Inactivation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I and alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase genes in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells results in glycoproteins with highly homogeneous, high-mannose N-glycans - Herman and coworkers Frontiers in Plants Sciences
ABSTRACT: This work was performed under the collaboration of the LIBST group from the University of Louvain-la-Neuve UClouvain (https://uclouvain.be/en/research-institutes/libst) and the MSLab group from the University of Liege ULiege (http://www.mslab.ulg.ac.be/team/).
Identification of the N-glycans libraries produced in tabacco BY2 wild type and GnTi or GnTi/FucT KO after CRISPR/CAS9 genome edition were the main scopes of this study.
See "Inactivation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I and alpha1,3-
fucosyltransferase genes in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells results in
glycoproteins with highly homogeneous, high-mannose N-glycans" in Frontiers in Plants Science for details.
Project description:To date, a number of mannose-binding lectins have been isolated and characterized from plants and fungi. These proteins are composed of different structural scaffold structures which harbor a single or multiple carbohydrate-binding sites involved in the specific recognition of mannose-containing glycans. Generally, the mannose-binding site consists of a small, central, carbohydrate-binding pocket responsible for the "broad sugar-binding specificity" toward a single mannose molecule, surrounded by a more extended binding area responsible for the specific recognition of larger mannose-containing N-glycan chains. Accordingly, the mannose-binding specificity of the so-called mannose-binding lectins towards complex mannose-containing N-glycans depends largely on the topography of their mannose-binding site(s). This structure?function relationship introduces a high degree of specificity in the apparently homogeneous group of mannose-binding lectins, with respect to the specific recognition of high-mannose and complex N-glycans. Because of the high specificity towards mannose these lectins are valuable tools for deciphering and characterizing the complex mannose-containing glycans that decorate both normal and transformed cells, e.g., the altered high-mannose N-glycans that often occur at the surface of various cancer cells.
Project description:Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) N-glycans play important regulatory roles in the control of virus virulence, antigenicity, receptor-binding specificity, and viral escape from the immune response. Considered essential for controlling innate and adaptive immune responses against influenza virus infections, dendritic cells (DCs) trigger proinflammatory and adaptive immune responses in hosts. In this study, we engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing recombinant HA from pandemic H1, H5, and H7 influenza viruses. rH1HA, rH5HA, and rH7HA were obtained as wild-type proteins or in the presence of kifunensine (KIF) or further with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated KIF (KIF+E) to generate single-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) N-glycans consisting of (i) terminally sialylated complex-type N-glycans, (ii) high-mannose-type N-glycans, and (iii) single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans. Our results show that high-mannose-type and single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans, but not complex-type N-glycans, are capable of inducing more active hIL12 p40, hIL12 p70, and hIL-10 production in human DCs. Significantly higher HLA-DR, CD40, CD83, and CD86 expression levels, as well reduced endocytotic capacity in human DCs, were noted in the high-mannose-type rH1HA and single-GlcNAc-type rH1HA groups than in the complex-type N-glycan rH1HA group. Our data indicate that native avian rHA proteins (H5N1 and H7N9) are more immunostimulatory than human rHA protein (pH1N1). The high-mannose-type or single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans of both avian and human HA types are more stimulatory than the complex-type N-glycans. HA-stimulated DC activation was accomplished partially through a mannose receptor(s). These results provide more understanding of the contribution of glycosylation of viral proteins to the immune responses and may have implications for vaccine development.Influenza viruses trigger seasonal epidemics or pandemics with mild-to-severe consequences for human and poultry populations. DCs are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, which play a crucial role in the link between innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we obtained stable-expression CHO cells to produce rH1HA, rH5HA, and rH7HA proteins containing distinct N-glycan patterns. These rHA proteins, each with a distinct N-glycan pattern, were used to investigate interactions with mouse and human DCs. Our data indicate that native avian rHA proteins (H5N1 and H7N9) are more immunostimulatory than human rHA protein (pH1N1). High-mannose-type and single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans were more effective than complex-type N-glycans in triggering mouse and human DC activation and maturation. We believe these results provide some useful information for influenza vaccine development regarding how influenza virus HA proteins with different types of N-glycans activate DCs.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, unconjugated oligosaccharides structurally related to N-glycans (FNGs) are generated either from misfolded N-glycoproteins destined for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD), or from lipid-linked oligosaccharides, donor substrates for N-glycosylation of proteins. The mechanism responsible for the generation of FNGs is now well understood, but whether there are other type of free glycans remain unclarified. Here, we report on the accumulation of O-mannosylated free glycans in budding yeast that were cultured in media containing mannose as a carbon source. A structural analysis of these glycans revealed that their structures are identical to those of O-mannosyl glycans that are attached to glycoproteins. Deletion of the cyc8 gene, encoding a general transcription repressor, resulted in the accumulation of excessive amounts of the free O-glycans, concomitant with a severe growth defect, a reduction in the level of cellular O-mannosylated proteins, and compromised cell wall integrity. Our findings provide evidence for a regulated pathway for O-glycoprotein degradation in yeast and offer critical insights into the catabolic mechanisms that control the fate of O-glycosylated proteins. Overall design: RNA-seq
Project description:Design of an envelope glycoprotein (Env)-based vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is complicated by the large number of N-linked glycans that coat the protein and serve as a barrier to antibody-mediated neutralization. Compared to normal mammalian glycoproteins, high-mannose-type glycans are disproportionately represented on the gp120 subunit of Env. These N-glycans serve as a target for a number of anti-HIV molecules that bind terminal alpha1,2-linked mannose residues, including lectins and the monoclonal antibody 2G12. We created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation mutant, Deltamnn1Deltamnn4, to expose numerous terminal Manalpha1,2-Man residues on endogenous hypermannosylated glycoproteins in the yeast cell wall. Immunization of rabbits with whole cells from this mutant induced antibodies that bound to a broad range of Env proteins, including clade A, B, and C of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The gp120 binding activity of these immune sera was due to mannose-specific immunoglobulin, as removal of high-mannose glycans and alpha1,2-linked mannoses from gp120 abrogated serum binding. Glycan array analysis with purified IgG demonstrated binding mainly to glycans with Manalpha1,2-Manalpha1,2-Man trisaccharides. Altogether, these data demonstrate the immunogenicity of exposed polyvalent Manalpha1,2-Manalpha1,2-Man structures on the yeast cell wall mannan and their ability to induce antibodies that bind to the HIV Env protein. The yeast strain and sera from this study will be useful tools for determining the type of mannose-specific response that is needed to develop neutralizing antibodies to the glycan shield of HIV.
Project description:The glycan shield on the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein has drawn attention as a target for HIV-1 vaccine design given that an increasing number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes entirely or partially comprised of high mannose type N-linked glycans. In an attempt to generate immunogens that target the glycan shield of HIV-1, we previously engineered a triple mutant (TM) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that results in exclusive presentation of high mannose type N-glycans, and identified five TM yeast glycoproteins that support strong binding of 2G12, a bNAb that targets a cluster of high mannose glycans on the gp120 subunit of Env. Here, we further analyzed the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these proteins in inducing anti-HIV responses. Our study demonstrated that the 2G12-reactive TM yeast glycoproteins efficiently bound to recently identified bNAbs including PGT125-130 and PGT135 that recognize high mannose glycan-dependent epitopes. Immunization of rabbits with a single TM yeast glycoprotein (Gp38 or Pst1), when conjugated to a promiscuous T-cell epitope peptide and coadministered with a Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, induced glycan-specific HIV-1 Env cross-reactive antibodies. The immune sera bound to both synthetic mannose oligosaccharides and gp120 proteins from a broad range of HIV-1 strains. The purified antibodies recognized and captured virions that contain both complex- and high mannose-type of N-glycans, and potently neutralized virions from different HIV-1 clades but only when the virions were enforced to retain high mannose N-glycans. This study provides insights into the elicitation of anti-carbohydrate, HIV-1 Env-cross reactive antibodies with a heterologous glycoprotein and may have applications in the design and administration of immunogens that target the viral glycan shield for development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
Project description:Homogeneous N-glycoproteins carrying defined natural N-glycans are essential for detailed structural and functional studies. The transglycosylation activity of the endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Arthrobacter protophormiae (Endo-A) and Mucor hiemalis (Endo-M) holds great potential for glycoprotein synthesis, but the wild-type enzymes are not practical for making glycoproteins carrying native N-glycans because of their predominant activity for product hydrolysis. In this article, we report studies of two endoglycosidase-based glycosynthases, EndoM-N175A and EndoA-N171A, and their usefulness in constructing homogeneous N-glycoproteins carrying natural N-glycans. The oligosaccharide oxazoline corresponding to the biantennary complex-type N-glycan was synthesized and tested with the two glycosynthases. The EndoM-N175A mutant was able to efficiently transfer the complex-type glycan oxazoline to a GlcNAc peptide and GlcNAc-containing ribonuclease to form the corresponding homogeneous glycopeptide/glycoprotein. The EndoA-N171A mutant did not recognize the complex-type N-glycan oxazoline but could efficiently use the high-mannose-type glycan oxazoline for transglycosylation. These mutants possess the transglycosylation activity but lack the hydrolytic activity toward the product. Kinetic studies revealed that the dramatically enhanced synthetic efficiency of the EndoA-N171A mutant was due to the significantly reduced hydrolytic activity toward both the Man(9)GlcNAc oxazoline and the product as well as to its enhanced activity for transglycosylation. Thus, the two mutants described here represent the first endoglycosidase-based glycosynthases enabling a highly efficient synthesis of homogeneous natural N-glycoproteins.
Project description:Glycoprotein quality control is categorized into three kinds of reactions; the folding of nascent glycoproteins, ER-associated degradation of misfolded or unassembled glycoproteins, and transport and sorting of correctly folded glycoproteins. In all three processes, N-glycans on the glycoproteins are used as tags that are recognized by intracellular lectins. We analyzed the functions of these intracellular lectins and their sugar-binding specificities. The results clearly showed that the A, B, and C-arms of high mannose-type glycans participate in the folding, transport and sorting, and degradation, respectively, of newly synthesized peptides. After correctly folded glycoproteins are transported to the Golgi apparatus, N-glycans are trimmed into Man3GlcNAc2 and then rebuilt into various complex-type glycans in the Golgi, resulting in the addition of diverse sugar structures that allow glycoproteins to play various roles outside of the cells.
Project description:The metazoan O-mannose (O-Man) glycoproteome is largely unknown. It has been shown that up to 30% of brain O-glycans are of the O-Man type, but essentially only alpha-dystroglycan (?-DG) of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is well characterized as an O-Man glycoprotein. Defects in O-Man glycosylation underlie congenital muscular dystrophies and considerable efforts have been devoted to explore this O-glycoproteome without much success. Here, we used our SimpleCell strategy using nuclease-mediated gene editing of a human cell line (MDA-MB-231) to reduce the structural heterogeneity of O-Man glycans and to probe the O-Man glycoproteome. In this breast cancer cell line we found that O-Man glycosylation is primarily found on cadherins and plexins on ?-strands in extracellular cadherin and Ig-like, plexin and transcription factor domains. The positions and evolutionary conservation of O-Man glycans in cadherins suggest that they play important functional roles for this large group of cell adhesion glycoproteins, which can now be addressed. The developed O-Man SimpleCell strategy is applicable to most types of cell lines and enables proteome-wide discovery of O-Man protein glycosylation.
Project description:For the production of therapeutic proteins in plants, the presence of ?1,2-xylose and core ?1,3-fucose on plants' N-glycan structures has been debated for their antigenic activity. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to down-regulate the endogenous N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GNTI) expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. One glyco-engineered line (NbGNTI-RNAi) showed a strong reduction of plant-specific N-glycans, with the result that as much as 90.9% of the total N-glycans were of high-mannose type. Therefore, this NbGNTI-RNAi would be a promising system for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins in plants. The NbGNTI-RNAi plant was cross-pollinated with transgenic N. benthamiana expressing human glucocerebrosidase (GC). The recombinant GC, which has been used for enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Gaucher's disease, requires terminal mannose for its therapeutic efficacy. The N-glycan structures that were presented on all of the four occupied N-glycosylation sites of recombinant GC in NbGNTI-RNAi plants (GC(gnt1) ) showed that the majority (ranging from 73.3% up to 85.5%) of the N-glycans had mannose-type structures lacking potential immunogenic ?1,2-xylose and ?1,3-fucose epitopes. Moreover, GC(gnt1) could be taken up into the macrophage cells via mannose receptors, and distributed and taken up into the liver and spleen, the target organs in the treatment of Gaucher's disease. Notably, the NbGNTI-RNAi line, producing GC, was stable and the NbGNTI-RNAi plants were viable and did not show any obvious phenotype. Therefore, it would provide a robust tool for the production of GC with customized N-glycan structures.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, unconjugated oligosaccharides that are structurally related to N-glycans (i.e. free N-glycans) are generated either from misfolded N-glycoproteins destined for the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation or from lipid-linked oligosaccharides, donor substrates for N-glycosylation of proteins. The mechanism responsible for the generation of free N-glycans is now well-understood, but the issue of whether other types of free glycans are present remains unclear. Here, we report on the accumulation of free, O-mannosylated glycans in budding yeast that were cultured in medium containing mannose as the carbon source. A structural analysis of these glycans revealed that their structures are identical to those of O-mannosyl glycans that are attached to glycoproteins. Deletion of the cyc8 gene, which encodes for a general transcription repressor, resulted in the accumulation of excessive amounts of free O-glycans, concomitant with a severe growth defect, a reduction in the level of an O-mannosylated protein, and compromised cell wall integrity. Our findings provide evidence in support of a regulated pathway for the degradation of O-glycoproteins in yeast and offer critical insights into the catabolic mechanisms that control the fate of O-glycosylated proteins.