GNPS AdipoAtlas: A Reference Lipidome for Human White Adipose Tissue
ABSTRACT: Global lipidome profiling of the human white adipose tissue lipidome was performed using an optimized lipid extraction and fractionation protocol. Several chromatographic separation modes (HILIC, C18 RPC, C30 RPC) were used to enable highest resolution of polar, amphiphilic and unpolar lipids. Two MS platforms (QExactive; Orbitrap Fusion Lumos) were used in various acquisition modes (DDA, Acquire X, PRM) to allow for the highest possible identification rates. Subsequently the global lipidome of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese individuals was quantified by MS (full MS on QExactive in positive and negative polarity and PRM in positive polarity).
INSTRUMENT(S): Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, Q Exactive Plus
Project description:Summary Obesity, characterized by expansion and metabolic dysregulation of white adipose tissue (WAT), has reached pandemic proportions and acts as a primer for a wide range of metabolic disorders. Remodeling of WAT lipidome in obesity and associated comorbidities can explain disease etiology and provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic markers. To support understanding of WAT lipidome remodeling at the molecular level, we provide in-depth lipidomics profiling of human subcutaneous and visceral WAT of lean and obese individuals. We generate a human WAT reference lipidome by performing tissue-tailored preanalytical and analytical workflows, which allow accurate identification and semi-absolute quantification of 1,636 and 737 lipid molecular species, respectively. Deep lipidomic profiling allows identification of main lipid (sub)classes undergoing depot-/phenotype-specific remodeling. Previously unanticipated diversity of WAT ceramides is now uncovered. AdipoAtlas reference lipidome serves as a data-rich resource for the development of WAT-specific high-throughput methods and as a scaffold for systems medicine data integration. Graphical abstract Highlights AdipoAtlas provides a reference lipidome of human white adipose tissue 1,636 and 737 lipids were identified and quantified by tissue tailored LC-MS lipidomics AdipoAtlas demonstrates prominent differences between subcutaneous and visceral tissue depots Obesity leads to the remodeling of sphingo-, ether-, and neutral lipid metabolism Lange et al. report a reference lipidome of human white adipose tissue by providing qualitative and quantitative analyses of lipid compositions in lean and obese states for subcutaneous and visceral depots. Several key events of lipidome remodeling in obesity are identified within the metabolism of sphingo-, ether-, and neutral lipids.
Project description:Fatty acid synthase (FASN) predominantly generates straight-chain fatty acids using acetyl-CoA as the initiating substrate. However, monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are also present in mammals but are thought to be primarily diet derived. Here we demonstrate that mmBCFAs are de novo synthesized via mitochondrial BCAA catabolism, exported to the cytosol by adipose-specific expression of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), and elongated by FASN. Brown fat exhibits the highest BCAA catabolic and mmBCFA synthesis fluxes, whereas these lipids are largely absent from liver and brain. mmBCFA synthesis is also sustained in the absence of microbiota. We identify hypoxia as a potent suppressor of BCAA catabolism that decreases mmBCFA synthesis in obese adipose tissue, such that mmBCFAs are significantly decreased in obese animals. These results identify adipose tissue mmBCFA synthesis as a novel link between BCAA metabolism and lipogenesis, highlighting roles for CrAT and FASN promiscuity influencing acyl-chain diversity in the lipidome.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Shotgun lipidomics enables an extensive analysis of lipids from tissues and fluids. Each specimen requires appropriate extraction and processing procedures to ensure good coverage and reproducible quantification of the lipidome. Adipose tissue (AT) has become a research focus with regard to its involvement in obesity-related pathologies. However, the quantification of the AT lipidome is particularly challenging due to the predominance of triacylglycerides, which elicit high ion suppression of the remaining lipid classes.<h4>Methods</h4>We present a new and validated method for shotgun lipidomics of AT, which tailors the lipid extraction procedure to the target specimen and features high reproducibility with a linear dynamic range of at least 4 orders of magnitude for all lipid classes.<h4>Results</h4>Utilizing this method, we observed tissue-specific and diet-related differences in three AT types (brown, gonadal, inguinal subcutaneous) from lean and obese mice. Brown AT exhibited a distinct lipidomic profile with the greatest lipid class diversity and responded to high-fat diet by altering its lipid composition, which shifted towards that of white AT. Moreover, diet-induced obesity promoted an overall remodeling of the lipidome, where all three AT types featured a significant increase in longer and more unsaturated triacylglyceride and phospholipid species.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The here presented method facilitates reproducible systematic lipidomic profiling of AT and could be integrated with further -omics approaches used in (pre-) clinical research, in order to advance the understanding of the molecular metabolic dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated disorders.
Project description:Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and phosphatidylserines (PS) in scWAT and increase specific molecular species of PC and PE in BAT. Exercise also decreases most triacylglycerols (TAGs) in scWAT and BAT. In summary, exercise-induced changes to the scWAT and BAT lipidome are highly specific to certain molecular lipid species, indicating that changes in tissue lipid content reflect selective remodeling in scWAT and BAT of both phospholipids and glycerol lipids in response to exercise training, thus providing a comprehensive resource for future studies of lipid metabolism pathways.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling has been implicated in cardiovascular and obesity-related metabolic disease. However, the distribution and regulation of LPA receptors in the myocardium and adipose tissue remain unclear.This study aimed to characterize the mRNA expression of LPA receptors (LPA1-6) in the murine and human myocardium and adipose tissue, and its regulation in response to obesity.LPA receptor mRNA levels were determined by qPCR in i) heart ventricles, isolated cardiomyocytes, and perigonadal adipose tissue from chow or high fat-high sucrose (HFHS)-fed male C57BL/6 mice, ii) 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HL-1 cardiomyocytes under conditions mimicking gluco/lipotoxicity, and iii) human atrial and subcutaneous adipose tissue from non-obese, pre-obese, and obese cardiac surgery patients.LPA1-6 were expressed in myocardium and white adipose tissue from mice and humans, except for LPA3, which was undetectable in murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue. Obesity was associated with increased LPA4, LPA5 and/or LPA6 levels in mice ventricles and cardiomyocytes, HL-1 cells exposed to high palmitate, and human atrial tissue. LPA4 and LPA5 mRNA levels in human atrial tissue correlated with measures of obesity. LPA5 mRNA levels were increased in HFHS-fed mice and insulin resistant adipocytes, yet were reduced in adipose tissue from obese patients. LPA4, LPA5, and LPA6 mRNA levels in human adipose tissue were negatively associated with measures of obesity and cardiac surgery outcomes. This study suggests that obesity leads to marked changes in LPA receptor expression in the murine and human heart and white adipose tissue that may alter LPA receptor signaling during obesity.
Project description:Thoracic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose depot that likely influences vascular function and susceptibility to pathogenesis in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, PVAT has been reported to share characteristics of both brown and white adipose, but a detailed direct comparison to interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) has not been performed. Here we show by full genome DNA microarray analysis that global gene expression profiles of PVAT are virtually identical to BAT, with equally high expression of Ucp-1, Cidea and other genes known to be uniquely or very highly expressed in BAT. PVAT and BAT also displayed nearly identical phenotypes upon immunohistochemical analysis, and electron microscopy confirmed that PVAT contained multilocular lipid droplets and abundant mitochondria. Compared to white adipose tissue (WAT), PVAT and BAT from C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet for 13 weeks had markedly lower expression of immune cell-enriched mRNAs, suggesting resistance to obesity-induced inflammation. Indeed, staining of BAT and PVAT for macrophage markers (F4/80, CD68) in obese mice showed virtually no macrophage infiltration, and FACS analysis of BAT confirmed the presence of very few CD11b+/CD11c+ macrophages in BAT (1.0%) in comparison to WAT (31%). In summary, murine PVAT from the thoracic aorta is virtually identical to interscapular BAT, is resistant to diet-induced macrophage infiltration, and thus may play an important role in protecting the vascular bed from thermal and inflammatory stress. 8-week-old male C57BL6/J mice were fed a normal (ND) or high fat diet (HFD) (Research Diets 12451, 45 kcal% fat) for 13 weeks. Mice were then euthanized and four different adipose depots were harvested for RNA analysis: perivascular fat from the lesser curvature of the aortic arch (PVAT), interscapular brown adipose (BAT), inguinal adipose tissue (SAT), and epididymal adipose tissue (VAT). 250 ng total RNA pooled from two mice was used for cDNA synthesis; 3 biological replicates per tissue and diet were performed for a total of 24 hybridizations.
Project description:There is a clear link between overweight, gain of white adipose tissue, and diabetes type 2 (T2D). The molecular mechanism of the gain of adipose tissue is linked with the expression of high mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), and recent studies revealed an association with a SNP near HMGA2. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of HMGA2, p14 (Arf) , CDKN1A, and BAX in human abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue from 157 patients. We found a significant higher HMGA2 expression in obese individuals than in non-obese patients. Furthermore, the HMGA2 expression in white adipose tissue in patient with type 2 diabetes was significantly higher than in nondiabetic patients. There is an association between the DNA-binding nonhistone protein HMGA2 and the risk of developing T2D that remains mechanistically unexplained so far. Likewise, p14(Arf), an inducer of cellular senescence, has been associated with the occurrence of T2D. The data of the present study provide evidence that both proteins act within the same network to drive proliferation of adipose tissue stem and precursor cells, senescence, and increased risk of T2D, respectively.
Project description:The circadian clock component REVERBα is considered a dominant regulator of lipid metabolism, with global Reverbα deletion driving dysregulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipogenesis and obesity. However, a similar phenotype is not observed under adipocyte-selective deletion (ReverbαFlox2-6AdipoCre), and transcriptional profiling demonstrates that, under basal conditions, direct targets of REVERBα regulation are limited, and include the circadian clock and collagen dynamics. Under high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, ReverbαFlox2-6AdipoCre mice do manifest profound obesity, yet without the accompanying WAT inflammation and fibrosis exhibited by controls. Integration of the WAT REVERBα cistrome with differential gene expression reveals broad control of metabolic processes by REVERBα which is unmasked in the obese state.
Project description:Obesity may result from altered fatty acid (FA) disposal. Altered FA distribution in obese individuals is poorly understood. Lean wild-type C57BL/6J and obese C57BL/6Job/ob mice received an oral dose of [1-(14)C]18:1n-9 (oleic acid), and the radioactivity in tissues was evaluated at various time points. The (14)C concentration decreased rapidly in gastrointestinal tract but gradually increased and peaked at 96 h in adipose tissue, muscle and skin in lean mice. The (14)C concentration was constant in adipose tissue and muscle of obese mice from 4 h to 168 h. (14)C-label content in adipose tissue was significantly affected by genotype, whereas muscle (14)C-label content was affected by genotype, time and the interaction between genotype and time. There was higher total (14)C retention (47.7%) in obese mice than in lean mice (9.0%) at 168 h (P<0.05). The (14)C concentrations in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle were higher in obese mice than in lean mice (P<0.05). Perirenal adipose tissue contained the highest (14)C content in lean mice, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) had the highest (14)C content and accounted for the largest proportion of total radioactivity among fat depots in obese mice. More lipid radioactivity was recovered as TAG in SAT from obese mice than from lean mice (P<0.05). Gene expression suggested acyl CoA binding protein and fatty acid binding protein are important for FA distribution in adipose tissue and muscle. The FA distribution in major tissues was altered in ob/ob mice, perhaps contributing to obesity. Understanding the disparity in FA disposal between lean and obese mice may reveal novel targets for the treatment and prevention of obesity.
Project description:Adipose tissue lipolysis occurs during the development of heart failure as a consequence of chronic adrenergic stimulation. However, the impact of enhanced adipose triacylglycerol hydrolysis mediated by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on cardiac function is unclear. To investigate the role of adipose tissue lipolysis during heart failure, we generated mice with tissue-specific deletion of ATGL (atATGL-KO). atATGL-KO mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure-mediated cardiac failure. The cardiac mouse lipidome and the human plasma lipidome from healthy controls (n = 10) and patients with systolic heart failure (HFrEF, n = 13) were analyzed by MS-based shotgun lipidomics. TAC-induced increases in left ventricular mass (LVM) and diastolic LV inner diameter were significantly attenuated in atATGL-KO mice compared to wild type (wt) -mice. More importantly, atATGL-KO mice were protected against TAC-induced systolic LV failure. Perturbation of lipolysis in the adipose tissue of atATGL-KO mice resulted in the prevention of the major cardiac lipidome changes observed after TAC in wt-mice. Profound changes occurred in the lipid class of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in which multiple PE-species were markedly induced in failing wt-hearts, which was attenuated in atATGL-KO hearts. Moreover, selected heart failure-induced PE species in mouse hearts were also induced in plasma samples from patients with chronic heart failure. TAC-induced cardiac PE induction resulted in decreased PC/ PE-species ratios associated with increased apoptotic marker expression in failing wt-hearts, a process absent in atATGL-KO hearts. Perturbation of adipose tissue lipolysis by ATGL-deficiency ameliorated pressure-induced heart failure and the potentially deleterious cardiac lipidome changes that accompany this pathological process, namely the induction of specific PE species. Non-cardiac ATGL-mediated modulation of the cardiac lipidome may play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure.