Proof of Honey Adulteration by the Detection of Foreign Amylases and Quality Assessment of Honey
ABSTRACT: Two datasets from the nanoLC-MS/MS analysis are included. The first dataset was 38 honey samples that were analyzed in a single series in one replicate (this dataset is denoted 38; raw data are denoted 351-*). The second dataset was 7 honeys that were all prepared and analyzed in 3 replicates (this dataset is denoted 7x3; raw data are denoted 417-*).
All the honeys in our dataset are denoted as we originally denoted them after addition to our collection. The honey samples include authentic honeys from verified sources and honeys from markets in Czechia or foreign countries, some of which were declared as single-origin honeys.
Compressed (zipped) combined_txt folders of database searches in MaxQuant are included. In addition, used databases (*.fasta) are provided.
Project description:In the fight against the Varroa destructor mite, selective breeding of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations that are resistant to the parasitic mite stands as a sustainable solution. Selection initiatives indicate that using the suppressed mite reproduction (SMR) trait as a selection criterion is a suitable tool to breed such resistant bee populations. We conducted a large European experiment to evaluate the SMR trait in different populations of honey bees spread over 13 different countries, and representing different honey bee genotypes with their local mite parasites. The first goal was to standardize and validate the SMR evaluation method, and then to compare the SMR trait between the different populations. Simulation results indicate that it is necessary to examine at least 35 single-infested cells to reliably estimate the SMR score of any given colony. Several colonies from our dataset display high SMR scores indicating that this trait is present within the European honey bee populations. The trait is highly variable between colonies and some countries, but no major differences could be identified between countries for a given genotype, or between genotypes in different countries. This study shows the potential to increase selective breeding efforts of V. destructor resistant populations.
Project description:Honey is a natural sweetener, with an osmotic effect on microorganisms due to the increased sugar content and low amount of water. Cyclitols are minor constituents of honey. They play a defensive role in plants against unfavorable environmental conditions. Honey's physicochemical properties can vary, resulting in a wide range of colors, flavors, scents, antioxidant activity, dissimilar values of pH, acidity, electrical conductivity, etc. Some literature regarding correlation between honey types is already available, but a comprehensive study displaying an ample evaluation of multifarious aspects is still needed. This study focuses on the correlation between 18 honey types, originating from 10 countries, collected during four years, summarizing a total of 38 samples. A total of 6 physicochemical properties and 18 target components (sugars and cyclitols) were considered as variables. A correlation analysis is presented between the investigated parameters and between honey types, together with the statistical analysis which allowed for observation of the clusters' distribution according with the investigated variables.
Project description:Environmental DNA (eDNA) has been proposed as a powerful tool to detect and monitor cryptic, elusive, or invasive organisms. We recently demonstrated that honey constitutes an easily accessible source of eDNA. In this study, we extracted DNA from 102 honey samples (74 from Italy and 28 from 17 other countries of all continents) and tested the presence of DNA of nine honey bee pathogens and parasites (Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius, Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae, Ascosphaera apis,Lotmaria passim, Acarapis woodi, Varroa destructor, and Tropilaelaps spp.) using qualitative PCR assays. All honey samples contained DNA from V. destructor, confirming the widespread diffusion of this mite. None of the samples gave positive amplifications for N. apis, A. woodi, and Tropilaelaps spp. M. plutonius was detected in 87% of the samples, whereas the other pathogens were detected in 43% to 57% of all samples. The frequency of Italian samples positive for P. larvae was significantly lower (49%) than in all other countries (79%). The co-occurrence of positive samples for L. passim and A. apis with N. ceranae was significant. This study demonstrated that honey eDNA can be useful to establish monitoring tools to evaluate the sanitary status of honey bee populations.
Project description:Two species of Spiroplasma (Mollicutes) bacteria were isolated from and described as pathogens of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, ~30 years ago but recent information on them is lacking despite global concern to understand bee population declines. Here we provide a comprehensive survey for the prevalence of these two Spiroplasma species in current populations of honey bees using improved molecular diagnostic techniques to assay multiyear colony samples from North America (U.S.A.) and South America (Brazil). Significant annual and seasonal fluctuations of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum prevalence in colonies from the U.S.A. (n = 616) and Brazil (n = 139) occurred during surveys from 2011 through 2013. Overall, 33% of U.S.A. colonies and 54% of Brazil colonies were infected by Spiroplasma spp., where S. melliferum predominated over S. apis in both countries (25% vs. 14% and 44% vs. 38% frequency, respectively). Colonies were co-infected by both species more frequently than expected in both countries and at a much higher rate in Brazil (52%) compared to the U.S.A. (16.5%). U.S.A. samples showed that both species were prevalent not only during spring, as expected from prior research, but also during other seasons. These findings demonstrate that the model of honey bee spiroplasmas as springtime-restricted pathogens needs to be broadened and their role as occasional pathogens considered in current contexts.
Project description:Honey bees are large-scale monitoring tools due to their extensive environmental exploration. In their activities and from the hive ecosystem complex, they get in close contact with many organisms whose traces can be transferred into the honey, which can represent an interesting reservoir of environmental DNA (eDNA) signatures and information useful to analyse the honey bee hologenome complexity. In this study, we tested a deep shotgun sequencing approach of honey DNA coupled with a specifically adapted bioinformatic pipeline. This methodology was applied to a few honey samples pointing out DNA sequences from 191 organisms spanning different kingdoms or phyla (viruses, bacteria, plants, fungi, protozoans, arthropods, mammals). Bacteria included the largest number of species. These multi-kingdom signatures listed common hive and honey bee gut microorganisms, honey bee pathogens, parasites and pests, which resembled a complex interplay that might provide a general picture of the honey bee pathosphere. Based on the Apis mellifera filamentous virus genome diversity (the most abundant detected DNA source) we obtained information that could define the origin of the honey at the apiary level. Mining Apis mellifera sequences made it possible to identify the honey bee subspecies both at the mitochondrial and nuclear genome levels.
Project description:Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.
Project description:Honey bees are considered large-scale monitoring tools due to their environmental exploration and foraging activities. Traces of these activities can be recovered in the honey that also may reflect the hive ecological micro-conditions in which it has been produced. This study applied a next generation sequencing platform (Ion Torrent) for shotgun metagenomic analysis of honey environmental DNA (eDNA). The study tested a methodological framework to interpret DNA sequence information useful to describe the complex ecosystems of the honey bee colony superorganism, its pathosphere and the heterogeneity of the agroecological environments and environmental sources that left DNA marks in the honey. Analysis of two honeys reported sequence reads from five main organism groups (kingdoms or phyla): arthropods (that mainly included reads from Apis mellifera, several other members of the Hymenotpera, in addition to members of the Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, as well as aphids and mites), plants (that clearly confirmed the botanical origin of the two honeys, i.e. orange tree blossom and eucalyptus tree blossom honeys), fungi and bacteria (including common hive and honey bee gut microorganisms, honey bee pathogens and plant pathogens), and viruses (which accounted for the largest number of reads in both honeys, mainly assigned to Apis mellifera filamentous virus). The shotgun metagenomic approach that was used in this study can be applied in large scale experiments that might have multiple objectives according to the multi-kingdom derived eDNA that is contained in the honey.
Project description:Considering the intensive trading nowadays, the honey from the local market was tested for the presence of the six most common bee viruses. To prove the suitability of honey as a sample for the bee viruses detection, the set of different sample types taken directly from the hives we comparatively tested. The study included 30 samples of domestic and 5 samples of imported honey. Additionally, we tested 40 sets of samples including live bees, dead bees, and the honey taken from four apiaries for the evaluation of honey suitability for the virus detection, Two out of the six most common bee viruses were detected in the samples of honey from the market. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) genome was found in 24 domestic honey samples and Kashmir bee virus (KBV) genome was detected in one sample of imported honey. The nucleotide sequences of 24 BQCV isolates showed the highest identity (86.4%) with strains from Europe at the polyprotein gene, whilst the Serbian isolates between each other showed 98.5% similarity. By comparative testing of the different type of samples, in three out of four apiaries BQCV genome was detected in both bees and honey. Evaluating the suitability of honey for the detection of the viral disease by simultaneous testing of live, dead bees, and honey from the same hive, it was shown that the honey can be successfully used for the detection of BQCV. Since, as of yet, there has been no evidence of KBV circulation in Serbia, after its detection in imported honey, there is a substantial risk of its introduction and consequently the need for its surveillance. Therefore, the programs of bee diseases screening should be included in the regular control procedures for the international trade. In addition to this benefit, honey gives an opportunity to beekeepers for continuous monitoring of bees' health status.
Project description:Declines in the stocks of domesticated honey bees in some countries have been attributed to disease, which is at odds with an increasing global trend in the total number of hives. Based on data on annual growth rates in hive numbers and honey production for 87 countries, we tested the hypothesis that geographic heterogeneity in the growth of the domesticated honey bee population can be attributed to disease. In contrast to predictions of this hypothesis, changes in honey production varied in proportion to changes in hive number. Also, growth in honey production was not more spatially heterogeneous than growth in hive numbers, as expected under a scenario of contagious pests. We argue that although disease aggravates production costs, it has less effect on changes in national hive numbers than labor costs, so that geographic variation in the growth of the global honey bee stock reflects the global division of human labor that is a hallmark of economic globalization, rather than persistent and pervasive biological causes.
Project description:Background: Honey bee is a major insect used for pollination of a number of commercial crops worldwide. However, the number of managed honey bee colonies has recently declined in several countries, and a number of possible causes are proposed. Although the use of honey bees for pollination can be considered as disruption of the habitat, its effects on honey bees' physiology have never been addressed. In Japan, more than 100 thousands colonies are annually used for pollination, and intriguingly 80% of them are used in greenhouses. Recently, honey bee colonies have often collapsed when they are introduced into greenhouses. Thus, to suppress colony collapses and maintain the number of worker bees in the colonies are essential for successful long-term pollination in greenhouses and recycling honey bee colonies. Honey bee hives were installed into strawberry and eggplant greenhouses, and then the gene expression profiles of the honey bees were examined at the different time periods. Total 16 samples with two replicates were analyzed.