTD are associated with the pathological aggregation of proteins. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how these protein aggregates lead to neuronal cell death in these dementias. Here we show that the histone demethylase LSD1 is mislocalized with cytoplasmic aggregates in human cases of AD and FTD. In addition, loss of LSD1 systemically in adult mice is sufficient to recapitulate many aspects of these diseases. From these data, we propose that the aggregation of Tau and TDP-43 lead to neuronal cell death in AD and FTD by interfering with the continuous requirement for LSD1 to repress inappropriate transcription. Furthermore, we observe the inappropriate reactivation of stem cell loci in the hippocampal neurons of LSD1 mutant mice. This suggests that LSD1 may function to maintain the fate of differentiated neurons by repressing stem cell transcription. Overall design: Hippocampus tissue was compared between Lsd1-sufficient (Lsd1(fl/fl)) and Lsd1-deficient mice (Cre-ER(TM)Lsd1(fl/fl))
Project description:Objective:Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is complicated by the overlap of clinical symptoms with other dementia disorders. Development of robust fluid biomarkers is critical to improve the diagnostic work-up of FTD. Methods:CSF concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured in the discovery cohort including patients with FTD (n = 27), Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia (n = 75), DLB or PDD (n = 47), subcortical vascular dementia (VaD, n = 33), mild cognitive impairment that later converted to AD (MCI-AD, n = 34), stable MCI (sMCI, n = 62), and 50 cognitively healthy controls from the Swedish BioFINDER study. For validation, CSF PlGF was measured in additional independent cohort of FTD patients (n = 22) and controls (n = 18) from the Netherlands. Results:In the discovery cohort, MCI, MCI-AD, AD dementia, DLB-PDD, VaD, and FTD patients all showed increased CSF levels of PlGF compared with controls (sMCI P = 0.019; MCI-AD P = 0.005; AD dementia, DLB-PDD, VaD, and FTD all P < 0.001). PlGF levels were 1.8-2.1-fold higher in FTD than in AD, DLB-PDD and VaD (all P < 0.001). PlGF distinguished with high accuracy FTD from controls and sMCI performing better than tau/Aβ42 (AUC 0.954-0.996 versus 0.564-0.754, P < 0.001). A combination of PlGF, tau, and Aβ42 (tau/Aβ42/PlGF) was more accurate than tau/Aβ42 when differentiating FTD from a group of other dementias (AUC 0.972 vs. 0.932, P < 0.01). Increased CSF levels of PlGF in FTD compared with controls were corroborated in the validation cohort. Interpretation:CSF PlGF is increased in FTD compared with other dementia disorders, MCI, and healthy controls and might be useful as a diagnostic biomarker of FTD.
Project description:Proteinaceous aggregates are major hallmarks of several neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregates of post-translationally modified transactive response (TAR)-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are characteristic features in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies have also reported TDP-43 aggregation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). TDP-43 is an RNA/DNA binding protein (RBP) mainly present in the nucleus. In addition to several RBPs, TDP-43 has also been reported in stress granules in FTD and ALS pathologies. Despite knowledge of cytoplasmic mislocalization of TDP-43, the cellular effects of TDP-43 aggregates and their cytotoxic mechanism(s) remain to be clarified. We hypothesize that TDP-43 forms oligomeric assemblies that associate with tau, another key protein involved in ALS and FTD. However, no prior studies have investigated the interactions between TDP-43 oligomers and tau. It is therefore important to thoroughly investigate the cross-seeding properties and cellular localization of both TDP-43 and tau oligomers in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we demonstrate the effect of tau on the cellular localization of TDP-43 in WT and P301L tau-inducible cell models (iHEK) and in WT HEK-293 cells treated exogenously with soluble human recombinant tau oligomers (Exo-rTauO). We observed cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation o in the presence of tau in these cell models. We also studied the occurrence of TDP-43 oligomers in AD, ALS, and FTD human brain tissue using novel antibodies generated against TDP-43 oligomers as well as generic TDP-43 antibodies. Finally, we examined the cross-seeding property of AD, ALS, and FTD brain-derived TDP-43 oligomers (BDT43Os) on tau aggregation using biochemical and biophysical assays. Our results allow us to speculate that TDP-43/tau interactions might play a role in AD, ALS, and FTD.
Project description:Deposits of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau are a hallmark of several dementias, including Alzheimer disease (AD), and about 10% of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD) cases are caused by mutations in the tau gene. As a known tau kinase, GSK3B is a promising candidate gene in the remaining cases of FTD and in AD, for which tau mutations have not been found.To examine the promoter of GSK3B and all 12 exons, including the surrounding intronic sequence, in patients with FTD, patients with AD, and aged healthy subjects to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with disease.Single-nucleotide polymorphism frequency was examined in a case-control cohort of 48 patients with probable AD, 102 patients with FTD, 38 patients with primary progressive aphasia, and 85 aged healthy subjects. Results were followed up in 2 independent AD family samples consisting of 437 multiplex families with AD (National Institute of Mental Health Genetics Initiative AD Study) or 150 sibships discordant for AD (Consortium on Alzheimer's Genetics Study).Several rare sequence variants in GSK3B were identified in the case-control study. An intronic polymorphism (IVS2-68G>A) occurred at more than twice the frequency among patients with FTD (10.8%) and patients with AD (14.6%) than in aged healthy subjects (4.1%). The polymorphism showed association with disease in both follow-up samples independently, although only the Consortium on Alzheimer's Genetics sample showed the same direction of association as the case-control sample.To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that a gene known to be involved in tau phosphorylation, GSK3B, is associated with risk for primary neurodegenerative dementias. This supports previous work in animal models suggesting that such genes are therapeutic targets.
Project description:Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are more prone to seizures and myoclonus, but relative risk of these symptoms among other dementia types is unknown.To determine incidence of seizures and myoclonus in the three most common neurodegenerative dementias: AD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).Our institution's medical records were reviewed for new-onset unprovoked seizures and myoclonus in patients meeting criteria for AD (n?=?1,320), DLB (n?=?178), and FTD (n?=?348). Cumulative probabilities of developing seizures and myoclonus were compared between diagnostic groups, whereas age-stratified incidence rates were determined relative to control populations.The cumulative probability of developing seizures after disease onset was 11.5% overall, highest in AD (13.4%) and DLB (14.7%) and lowest in FTD (3.0%). The cumulative probability of developing myoclonus was 42.1% overall, highest in DLB (58.1%). The seizure incidence rates, relative to control populations, were nearly 10-fold in AD and DLB, and 6-fold in FTD. Relative seizure rates increased with earlier age-at-onset in AD (age <50, 127-fold; 50-69, 21-fold; 70+, 2-fold) and FTD (age <50, 53-fold; 50-69, 9-fold), and relative myoclonus rates increased with earlier age-at-onset in all groups. Seizures began an average of 3.9 years after the onset of cognitive or motor decline, and myoclonus began 5.4 years after onset.Seizures and myoclonus occur with greater incidence in patients with AD, DLB, and FTD than in the general population, but rates vary with diagnosis, suggesting varied pathomechanisms of network hyperexcitability. Patients often experience these symptoms early in disease, suggesting hyperexcitability could be an important target for interventions.
Project description:In this multicentre study in clinical settings, we assessed the accuracy of optimized procedures for FDG-PET brain metabolism and CSF classifications in predicting or excluding the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and non-AD dementias.We included 80 MCI subjects with neurological and neuropsychological assessments, FDG-PET scan and CSF measures at entry, all with clinical follow-up. FDG-PET data were analysed with a validated voxel-based SPM method. Resulting single-subject SPM maps were classified by five imaging experts according to the disease-specific patterns, as "typical-AD", "atypical-AD" (i.e. posterior cortical atrophy, asymmetric logopenic AD variant, frontal-AD variant), "non-AD" (i.e. behavioural variant FTD, corticobasal degeneration, semantic variant FTD; dementia with Lewy bodies) or "negative" patterns. To perform the statistical analyses, the individual patterns were grouped either as "AD dementia vs. non-AD dementia (all diseases)" or as "FTD vs. non-FTD (all diseases)". A?42, total and phosphorylated Tau CSF-levels were classified dichotomously, and using the Erlangen Score algorithm. Multivariate logistic models tested the prognostic accuracy of FDG-PET-SPM and CSF dichotomous classifications. Accuracy of Erlangen score and Erlangen Score aided by FDG-PET SPM classification was evaluated.The multivariate logistic model identified FDG-PET "AD" SPM classification (Exp??=?19.35, 95% C.I. 4.8-77.8, p?<?0.001) and CSF A?42 (Exp??=?6.5, 95% C.I. 1.64-25.43, p?<?0.05) as the best predictors of conversion from MCI to AD dementia. The "FTD" SPM pattern significantly predicted conversion to FTD dementias at follow-up (Exp??=?14, 95% C.I. 3.1-63, p?<?0.001). Overall, FDG-PET-SPM classification was the most accurate biomarker, able to correctly differentiate either the MCI subjects who converted to AD or FTD dementias, and those who remained stable or reverted to normal cognition (Exp??=?17.9, 95% C.I. 4.55-70.46, p?<?0.001).Our results support the relevant role of FDG-PET-SPM classification in predicting progression to different dementia conditions in prodromal MCI phase, and in the exclusion of progression, outperforming CSF biomarkers.
Project description:The neuronal microtubule-associated protein tau, MAPT, is central to the pathogenesis of many dementias. Autosomal-dominant mutations in MAPT cause inherited frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. Using human stem cell models of FTD due to MAPT mutations, we find that tau becomes hyperphosphorylated and mislocalizes to cell bodies and dendrites in cortical neurons, recapitulating a key early event in FTD. Mislocalized tau in the cell body leads to abnormal microtubule movements in FTD-MAPT neurons that grossly deform the nuclear membrane. This results in defective nucleocytoplasmic transport, which is corrected by microtubule depolymerization. Neurons in the post-mortem human FTD-MAPT cortex have a high incidence of nuclear invaginations, indicating that tau-mediated nuclear membrane dysfunction is an important pathogenic process in FTD. Defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport in FTD point to important commonalities in the pathogenic mechanisms of tau-mediated dementias and ALS-FTD due to TDP-43 and C9orf72 mutations.
Project description:Widespread implementation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical settings requires improved accuracy for diagnosis of prodromal disease and for distinguishing AD from non-AD dementias. Novel and promising CSF biomarkers include neurogranin, a marker of synaptic degeneration, and YKL-40, a marker of neuroinflammation.CSF neurogranin and YKL-40 were measured in a cohort of 338 individuals including cognitively healthy controls and patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (sMCI), MCI who later developed AD (MCI-AD), AD dementia, Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), vascular dementia (VaD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The diagnostic accuracy of neurogranin and YKL-40 were compared with the core AD biomarkers, β-amyloid (Aβ42 and Aβ40) and tau.Neurogranin levels were increased in AD and decreased in non-AD dementia compared with healthy controls. As a result, AD patients showed considerably higher CSF levels of neurogranin than DLB/PDD, VaD and FTD patients. CSF YKL-40 levels were increased in AD compared with DLB/PDD but not with VaD or FTD. Neither CSF neurogranin nor YKL-40 levels differed significantly between sMCI patients and MCI-AD patients. Both biomarkers correlated positively with CSF Aβ40 and tau. CSF neurogranin and YKL-40 could separate AD dementia from non-AD dementias (neurogranin, area under the curve [AUC] = 0.761; YKL-40, AUC = 0.604; Aβ42/neurogranin, AUC = 0.849; Aβ42/YKL-40, AUC = 0.785), but the diagnostic accuracy was not better compared to CSF Aβ and tau (Aβ42, AUC = 0.755; tau AUC = 0.858; Aβ42/tau, AUC = 0.895; Aβ42/Aβ40, AUC = 0.881). Similar results were obtained when separating sMCI from MCI-AD cases.CSF neurogranin and YKL-40 do not improve the diagnostic accuracy of either prodromal AD or AD dementia when compared to the core CSF AD biomarkers. Nevertheless, the CSF level of neurogranin is selectively increased in AD dementia, whereas YKL-40 is increased in both AD and FTD suggesting that synaptic degeneration and glial activation may be important in these neurodegenerative conditions.
Project description:Recent findings have led to a renewed interest and support for an active role of inflammation in neurodegenerative dementias and related neurologic disorders. Detection of neuroinflammation in vivo throughout the course of neurodegenerative diseases is of great clinical interest. Studies have shown that microglia activation (an indicator of neuroinflammation) may present at early stages of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of FTD is largely unknown. The first-generation translocator protein (TSPO) ligand ([(11)C]-PK11195) has been used to detect microglia activation in FTD, and the second-generation TSPO ligands have imaged neuroinflammation in vivo with improved pharmacokinetic properties. This paper reviews related literature and technical issues on mapping neuroinflammation in FTD with positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. Early detection of neuroinflammation in FTD may identify new tools for diagnosis, novel treatment targets, and means to monitor therapeutic efficacy. More studies are needed to image and track neuroinflammation in FTD. It is anticipated that the advances of TSPO PET imaging will overcome technical difficulties, and molecular imaging of neuroinflammation will aid in the characterization of neuroinflammation in FTD. Such knowledge has the potential to shed light on the poorly understood pathogenesis of FTD and related dementias, and provide imaging markers to guide the development and assessment of new therapies.
Project description:Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive decline. The dementia type following PTSD is unclear.To assess whether PTSD is associated with a specific dementia.Prospective study: 46 PTSD patients (DSM-IV-TR) were followed for 6-10 years with clinical, neuropsychological, imaging evaluations for possible development of dementia.Retrospective study:849 dementia patients followed during 1999-2014 (509 Alzheimer's disease, AD; 207 dementia with Lewy bodies, DLB; 90 vascular dementia, VaD; 43 frontotemporal dementia, FTD) and 287 patients with any neurological condition (including patients with/without dementia) were evaluated for the presence of PTSD in their history.Prospective study: 8 patients developed dementia; 1 AD, 1 DLB, 6 semantic FTD (13.0% of the PTSD population). Retrospective study: 38 patients (4.5%) had a history of PTSD; 3.5% of AD, 4.3% of DLB, 14.0% of FTD, 5.6% of VaD. The percentage was higher in FTD than in AD or DLB (?2?=?10, p?=?0.001, and ?2?=?6, p?=?0.02). At difference with AD, DLB, or VaD, FTD incidence among dementia patients with PTSD history (38 patients) was higher than in the dementia population overall (16% versus 5%, ?2?=?8, p?=?0.005). The impact of possible demographical/clinical confounders (age, gender, MMSE) was excluded by Poisson regression. PTSD prevalence in the comparative group without dementia matched the prevalence in the Italian general population (1.1%). PTSD prevalence in the demented comparative group matched the prevalence in our dementia retrospective cohort, 3.7%).PTSD was associated with the development of semantic FTD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dementia is a growing public health concern with an estimated prevalence of 50 million people worldwide. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular and frontotemporal dementias (VaD, FTD), share many clinical, genetical, and pathological features making the diagnosis difficult. METHODS:In this study, we compared the transcriptome from the frontal cortex of patients with AD, VaD, and FTD to identify dysregulated pathways. RESULTS:Upregulated genes in AD were enriched in adherens and tight junctions, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways, whereas downregulated genes associated with calcium signaling. Upregulated genes in VaD were centered on infectious diseases and nuclear factor kappa beta signaling, whereas downregulated genes are involved in biosynthesis of amino acids and the pentose phosphate pathway. Upregulated genes in FTD were associated with ECM receptor interactions and the lysosome, whereas downregulated genes were involved in glutamatergic synapse and MAPK signaling. The transcription factor KFL4 was shared among the 3 types of dementia. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, we identified similarities and differences in dysregulated pathways and transcription factors among the dementias. The shared pathways and transcription factors may indicate a potential common etiology, whereas the differences may be useful for distinguishing dementias.