Gene Expression Profile of Resistant vs Sensitive Breast Cancer Tissues to Taxane Treatment
ABSTRACT: The present project aims to evaluate the gene expression profile of breast cancer tissue resistant to treatment with taxanes. Biopsies from tumor tissues were obtained from breast cancer patients without prior treatment. Histopathological analysis and ex vivo exposure to antineoplastic chemotherapeutics were carried out. Alamar Blue and lactate dehydrogenase release assays were performed for quantitative analysis of tumor viability after treatment and to asses the sensibility or resistant behaviour. Sensitive and resistant tumor tissues samples without prior exposure to therapeutic drugs were analyzed by gene expression microarrays. Overall design: Two resistant and two sensitive samples were analyzed by duplicated (for a total of 8 microarrays). Total RNA was isolated using the Rneasy Plus mini kit (Qiagen) and converted to doble stranded cDNA by the cDNA synthesis kit system (Roche). Doble stranded DNAs were label with Cy3 and hybridized to Gene expression arrays 12x35k (Roche) which consist of aproximately 132k probes for 42k genes.
INSTRUMENT(S): NimbleGen Homo sapiens HG18 expression array [100718_HG18_opt_expr_HX12] SEQ_ID condensed version
Project description:The taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) represent an important class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with microtubule function leading to altered mitosis and cellular death. Paclitaxel (Taxol(®)) was originally extracted from a yew tree (Taxus spp., Taxaceae) a small slow-growing evergreen, coniferous tree. Due to the initial scarcity of paclitaxel, docetaxel (Taxotere(®)) a semisynthetic analog of paclitaxel produced from the needles of European yew tree, Taxus baccata was developed. Docetaxel differs from paclitaxel in two positions in its chemical structure and this small alteration makes it more water soluble. Today, paclitaxel and docetaxel are widely prescribed antineoplastic agents for a broad range of malignancies including lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, and other carcinomas. Although very active clinically, paclitaxel and docetaxel have several clinical problems including poor drug solubility, serious dose-limiting toxicities such as myelosuppression, peripheral sensory neuropathy, allergic reactions, and eventual development of drug resistance. A number of these side effects have been associated with the solvents used for dilution of these antineoplastic agents: Cremophor EL for paclitaxel and polysorbate 80 for docetaxel. In addition, reports have linked these solvents to the alterations in paclitaxel and docetaxel pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, we provide preclinical and clinical data on several novel taxanes formulations and analogs which are currently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or in clinical development in various solid tumor malignancies. Of the new taxanes nab-paclitaxel and cabazitaxel have enjoyed clinical success and are FDA-approved; while many of the other compounds described in this review are unlikely to be further developed for clinical use in daily practice. Furthermore, the successful clinical emergence of novel nontaxane microtubule-targeting chemotherapy agents such as epothilones and eribulin is liable to further restrict the development of novel taxanes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Currently, one of the most used strategies for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer is neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the application of taxanes and anthracyclines. However, despite the high number of patients who develop a complete pathological clinical response, resistance and relapse following this therapy continue to be a clinical challenge. As a component of the innate immune system, the cytotoxic function of Natural Killer (NK) cells plays an important role in the elimination of tumor cells. However, the role of NK cells in resistance to systemic therapy in breast cancer remains unclear. The present project aims to evaluate the gene expression profile of human NK cells in breast cancer tissue resistant to treatment with taxanes-anthracyclines. METHODS:Biopsies from tumor tissues were obtained from patients with breast cancer without prior treatment. Histopathological analysis and ex vivo exposure to antineoplastic chemotherapeutics were carried out. Alamar blue and lactate dehydrogenase release assays were performed for quantitative analysis of tumor viability. Gene expression profiles from tumor tissues without prior exposure to therapeutic drugs were analyzed by gene expression microarrays and verified by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:A significant decrease in gene expression of cell-surface receptors related to NK cells was observed in tumor samples resistant to antineoplastic treatment compared with those that were sensitive to treatment. CONCLUSION:A decrease in NK cell infiltration into tumor tissue might be a predictive marker for failure of chemotherapeutic treatment in breast cancer.
Project description:Prostate cancer growth depends on androgen receptor signaling. Androgen ablation therapy induces expression of constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants that drive disease progression. Taxanes are a standard of care therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC); however, mechanisms underlying the clinical activity of taxanes are poorly understood. Recent work suggests that the microtubule network of prostate cells is critical for androgen receptor nuclear translocation and activity. In this study, we used a set of androgen receptor deletion mutants to identify the microtubule-binding domain of the androgen receptor, which encompasses the DNA binding domain plus hinge region. We report that two clinically relevant androgen receptor splice variants, ARv567 and ARv7, differentially associate with microtubules and dynein motor protein, thereby resulting in differential taxane sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. ARv7, which lacks the hinge region, did not co-sediment with microtubules or coprecipitate with dynein motor protein, unlike ARv567. Mechanistic investigations revealed that the nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of ARv7 was unaffected by taxane treatment. In contrast, the microtubule-interacting splice variant ARv567 was sensitive to taxane-induced microtubule stabilization. In ARv567-expressing LuCap86.2 tumor xenografts, docetaxel treatment was highly efficacious, whereas ARv7-expressing LuCap23.1 tumor xenografts displayed docetaxel resistance. Our results suggest that androgen receptor variants that accumulate in CRPC cells utilize distinct pathways of nuclear import that affect the antitumor efficacy of taxanes, suggesting a mechanistic rationale to customize treatments for patients with CRPC, which might improve outcomes.
Project description:Taxanes are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that inhibit cell division by disrupting the mitotic spindle through the stabilization of microtubules. Most breast cancer (BC) tumors show resistance against taxanes partially due to alterations in tubulin genes. In this project we investigated tubulin isoforms in BC to explore any correlation between tubulin alterations and taxane resistance. Genetic alteration and expression profiling of 28 tubulin isoforms in 6714 BC tumor samples from 4205 BC cases were analyzed. Protein-protein, drug-protein and alterations neighbor genes in tubulin pathways were examined in the tumor samples. To study correlation between promoter activity and expression of the tubulin isoforms in BC, we analyzed the ChIP-seq enrichment of active promoter histone mark H3K4me3 and mRNA expression profile of MCF-7, ZR-75-30, SKBR-3 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Potential correlation between tubulin alterations and taxane resistance, were investigated by studying the expression profile of taxane-sensitive and resistant BC tumors also the MDA-MB-231 cells acquired resistance to paclitaxel. All genomic data were obtained from public databases. Results showed that TUBD1 and TUBB3 were the most frequently amplified and deleted tubulin genes in the BC tumors respectively. The interaction analysis showed physical interactions of ?-, ?- and ?-tubulin isoforms with each other. The most of FDA-approved tubulin inhibitor drugs including taxanes target only ?-tubulins. The analysis also revealed sex tubulin-interacting neighbor proteins including ENCCT3, NEK2, PFDN2, PTP4A3, SDCCAG8 and TBCE which were altered in at least 20% of the tumors. Three of them are tubulin-specific chaperons responsible for tubulin protein folding. Expression of tubulin genes in BC cell lines were correlated with H3K4me3 enrichment on their promoter chromatin. Analyzing expression profile of BC tumors and tumor-adjacent normal breast tissues showed upregulation of TUBA1A, TUBA1C, TUBB and TUBB3 and downregulation of TUBB2A, TUBB2B, TUBB6, TUBB7P pseudogene, and TUBGCP2 in the tumor tissues compared to the normal breast tissues. Analyzing taxane-sensitive versus taxane-resistant tumors revealed that expression of TUBB3 and TUBB6 was significantly downregulated in the taxane-resistant tumors. Our results suggest that downregulation of tumor ?III- and ?V-tubulins is correlated with taxane resistance in BC. Based on our results, we conclude that aberrant protein folding of tubulins due to mutation and/or dysfunction of tubulin-specific chaperons may be potential mechanisms of taxane resistance. Thus, we propose studying the molecular pathology of tubulin mutations and folding in BC and their impacts on taxane resistance.
Project description:Taxanes, such as docetaxel and taxol, have been used as firstline chemotherapies in advanced lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), but limited responses to chemotherapy remain a major impediment in the clinic. Treatment with 5-azacytidine increases the sensitivity of SPC-A1/DTX cell line to taxanes. The results of DNA methylation microarray and cDNA array analysis indicate that DNA methylation contributes to the downregulation of secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1) in SPC-A1/DTX cells. Overexpression of SFRP1 reverses the chemoresistance of taxane-resistant LAD cell lines and enhances the in vivo sensitivity of taxane-resistant LAD cells to taxanes. Meanwhile, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated SFRP1 knockdown decreases the sensitivity of parental LAD cell lines to taxanes. Furthermore, FH535, a reversible Wnt signaling inhibitor, enhances the sensitivity of taxane-resistant LAD cells to taxanes. The level of SFRP1 in tumors of nonresponding patients is significantly lower than that in tumors of responders. Taken together, our results provide the direct evidence that SFRP1 is a clinically important determinant of taxanes resistance in human LAD cells, suggesting that SFRP1 might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of taxane-resistant LAD patients.
Project description:Prostate cancer progression requires active androgen receptor (AR) signaling which occurs following translocation of AR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Chemotherapy with taxanes improves survival in patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Taxanes induce microtubule stabilization, mitotic arrest, and apoptotic cell death, but recent data suggest that taxanes can also affect AR signaling. Here, we report that taxanes inhibit ligand-induced AR nuclear translocation and downstream transcriptional activation of AR target genes such as prostate-specific antigen. AR nuclear translocation was not inhibited in cells with acquired ?-tubulin mutations that prevent taxane-induced microtubule stabilization, confirming a role for microtubules in AR trafficking. Upon ligand activation, AR associated with the minus-end-microtubule motor dynein, thereby trafficking on microtubules to translocate to the nucleus. Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTC) isolated from the peripheral blood of CRPC patients receiving taxane chemotherapy revealed a significant correlation between AR cytoplasmic sequestration and clinical response to therapy. These results indicate that taxanes act in CRPC patients at least in part by inhibiting AR nuclear transport and signaling. Further, they suggest that monitoring AR subcellular localization in the CTCs of CRPC patients might predict clinical responses to taxane chemotherapy.
Project description:The taxane family of chemotherapy drugs has been used to treat a variety of mostly epithelial-derived tumors and remain the first-line treatment for some cancers. Despite the improved survival time and reduction of tumor size observed in some patients, many have no response to the drugs or develop resistance over time. Taxane resistance is multi-faceted and involves multiple pathways in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and the transport of foreign substances. In this review, we dive deeper into hypothesized resistance mechanisms from research during the last decade, with a focus on the cancer types that use taxanes as first-line treatment but frequently develop resistance to them. Furthermore, we will discuss current clinical inhibitors and those yet to be approved that target key pathways or proteins and aim to reverse resistance in combination with taxanes or individually. Lastly, we will highlight taxane response biomarkers, specific genes with monitored expression and correlated with response to taxanes, mentioning those currently being used and those that should be adopted. The future directions of taxanes involve more personalized approaches to treatment by tailoring drug-inhibitor combinations or alternatives depending on levels of resistance biomarkers. We hope that this review will identify gaps in knowledge surrounding taxane resistance that future research or clinical trials can overcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Taxanes such as paclitaxel and docetaxel are used successfully to treat breast cancer, usually in combination with other agents. They interfere with microtubules causing cell cycle arrest; however, the mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of taxanes are yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Isogenic paclitaxel resistant (PACR) MDA?MB?231, paclitaxel resistant ZR75?1 and docetaxel resistant (DOCR) ZR75?1 cell lines were generated by incrementally increasing taxane dose in native cell lines in vitro. We used aCGH analysis to identify mechanisms driving taxane resistance. RESULTS: Taxane resistant cell lines exhibited an 18-170 fold increased resistance to taxanes, with the ZR75-1 resistant cell lines also demonstrating cross resistance to anthracyclines. Paclitaxel treatment of native cells resulted in a G2/M block and a decrease in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, in the resistant cell lines, minimal changes were present. Functional network analysis revealed that the mitotic prometaphase was lost in the resistant cell lines. CONCLUSION: This study established a model system for examining taxane resistance and demonstrated that both MDR and mitosis represent common mechanism of taxane resistance.
Project description:Clusterin (CLU) is a stress-activated molecular chaperone that confers treatment resistance to taxanes when highly expressed. While CLU inhibition potentiates activity of taxanes and other anti-cancer therapies in preclinical models, progression to treatment-resistant disease still occurs implicating additional compensatory survival mechanisms. Taxanes are believed to selectively target cells in mitosis, a complex mechanism controlled in part by balancing antagonistic roles of Cdc25C and Wee1 in mitosis progression. Our data indicate that CLU silencing induces a constitutive activation of Cdc25C, which delays mitotic exit and hence sensitizes cancer cells to mitotic-targeting agents such as taxanes. Unchecked Cdc25C activation leads to mitotic catastrophe and cell death unless cells up-regulate protective mechanisms mediated through the cell cycle regulators Wee1 and Cdk1. In this study, we show that CLU silencing induces a constitutive activation of Cdc25C via the phosphatase PP2A leading to relief of negative feedback inhibition and activation of Wee1-Cdk1 to promote survival and limit therapeutic efficacy. Simultaneous inhibition of CLU-regulated cell cycle effector Wee1 may improve synergistic responses of biologically rational combinatorial regimens using taxanes and CLU inhibitors.
Project description:Both taxanes, docetaxel and cabazitaxel, are effective treatments for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, resistance to taxanes is common. Our objective was to investigate mechanisms of taxane resistance in prostate cancer.Two docetaxel-resistant patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of CRPC were established (PC339-DOC and PC346C-DOC) in male athymic nude mice by frequent intraperitoneal administrations of docetaxel. Next-generation sequencing was performed on PDX tissue pre- and post-docetaxel resistance and gene expression profiles were compared. [(14)C]-docetaxel and [(14)C]-cabazitaxel uptake assays in vitro and cytotoxicity assays were performed to validate direct involvement of transporter genes in taxane sensitivity.Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (SLCO1B3), an influx transporter of docetaxel, was significantly downregulated in PC346C-DOC tumours. In accordance with this finding, intratumoural concentrations of docetaxel and cabazitaxel were significantly decreased in PC346C-DOC as compared with levels in chemotherapy-naive PC346C tumours. In addition, silencing of SLCO1B3 in chemo-naive PC346C resulted in a two-fold decrease in intracellular concentrations of both taxanes. Overexpression of SLCO1B3 showed higher sensitivity to docetaxel and cabazitaxel.The SLCO1B3 determines intracellular concentrations of docetaxel and cabazitaxel and consequently influences taxane efficacy. Loss of the drug transporter SLCO1B3 may drive taxane resistance in prostate cancer.