Project description:The study of disease-associated immune biomarkers has revealed underlying pathogenic mechanisms and provided diagnostic and prognostic values in numerous clinical settings. Accurate immune profiling of normal age and sex demographics is crucial for understanding the relevance of disease biomarkers. The incidence of age-associated diseases in the elderly and prevalence of diseases in specific genders may be explained by these normal phenotypic variation in the cellular immune system. Here we use microarrays of cluster of differentiation (CD) antibodies to immunophenotype populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy adult blood donors. The data revealed a set of statistically significant age- and gender-dependent expression patterns across the study population. We identified functional differences in immune biomarkers on PBMC associated with major innate, adaptive and inflammatory immune functions. The CD array data supported established observations using flow cytometric methods on age-associated changes in immune biomarkers, while also identifying novel markers associated with age and/or gender. The data demonstrates the utility of CD antibody arrays in providing a systematic and quantitative basis for understanding the development and progression of diseases that have an age-dependent and gender-specific etiology. Blood samples were collected from healthy male and female blood donors acrooss various age groups, predominantly Caucasians, from the Australian Red Cross Blood Service, Sydney, Australia, and from elderly males enrolled in the Concord Health and Aging in Men Project (CHAMP) at Concord Hospital, Sydney, Australia. PBMCs were fractionated from whole blood and applied to a cell capture CD antibody microarray. The microarray was then scaned by a DotScan™ slide reader (Medsaic; Eveleigh, NSW, Australia). The number of immobilized cells was proportional to the light scattered at each antibody spot. Binding of PBMCs to each antibody dot was monitored by light scatter and averaged between the duplicate spots on each slide. We then performed statistical analysis to identify CD antigen markers that has an statistically significant association with age and/or gender
Project description:Introduction. The microarray datasets from the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) project have enabled the assessment of the precision, comparability of microarrays, and other various microarray analysis methods. However, to date no studies that we are aware of have reported the performance of missing value imputation schemes on the MAQC datasets. In this study, we use the MAQC Affymetrix datasets to evaluate several imputation procedures in Affymetrix microarrays. Results. We evaluated several cutting edge imputation procedures and compared them using different error measures. We randomly deleted 5% and 10% of the data and imputed the missing values using imputation tests. We performed 1000 simulations and averaged the results. The results for both 5% and 10% deletion are similar. Among the imputation methods, we observe the local least squares method with k = 4 is most accurate under the error measures considered. The k-nearest neighbor method with k = 1 has the highest error rate among imputation methods and error measures. Conclusions. We conclude for imputing missing values in Affymetrix microarray datasets, using the MAS 5.0 preprocessing scheme, the local least squares method with k = 4 has the best overall performance and k-nearest neighbor method with k = 1 has the worst overall performance. These results hold true for both 5% and 10% missing values.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Shotgun metagenomics based on untargeted sequencing can explore the taxonomic profile and the function of unknown microorganisms in samples, and complement the shortage of amplicon sequencing. Binning assembled sequences into individual groups, which represent microbial genomes, is the key step and a major challenge in metagenomic research. Both supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods have been employed in binning. Genome binning belonging to unsupervised method clusters contigs into individual genome bins by machine learning methods without the assistance of any reference databases. So far a lot of genome binning tools have emerged. Evaluating these genome tools is of great significance to microbiological research. In this study, we evaluate 15 genome binning tools containing 12 original binning tools and 3 refining binning tools by comparing the performance of these tools on chicken gut metagenomic datasets and the first CAMI challenge datasets.<h4>Results</h4>For chicken gut metagenomic datasets, original genome binner MetaBat, Groopm2 and Autometa performed better than other original binner, and MetaWrap combined the binning results of them generated the most high-quality genome bins. For CAMI datasets, Groopm2 achieved the highest purity (>?0.9) with good completeness (>?0.8), and reconstructed the most high-quality genome bins among original genome binners. Compared with Groopm2, MetaBat2 had similar performance with higher completeness and lower purity. Genome refining binners DASTool predicated the most high-quality genome bins among all genomes binners. Most genome binner performed well for unique strains. Nonetheless, reconstructing common strains still is a substantial challenge for all genome binner.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In conclusion, we tested a set of currently available, state-of-the-art metagenomics hybrid binning tools and provided a guide for selecting tools for metagenomic binning by comparing range of purity, completeness, adjusted rand index, and the number of high-quality reconstructed bins. Furthermore, available information for future binning strategy were concluded.
Project description:Multi-temporal, globally consistent, high-resolution human population datasets provide consistent and comparable population distributions in support of mapping sub-national heterogeneities in health, wealth, and resource access, and monitoring change in these over time. The production of more reliable and spatially detailed population datasets is increasingly necessary due to the importance of improving metrics at sub-national and multi-temporal scales. This is in support of measurement and monitoring of UN Sustainable Development Goals and related agendas. In response to these agendas, a method has been developed to assemble and harmonise a unique, open access, archive of geospatial datasets. Datasets are provided as global, annual time series, where pertinent at the timescale of population analyses and where data is available, for use in the construction of population distribution layers. The archive includes sub-national census-based population estimates, matched to a geospatial layer denoting administrative unit boundaries, and a number of co-registered gridded geospatial factors that correlate strongly with population presence and density. Here, we describe these harmonised datasets and their limitations, along with the production workflow. Further, we demonstrate applications of the archive by producing multi-temporal gridded population outputs for Africa and using these to derive health and development metrics. The geospatial archive is available at https://doi.org/10.5258/SOTON/WP00650.
Project description:These datasets described the data of the Motor Performance Index for 7 years old kids in Malaysia based on Malaysia's physical fitness test SEGAK. This database has been designed and created with data analysis to create the index from the factor and variable of the test and the test was conducted in the majority of the national primary school in Malaysia. Gender, state of origin, and residential location of the school were the factors used to categorize the participant of the test. The factor of age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), power, flexibility, coordination, and speed were used for the measurement to relate with the participant's physical fitness. Kids Motor Performances Index data can be reused for talent identification in sport talent scout and to create a baseline for kid's biology growth specifically in gross motor skills and cognitive growth measurement.