Metabolomics Workbench ST000780 - GNPS - High fat diet and sciatic nerves functions
ABSTRACT: Six strain/genotype combinations (BKS wt, BKS db/+, ?) were fed control (5LOD) or high fat (54 % lard) chow from 5 to 36 weeks of age. Longitudinal changes in small and large nerve fiber function, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, body weight etc. were assessed in all groups
Project description:Six strain/genotype combinations (BKS wt, BKS db/+, ?) were fed control (5LOD) or high fat (54 % lard) chow from 5 to 36 weeks of age. Longitudinal changes in small and large nerve fiber function, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, body weight etc. were assessed in all groups
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Dietary guidelines for the past 20 years have recommended that dietary fat should be minimized. In contrast, recent studies have suggested that there could be some potential benefits for reducing carbohydrate intake in favor of increased fat. It has also been suggested that low-carbohydrate diets be recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether such diets can improve glycemic control will likely depend on their ability to improve ?-cell function, which has not been studied. The objective of the study was to assess whether a low-carbohydrate and therefore high-fat diet (LCHFD) is beneficial for improving the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose in prediabetic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. METHODS:NZO mice were maintained on either standard rodent chow or an LCHFD from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and blood glucose were assessed weekly. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also assessed after fasting and re-feeding and during an oral glucose tolerance test. The capacity of pancreatic ?-cells to secrete insulin was assessed in vivo with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. ?-Cell mass was assessed in histological sections of pancreata collected at the end of the study. RESULTS:In NZO mice, an LCHFD reduced plasma triglycerides (P=0.001) but increased weight gain (P<0.0001), adipose tissue mass (P=0.0015), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.044) and exacerbated glucose intolerance (P=0.013). Although fasting insulin levels tended to be higher (P=0.08), insulin secretory function in LCHFD-fed mice was not improved (P=0.93) nor was ?-cell mass (P=0.75). CONCLUSIONS:An LCHFD is unlikely to be of benefit for preventing the decline in ?-cell function associated with the progression of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Many people restrict their palatable food intake. In animal models, time-limiting access to palatable foods increases their intake while decreasing intake of less preferred alternatives; negative emotional withdrawal-like behavior is sometimes reported. In drug addiction models, intermittent extended access drives greater changes in use than brief access. When it comes to palatable food, the impact of briefer vs. longer access durations within intermittent access conditions remains unclear. Here, we provided male rats with chow or with weekday access to a preferred, sucrose-rich diet (PREF) (2, 4, or 8?h daily) with chow otherwise available. Despite normal energy intake, all restricted access conditions increased weight gain by 6 weeks and shifted diet acceptance within 1 week. They increased daily and 2-h intake of PREF with individual vulnerability and decreased chow intake. Rats with the briefest access had the greatest binge-like (2-h) intake, did not lose weight on weekends despite undereating chow, and were fattier by 12 weeks. Extended access rats (8?h) showed the greatest daily intake of preferred food and corresponding undereating of chow, slower weight gain when PREF was unavailable, and more variable daily energy intake from week to week. Increased fasting glucose was seen in 2-h and 8-h access rats. During acute withdrawal from PREF to chow diet, restricted access rats showed increased locomotor activity. Thus, intermittent access broadly promoted weight gain, fasting hyperglycemia and psychomotor arousal during early withdrawal. More restricted access promoted greater binge-like intake and fat accumulation, whereas longer access promoted evidence of greater food reward tolerance.
Project description:Background:The insulin-sensitizing phytocannabinoid, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) can signal partly via G-protein coupled receptor-55 (GPR55 behaving as either an agonist or an antagonist depending on the assay). The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) inverse agonist rimonabant is also a GPR55 agonist under some conditions. Previous studies have shown varied effects of deletion of GPR55 on energy balance and glucose homeostasis in mice. The contribution of signalling via GPR55 to the metabolic effects of THCV and rimonabant has been little studied. Methods:In a preliminary experiment, energy balance and glucose homeostasis were studied in GPR55 knockout and wild-type mice fed on both standard chow (to 20 weeks of age) and high fat diets (from 6 to 15 weeks of age). In the main experiment, all mice were fed on the high fat diet (from 6 to 14 weeks of age). In addition to replicating the preliminary experiment, the effects of once daily administration of THCV (15 mg kg-1 po) and rimonabant (10 mg kg-1 po) were compared in the two genotypes. Results:There was no effect of genotype on absolute body weight or weight gain, body composition measured by either dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), fat pad weights, food intake, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, glucose tolerance or insulin tolerance in mice fed on chow. When the mice were fed a high fat diet, there was again no effect of genotype on these various aspects of energy balance. However, in both experiments, glucose tolerance was worse in the knockout than the wild-type mice. Genotype did not affect insulin tolerance in either experiment. Weight loss in rimonabant- and THCV-treated mice was lower in knockout than in wild-type mice, but surprisingly there was no detectable effect of genotype on the effects of the drugs on any aspect of glucose homeostasis after taking into account the effect of genotype in vehicle-treated mice. Conclusions:Our two experiments differ from those reported by others in finding impaired glucose tolerance in GPR55 knockout mice in the absence of any effect on body weight, body composition, locomotor activity or energy expenditure. Nor could we detect any effect of genotype on insulin tolerance, so the possibility that GPR55 regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion merits further investigation. By contrast with the genotype effect in untreated mice, we found that THCV and rimonabant reduced weight gain, and this effect was in part mediated by GPR55.
Project description:The genetic variants near the Melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R), a key protein regulating energy balance and adiposity, have been related to obesity and glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess whether the MC4R genotype affected longitudinal changes in body weight and glucose metabolism biomarkers among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The MC4R genotype, postpartum weight reduction, and glycemic changes between after delivery and pregnancy were assessed in a cohort of 1208 Chinese women who had experienced GDM. The adiposity-increasing allele (C) of the MC4R variant rs6567160 was associated with greater postpartum increase of HbA1c (??=?0.08%; P?=?0.03) and 2-hour OGTT glucose concentrations (??=?0.25?mmol/L; P?=?0.02). In addition, we found an interaction between the MC4R genotype and postpartum weight reduction on changes in fasting plasma glucose (P-interaction?=?0.03). We found that the MC4R genotype was associated with postpartum glycemic changes; and the association with fasting glucose were significantly modified by postpartum weight reduction in women who had experienced GDM.
Project description:High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance, which may affect brain synaptic plasticity through impairment of insulin-sensitive processes underlying neuronal survival, learning, and memory. The experimental model consisted of 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice fed either a normal chow diet (control group) or a HFD (60% of calorie from fat; HFD group) for 12 weeks. This model was characterized as a function of time in terms of body weight, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, and plasma triglycerides. IRS-1/Akt pathway was assessed in primary hepatocytes and brain homogenates. The effect of HFD in brain was assessed by electrophysiology, input/output responses and long-term potentiation. HFD-fed mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight, higher fasting glucose- and insulin levels in plasma, lower glucose tolerance, and higher HOMA-IR values. In liver, HFD elicited (a) a significant decrease of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) phosphorylation on Tyr608 and increase of Ser307 phosphorylation, indicative of IRS-1 inactivation; (b) these changes were accompanied by inflammatory responses in terms of increases in the expression of NF?B and iNOS and activation of the MAP kinases p38 and JNK; (c) primary hepatocytes from mice fed a HFD showed decreased cellular oxygen consumption rates (indicative of mitochondrial functional impairment); this can be ascribed partly to a decreased expression of PGC1? and mitochondrial biogenesis. In brain, HFD feeding elicited (a) an inactivation of the IRS-1 and, consequentially, (b) a decreased expression and plasma membrane localization of the insulin-sensitive neuronal glucose transporters GLUT3/GLUT4; (c) a suppression of the ERK/CREB pathway, and (d) a substantial decrease in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of hippocampus (indicative of impaired synaptic plasticity). It may be surmised that 12 weeks fed with HFD induce a systemic insulin resistance that impacts profoundly on brain activity, i.e., synaptic plasticity.
Project description:To investigate the effects of ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng (kuding tea), a traditional beverage in China, on the metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diets.For the preventive experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet (Chow), high-fat diet (HF), and high-fat diet mixed with 0.05% ethanol extract of kuding tea (EK) for 5 weeks. For the therapeutic experiment, the C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet for 3 months, and then mice were split and EK was given with oral gavages for 2 weeks at 50 mg/day/kg. Body weight and daily food intake amounts were measured. At the end of treatment, the adipocyte images were assayed with a scanning electron microscope, and the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, serum lipid profile and lipids in the livers were analyzed. A reporter gene assay system was used to test the whether EK could act on nuclear receptor transcription factors, and the gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative PCR assay.In the preventive treatment, EK blocked the body weight gain, reduced the size of the adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, EK reduced the size of the white adipocytes, serum TG and fasting blood glucose levels in obese mice. With the reporter assay, EK inhibited LXR? transactivity and mRNA expression of LXR? target genes.We observed that EK has both preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders in mice induced with high-fat diets. The effects appear to be mediated through the antagonism of LXR? transactivity. Our data indicate that kuding tea is a useful dietary therapy and a potential source for the development of novel anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs.
Project description:Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD) fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD) or HFD. Similarly, Dusp6 expression levels were unchanged in selected brain regions of Lepob mice treated with 1 mg/kg of leptin for 6 days, compared to pair-fed or saline-treated Lepob controls. Dusp6 expression levels remained unaltered in vitro in primary adipocytes undergoing differentiation, but were increased in eWAT of HFD-fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, compared to chow-fed lean controls. Global chow-fed DUSP6 KO mice displayed reduced body weight and lean mass and slightly increased fat mass at a young age, which is indicative for early-age weight retardation. Subsequent exposure to HFD led to a significant increase in lean mass and body weight in DUSP6 deficient mice, compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, after 26 weeks of high-fat diet exposure, we observed comparable body weight, fat and lean mass in DUSP6 WT and KO mice, suggesting overall normal susceptibility to develop obesity. In line with the increased weight gain to compensate for early-age weight retardation, HFD-fed DUSP6 KO displayed increased expression levels of anabolic genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), compared to WT controls. Glucose tolerance was perturbed in both chow-fed lean or HFD-fed obese DUSP6 KO, compared to their respective WT controls. Overall, our data indicate that DUSP6 deficiency has limited impact on the regulation of energy metabolism, but impairs systemic glucose tolerance. Our data are in conflict to earlier reports that propose protection from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in DUSP6 deficient mice. Reasons for the discrepancies remain elusive, but may entail differential genetic backgrounds, environmental factors such as the type and source of HFD, or alterations in the gut microbiome between facilities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [also known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)] and its receptor (GIPR) may link overnutrition to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. A GIPR variant rs2287019 was recently associated with obesity and glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to examine whether weight-loss diets that vary in fat content may modify the effect of this variant on changes in body weight, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial. DESIGN:We genotyped the GIPR rs2287019 in 737 overweight adults who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 weight-loss diets that varied in macronutrient contents for 2 y. We assessed the percentage changes in body weight, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) across genotypes by the low-fat and high-fat diets. RESULTS:At 6 mo of diet intervention, the T allele of rs2287019 was associated with greater weight loss (? ± SE: -1.05 ± 0.56%; P = 0.06) and greater decreases in fasting glucose (? ± SE: -2.33 ± 0.86%; P = 0.006), fasting insulin (? ± SE: -8.76 ± 4.13%; P = 0.03), and HOMA-IR (? ± SE: -10.52 ± 4.39%; P = 0.01) in participants who were assigned to low-fat diets, whereas there was no significant genotype effect on changes in these traits in the group assigned to the high-fat diet (all P > 0.44; P-interaction = 0.08, 0.04, 0.10, and 0.07, respectively). After correction for multiple tests (significant P = 0.008), the genotype effect on changes in fasting glucose remained significant. Sensitivity analysis in white participants showed that the interactions were more evident on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR (P-interaction < 0.008). CONCLUSION:The T allele of GIPR rs2287019 is associated with greater improvement of glucose homeostasis in individuals who choose a low-fat, high-carbohydrate, and high-fiber diet. The POUNDS LOST trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.
Project description:Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterised by hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, which might progress to cirrhosis. Human NASH is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Currently, rodent NASH models either lack significant fibrosis or MS. ApoE(-/-) mice are a MS model used in cardiovascular research. The aim of this work was to establish and characterise a novel mouse NASH model with significant fibrosis and MS. ApoE(-/-) and wild-type mice (wt) were fed either a western-diet (WD), methionine-choline-deficient-diet (MCD) or normal chow. Liver histology, RT-PCR, hepatic hydroxyproline content, triglycerides and cholesterol levels, and fasting glucose levels assessed hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Further, portal pressure was measured invasively, and kidney pathology was assessed by histology. ApoE(-/-) mice receiving WD showed abnormal glucose tolerance, hepatomegaly, weight gain and full spectrum of NASH including hepatic steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation, with no sign of renal damage. MCD-animals showed less severe liver fibrosis, but detectable renal pathological changes, besides weight loss and unchanged glucose tolerance. This study describes a murine NASH model with distinct hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, without renal pathology. ApoE(-/-) mice receiving WD represent a novel and fast model with all characteristic features of NASH and MS well suitable for NASH research.