Project description:Gene expression is controlled by the complex interaction of transcription factors binding to promoters and other regulatory DNA elements. One common characteristic of the genomic regions associated with regulatory proteins is a pronounced sensitivity to DNase I digestion. We generated genome-wide high resolution maps of DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites from both seedling and callus tissues of rice. Approximately 25% of the DH sites from both tissues were found in the putative promoters, indicating that the vast majority of gene regulatory elements in rice are not located at promoter regions. We found 58% more DH sites in callus than in seedling. For DH sites detected in both seedling and callus, 31% displayed significantly different levels of DNase I sensitivity within the two tissues. Genes that were differentially expressed in seedling and callus were frequently associated with DH sites in both tissues. The DNA sequences contained within the DH sites were hypomethylated, consistent with what is known about active gene regulatory elements. Interestingly, tissue-specific DH sites located in the promoters showed an elevated level of DNA methylation. A distinct elevation of H3K27me3 was associated with intergenic DH sites. These results suggest that epigenetic modifications play a role in the dynamic changes of the numbers and DNase I sensitivity of DH sites during development. Generation of genome-wide high resolution maps of DNase I hypersensitive sites in two tissues of rice. For seedling, we constructed 3 libraries (biological replicates) and sequenced a lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer for each library. For callus, we constructed 2 libraries (biological replicates). We sequenced two lanes for one library and one lane for another library.
Project description:This model is decribed in the article:
Dilution and titration of cell-cycle regulators may control cell size in budding yeast
Frank S. Heldt, Reece Lunstone, John J. Tyson, Bela Novak
PLoS Comput Biol, October 2018, 14(10), e1006548, doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006548
The size of a cell sets the scale for all biochemical processes within it, thereby affecting cellular fitness and survival. Hence, cell size needs to be kept within certain limits and relatively constant over multiple generations. However, how cells measure their size and use this information to regulate growth and division remains controversial. Here, we present two mechanistic mathematical models of the budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) cell cycle to investigate competing hypotheses on size control: inhibitor dilution and titration of nuclear sites. Our results suggest that an inhibitor-dilution mechanism, in which cell growth dilutes the transcriptional inhibitor Whi5 against the constant activator Cln3, can facilitate size homeostasis. This is achieved by utilising a positive feedback loop to establish a fixed size threshold for the START transition, which efficiently couples cell growth to cell cycle progression. Yet, we show that inhibitor dilution cannot reproduce the size of mutants that alter the cell’s overall ploidy and WHI5 gene copy number. By contrast, size control through titration of Cln3 against a constant number of genomic binding sites for the transcription factor SBF recapitulates both size homeostasis and the size of these mutant strains. Moreover, this model produces an imperfect ‘sizer’ behaviour in G1 and a ‘timer’ in S/G2/M, which combine to yield an ‘adder’ over the whole cell cycle; an observation recently made in experiments. Hence, our model connects these phenomenological data with the molecular details of the cell cycle, providing a systems-level perspective of budding yeast size control.
Project description:DNA sequence is a major determinant of the binding specificity of transcription factors (TFs) for their genomic targets. However, eukaryotic cells often express, at the same time, TFs with highly similar DNA binding motifs but distinct in vivo targets. Currently, it is not well understood how TFs with seemingly identical DNA motifs achieve unique specificities in vivo. Here, we used custom protein binding microarrays to analyze TF specificity for putative binding sites in their genomic sequence context. Using yeast TFs Cbf1 and Tye7 as our case study, we found that binding sites of these bHLH TFs (i.e., E-boxes) are bound differently in vitro and in vivo, depending on their genomic context. Computational analyses suggest that nucleotides outside E-box binding sites contribute to specificity by influencing the 3D structure of DNA binding sites. Thus, local shape of target sites might play a widespread role in achieving regulatory specificity within TF families. Two protein binding microarray (PBM) experiments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factors were performed. Briefly, the PBMs involved binding GST-tagged yeast transcription factors Cbf1 and Tye7 to double-stranded 44K Agilent microarrays in order to determine the accuracy of our regression models for TF-DNA binding specificity. Briefly, this array contains 30-bp genomic sequences from our initial custom array (Gordan et al 2013, submitted), with 0 through 4 mutations designed at various positions in the genomic sequences. Each sequence in represented in 6 replicate spots. We report the PBM signal intensity for each spot. The PBM protocol is described in Berger et al., Nature Biotechnology 2006 (PMID 16998473).
Project description:DNA sequence is a major determinant of the binding specificity of transcription factors (TFs) for their genomic targets. However, eukaryotic cells often express, at the same time, TFs with highly similar DNA binding motifs but distinct in vivo targets. Currently, it is not well understood how TFs with seemingly identical DNA motifs achieve unique specificities in vivo. Here, we used custom protein binding microarrays to analyze TF specificity for putative binding sites in their genomic sequence context. Using yeast TFs Cbf1 and Tye7 as our case study, we found that binding sites of these bHLH TFs (i.e., E-boxes) are bound differently in vitro and in vivo, depending on their genomic context. Computational analyses suggest that nucleotides outside E-box binding sites contribute to specificity by influencing the 3D structure of DNA binding sites. Thus, local shape of target sites might play a widespread role in achieving regulatory specificity within TF families. Three protein binding microarray (PBM) experiments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factors were performed. Briefly, the PBMs involved binding GST-tagged yeast transcription factors Cbf1 and Tye7 to double-stranded 44K Agilent microarrays in order to determine their binding specificity for putative DNA binding sites in native genomic context. Briefly, we represent three categories of 30-bp genomic sequences: 1) ChIP-chip bound probes, 2) ChIP-chip unbound probes, and 3) negative control probes. ChIP-chip bound probes corresponded to genomic regions bound in vivo by Cbf1 or Tye7 (ChIP-chip P < 0.005 in rich medium (YPD) (Harbison et al., Nature 2004, PMID 15343339)) contained at least two consecutive 8-mers with universal PBM E-score > 0.35 (Zhu et al., Genome Research 2009, PMID 19158363). All putative binding sites occurred at the same position within the probes on the array. “ChIP-chip unbound” probes corresponded to genomic regions with ChIP-chip P > 0.5 and at least two consecutive 8-mers at a more stringent universal PBM E-score threshold of 0.4. Negative control probes corresponded to S. cerevisiae intergenic regions with a maximum 8-mer E-score < 0.3. We also designed probes that contain, within constant flanking regions, all 10-bp sequences that occur within the “ChIP-chip bound” probes and contain the E-box CACGTG, but are flanked by synthetic rather than native genomic sequence. Each DNA sequence represented on the array is present in 4 replicate spots. We report the PBM signal intensity for each spot. The PBM protocol is described in Berger et al., Nature Biotechnology 2006 (PMID 16998473).
Project description:We used ChIP-seq to examine the genome-wide binding of Nup98-HoxA9 and Crm1 in ES cells. Our analysis revealed that Nup98-HoxA9 is highly and preferentially targeted to specific chromatin sites, particularly near Hox cluster regions where the export factor Crm1 is originally prebound. chromatin immunoprecipitation
Project description:Despite the global importance of forests, it is virtually unknown how their soil microbial communities adapt at the phylogenetic and functional level to long term metal pollution. Studying twelve sites located along two distinct gradients of metal pollution in Southern Poland revealed that both community composition (via MiSeq Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes) and functional gene potential (using GeoChip 4.2) were highly similar across the gradients despite drastically diverging metal contamination levels. Metal pollution level significantly impacted microbial community structure (p = 0.037), but not bacterial taxon richness. Metal pollution altered the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Also, a group of metal resistance genes showed significant correlations with metal concentrations in soil, although no clear impact of metal pollution levels on overall functional diversity and structure of microbial communities was observed. While screens of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA, provided only limited insight into resilience mechanisms, analysis of specific functional genes, e.g. involved in metal resistance, appeared to be a more promising strategy. This study showed that the effect of metal pollution on soil microbial communities was not straightforward, but could be filtered out from natural variation and habitat factors by multivariate statistical analysis and spatial sampling involving separate pollution gradients. 12 samples were collected from two long-term polluted areas (Olkusz and Miasteczko Śląskie) in Southern Poland. In the study presented here, a consecutively operated, well-defined cohort of 50 NSCLC cases, followed up more than five years, was used to acquire expression profiles of a total of 8,644 unique genes, leading to the successful construction of supervised
Project description:The nuclear scaffold, consisting of structural and functional nuclear proteins, remains after extraction of nuclei and anchors loops of DNA. In the search for cis-elements functioning as chromatin domain boundaries, we mapped 453 nuclear scaffold attachment sites purified by lithium-3,5-iodosalicylate from HeLa cells across 30 Mb of the human genome studied by the ENCODE pilot project. The scaffold attachment sites recovered mapped predominately near expressed genes and localized near transcription start sites and the ends of genes. Overall design: Nuclear scaffold associated DNA was purfied from lithium-diiodosalicylate extracted HeLa nuclei by digestion with EcoRI/HindIII/HaeIII restriction enzymes. Nuclear scaffold DNA from three independent biological replicates and total genomic DNA digested with EcoRI and HindIII were biotin labeled and hybridized to ENCODE01-F (P/N 900543; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) tiling microarrays. Hybridization data were analyzed using Model-based analysis tool (MAT) for tiling arrays (Johnson et al., 2006) and genomic positions (using the hg17 build (May 2004) of the Human genome assembly) with a statistically significant enrichment (P <10-3 within a 1-kb window) of scaffold signal as compared to the genomic control were reported as scaffold attachment regions. These sites were then remapped to hg18 build of the genome using the UCSC Genome Browser liftover tool (http://genome.ucsc.edu) . To account for potential gaps in the data due to repetitive sequences that were not spotted on the microarray, intervals from the MAT analysis that were less than 2501 bp apart were subsequently joined yielding 453 SARs.
Project description:Purpose: Pre-ribosomal RNA is cleaved at defined sites, but many endonucleases involved in 18S rRNA release are not known. We apply an in vivo cross-linking technique coupled with deep sequencing (CRAC) that captures transcriptome-wide interactions between a yeast candidate pre-rRNA endonuclease (Utp24) and its targets in a living cell. Methods: We apply CRAC to an HTP-tagged Utp24 protein (HTP: His6 - TEV cleavage site - two copies of the z-domain of Protein A). At least two independent experiments were performed and analyzed separately. Results: We found that yeast Utp24 UV-crosslinked in vivo to the U3 snoRNA and all (pre-)rRNA elements that form the central pseudoknot in the 18S rRNA. The pseudoknot is an evolutionarily highly conserved structure that is required to ensure pre-rRNA processing at three cleavage sites (A0, A1 and A2) and still present in the mature rRNA. According to our crosslinking data, the endonuclease Utp24 is placed in close proximity to site A1 at the 5'-end of the 18S rRNA. Conclusion: Our study strongly supports the hypothesis that Utp24 cleaves pre-rRNA at sites A1 and A2. Examination of targets for pre-rRNA endonucleases in yeast cells.
Project description:Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing unprecedented changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen) and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies), Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific. The study was carried out at the Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz (EACF, 62°04’S, 58°21’W), located in Martel Inlet, Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which is part of the South Shetlands Archipelago in Maritime Antarctica. It is a medium sized research station with a population of 10 to 15 people during the winter months (March to November) and about 60 people during the austral summer months (November to March). During the austral summers of 2006 – 2007 and 2008 – 2009, the vascular plants D. antarctica or C. quitensis were sampled, where both plants were found, in triplicate at six different sites: A – Arctowski (2006 – 2007), Q – Quimica (2006 – 2007), I – Ipanema (2006 – 2007), M – North Mountain (2008 – 2009), D – Demay Point (2008 – 2009), C – Copacabana (2008 – 2009) (Figure 1). Points A, C and D were located inside an environmental protected area. Point A is close to the Arctowski Polish Station and next to a colony of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), point C is next to the USA summer station Copacabana in a Gentoo penguin (P. papua) colony, and point D is near to a Polish refuge next to a colony of Chinstrap penguins (P. antarcticus). At point I, there were no penguin colonies present, but this section was used as a nesting site by local species of flying birds. Point Q was located in the vicinity of the EACF; thus there has been (and continues to be) an intense anthropogenic influence on this spot, which is not the case at the other sampling sites. Point M was located at the top of North Mountain, around 200 m altitude. This site has no influence from penguin colonies and only a few nests of skua (Catharacta sp.) were observed. At each sampling site, triplicate soil samples were taken for chemical and biological analyses, with the exception of the Arctowski site (A) where we only took two replicates. Each vascular plant sample was frozen (-20°C) at the EACF.