Project description:Here, we showed that the secretome of senescent melanoma cells drives basal melanoma cells towards a mesenchymal phenotype, with characteristic of stems illustrated by increased level of the prototype genes FN1, SNAIL, OCT4 and NANOG. This molecular reprogramming leads to an increase in the low-MITF and slow-growing cell population endowed with melanoma-initiating cell features. The secretome of senescent melanoma cells induces a panel of 52 genes, involved in cell movement and cell/cell interaction, among which AXL and ALDH1A3 have been implicated in melanoma development. We found that the secretome of senescent melanoma cells activates the STAT3 pathway and STAT3 inhibition prevents secretome effects, including the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Collectively, the findings provide insights into how the secretome of melanoma cells entering senescence upon chemotherapy treatments increases the tumorigenicity of naïve melanoma cells by inducing, through STAT3 activation, a melanoma-initiating cell phenotype that could favor chemotherapy resistance and relapse.
Project description:The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is a major trait of senescent cells, but the molecular regulators of SASP factor secretion are poorly understood. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that secretory carrier membrane protein 4 (SCAMP4) levels were strikingly elevated on the surface of senescent cells compared with proliferating cells. Interestingly, silencing SCAMP4 in senescent fibroblasts reduced the secretion of SASP factors, including interleukin 6 (IL6), IL8, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), and IL7, while, conversely, SCAMP4 overexpression in proliferating fibroblasts increased SASP factor secretion. Our results indicate that SCAMP4 accumulates on the surface of senescent cells, promotes SASP factor secretion, and critically enhances the SASP phenotype.
Project description:Identifying novel cancer biomarkers is important for early cancer detection as it can reduce mortality rates. The cancer secretome, the collection of all macromolecules secreted by a tumor cell, alters its composition compared to normal tissue, and this change plays an important role in the observation of cancer progression. The collection and accurate analysis of cancer secretomes could lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers, thus improving outcomes of cancer treatment. We unexpectedly discovered that enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) of a D-peptide hydrogelator results in nanonets/hydrogel around cancer cells that overexpress ectophosphatases. Here we show that these nanonets are able to rapidly collect proteins in the pericellular space (i.e., near the surface) of cancer cells. Because the secretory substances are at their highest concentration near the cell surface, the use of pericellular nanonets to collect the cancer secretome maximizes the yield and quality of samples, reduces pre-analytical variations, and allows the dynamic profiling of secretome samples. Thus, this new approach has great potential in identifying the heterotypic signaling in tumor microenvironments thereby improving the understanding of tumor microenvironments and accelerating the discovery of potential biomarkers in cancer biology. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003924.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a terminal cell proliferation arrest that can be triggered by oncogenes. One of the traits of oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is the so-called senescence-associated secretory phenotype or senescence secretome. Depending on the context, the non-cell autonomous effects of OIS may vary from tumor suppression to promotion of metastasis. Despite being such a physiological and pathologically relevant effector, the mechanisms of generation of the senescence secretome are largely unknown.We analyzed by label-free proteomics the secretome of p95HER2-induced senescent cells and compared the levels of the membrane-anchored proteins with their transcript levels. Then, protein and RNA levels of ADAM17 were evaluated by using Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, its localization by using biotin labeling and immunofluorescence, and its activity by using alkaline phosphatase-tagged substrates. The p95HER2-expressing cell lines, senescent MCF7 and proliferating MCF10A, were analyzed to study ADAM17 regulation. Finally, we knocked down ADAM17 to determine its contribution to the senescence-associated secretome. The effect of this secretome was evaluated in migration assays in vitro and in nude mice by assessing the metastatic ability of orthotopically co-injected non-senescent cells.Using breast cancer cells expressing p95HER2, a constitutively active fragment of the proto-oncogene HER2 that induces OIS, we show that the extracellular domains of a variety of membrane-bound proteins form part of the senescence secretome. We determine that these proteins are regulated transcriptionally and, in addition, that their shedding is limited by the protease ADAM17. The activity of the sheddase is constrained, at least in part, by the accumulation of cellular cholesterol. The blockade of ADAM17 abrogates several prometastatic effects of the p95HER2-induced senescence secretome, both in vitro and in vivo.Considering these findings, we conclude that ectodomain shedding is tightly regulated in oncogene-induced senescent cells by integrating transcription of the shedding substrates with limiting ADAM17 activity. The remaining activity of ADAM17 contributes to the non-cell autonomous protumorigenic effects of p95HER2-induced senescent cells. Because ADAM17 is druggable, these results represent an approximation to the pharmacological regulation of the senescence secretome.
Project description:The collection of proteins secreted from a cell-the secretome-is of particular interest in cancer pathophysiology due to its diagnostic potential and role in tumorigenesis. However, cancer secretome studies are often limited to one tissue or cancer type or focus on biomarker prediction without exploring the associated functions. We therefore conducted a pan-cancer analysis of secretome gene expression changes to identify candidate diagnostic biomarkers and to investigate the underlying biological function of these changes. Using transcriptomic data spanning 32 cancer types and 30 healthy tissues, we quantified the relative diagnostic potential of secretome proteins for each cancer. Furthermore, we offer a potential mechanism by which cancer cells relieve secretory pathway stress by decreasing the expression of tissue-specific genes, thereby facilitating the secretion of proteins promoting invasion and proliferation. These results provide a more systematic understanding of the cancer secretome, facilitating its use in diagnostics and its targeting for therapeutic development.
Project description:Transplantation of stem cells, in particular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), stands as a promising therapy for trauma, stroke or neurodegenerative conditions such as spinal cord or traumatic brain injuries (SCI or TBI), ischemic stroke (IS), or Parkinson's disease (PD). Over the last few years, cell transplantation-based approaches have started to focus on the use of cell byproducts, with a strong emphasis on cell secretome. Having this in mind, the present review discusses the current state of the art of secretome-based therapy applications in different central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. For this purpose, the following topics are discussed: (1) What are the main cell secretome sources, composition, and associated collection techniques; (2) Possible differences of the therapeutic potential of the protein and vesicular fraction of the secretome; and (3) Impact of the cell secretome on CNS-related problems such as SCI, TBI, IS, and PD. With this, we aim to clarify some of the main questions that currently exist in the field of secretome-based therapies and consequently gain new knowledge that may help in the clinical application of secretome in CNS disorders.
Project description:Fibroblasts differentiation into myofibroblasts is a central event of tissue fibrosis. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secretome can interfere with fibrosis development; despite precise underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MSC secretome can affect fibroblast' differentiation into myofibroblasts by delivering regulatory RNAs, including microRNAs to these cells. Using the model of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta)-induced fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts, we tested the activity of human MSC secretome components, specifically extracellular vesicles (MSC-EV). We showed that MSC-EV down-regulated secretion of extracellular matrix proteins by fibroblasts as well as suppressed their contractility resulting in prevention as well as reversion of fibroblasts differentiation to myofibroblasts. High-throughput sequencing of RNAs extracted from MSC-EV has revealed many fibrosis-associated microRNAs. Fibroblast treatment with MSC-EV led to direct transfer of microRNAs, which resulted in the elevation of most prominent fibrosis-associated microRNAs, including microRNA-21 and microRNA-29c. Using MSC-EV transfection by antagomirs to these microRNAs we demonstrated their involvement in the suppression of fibroblast differentiation in our model. Taken together, MSC secretome can suppress fibrosis by prevention of fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts as well as induce de-differentiation of the latter by direct transfer of specific microRNAs.
Project description:To understand how cells communicate in the nervous system, it is essential to define their secretome, which is challenging for primary cells because of large cell numbers being required. Here, we miniaturized secretome analysis by developing the "high-performance secretome protein enrichment with click sugars" (hiSPECS) method. To demonstrate its broad utility, hiSPECS was used to identify the secretory response of brain slices upon LPS-induced neuroinflammation and to establish the cell type-resolved mouse brain secretome resource using primary astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. This resource allowed mapping the cellular origin of CSF proteins and revealed that an unexpectedly high number of secreted proteins in vitro and in vivo are proteolytically cleaved membrane protein ectodomains. Two examples are neuronally secreted ADAM22 and CD200, which we identified as substrates of the Alzheimer-linked protease BACE1. hiSPECS and the brain secretome resource can be widely exploited to systematically study protein secretion and brain function and to identify cell type-specific biomarkers for CNS diseases.
Project description:The advanced-stage colon cancer spreads from primary tumor site to distant organs where the colon-unassociated stromal population provides a favorable niche for the growth of tumor cells. The heterocellular interactions between colon cancer cells and colon-unassociated fibroblasts at distant metastatic sites are important, yet these cell-cell interactions for therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer remain underestimated. Recent studies have shown the therapeutic potential of DNA-demethylating epi-drugs 5-azacytidine (AZA) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) for the treatment of solid tumors. While the effects of these epi-drugs alone or in combination with other anticancer therapies are well described, the influence of stromal cells and their secretome on cancer cell response to these agents remain elusive. In this study, we determined the effect of normal and senescent colon-unassociated fibroblasts and their conditioned medium on colorectal cancer (CRC) cell response to AZA and DAC using a cell-based DNA demethylation reporter system. Our data show that fibroblasts accelerate cell proliferation and differentially regulate the expression of DNA methylation-regulating enzymes, enhancing DAC-induced demethylation in CRC cells. In contrast, the conditioned medium from senescent fibroblasts that upregulated NF-?B activity altered deoxycytidine kinase levels in drug-untreated CRC cells and abrogated DAC effect on degradation of DNA methyltransferase 1. Similar to 2D cultures, senescent fibroblasts increased DNA demethylation of CRC cells in coculture spheroids, in addition to increasing the stemness of CRC cells. This study presents the first evidence of the effect of normal and senescent stromal cells and their conditioned medium on DNA demethylation by DAC. The data show an increased activity of DAC in high stromal cell cocultures and suggest the potential of the tumor-stroma ratio in predicting the outcome of DNA-demethylating epigenetic cancer therapy.
Project description:The human cancer secretome database (HCSD) is a comprehensive database for human cancer secretome data. The cancer secretome describes proteins secreted by cancer cells and structuring information about the cancer secretome will enable further analysis of how this is related with tumor biology. The secreted proteins from cancer cells are believed to play a deterministic role in cancer progression and therefore may be the key to find novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for many cancers. Consequently, huge data on cancer secretome have been generated in recent years and the lack of a coherent database is limiting the ability to query the increasing community knowledge. We therefore developed the Human Cancer Secretome Database (HCSD) to fulfil this gap. HCSD contains >80 000 measurements for about 7000 nonredundant human proteins collected from up to 35 high-throughput studies on 17 cancer types. It has a simple and user friendly query system for basic and advanced search based on gene name, cancer type and data type as the three main query options. The results are visualized in an explicit and interactive manner. An example of a result page includes annotations, cross references, cancer secretome data and secretory features for each identified protein.