Project description:Extracts from Streptomyces sp. S4.7 isolated from the rhizosphere of edelweiss, an alpine medicinal plant, exhibited activity against Gram-positive bacteria. LC-HRMS analyses of the extracts resulted in the detection of two unknown, structurally related lipopeptides that were assumed to be responsible for the antibiotic activity. LC-MS guided isolation and structure elucidation of viennamycins A and B (1 and 2) by HR-MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and Marfey's analyses revealed them to be novel compounds, with viennamycin A containing cysteic acid, a unique feature for lipopeptides. Tests for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities of purified viennamycins, both with and without divalent cations, did not reveal any bioactivity, suggesting that their biological function, which could not be determined in the tests used, is atypical for lipopeptides. The genome of Streptomyces sp. S4.7 was sequenced and analyzed, revealing the viennamycin biosynthetic gene cluster. Detailed bioinformatics-based analysis of the viennamycin gene cluster allowed elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway for these lipopeptides.
Project description:Fifty seven soil-borne actinomycete strains were assessed for the antibiotic production. Two of the most active isolates, designed as Streptomyces ST-13 and DK-15 exhibited a broad range of antimicrobial activity and therefore they were selected for HPLC fractionation against the most suppressed bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ST-13) and Chromobacterium violaceum (DK-15). LC/MS analysis of extracts showed the presence of polyketides factumycin (DK15) and tetrangomycin (ST13). The taxonomic position of the antibiotic-producing actinomycetes was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolates matched those described for members of the genus Streptomyces. DK-15 strain exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Streptomyces globosus DSM-40815 (T) and Streptomyces toxytricini DSM-40178 (T) and ST-13 strain to Streptomyces ederensis DSM-40741 (T) and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes DSM-40073 (T). For the proper identification, MALDI-TOF/MS profile of whole-cell proteins led to the identification of S. globosus DK-15 (accession number: KX527570) and S. ederensis ST13 (accession number: KX527568). To our knowledge, there is no report about the production of these antibiotics by S.globosus and S. ederensis, thus isolates DK15 and ST13 identified as S. globosus DK-15 and S.ederensis ST-13 can be considered as new sources of these unique antibacterial metabolites.
Project description:The genome sequences of 16 Streptomyces strains, showing potential for plant growth-promotion (PGP) activities in rice, sorghum, chickpea and pigeonpea, isolated from herbal vermicompost, have been decoded. The genome assemblies of the 16 Streptomyces strains ranged from 6.8?Mb to 8.31?Mb, with a GC content of 72 to 73%. The extent of sequence similarity (in terms of shared ortholog) in 16 Streptomyces strains showed 70 to 85% common genes to the closest publicly available Streptomyces genomes. It was possible to identify ~1,850 molecular functions across these 16 strains, of which close to 50% were conserved across the genomes of Streptomyces strains, whereas, ~10% were strain specific and the rest were present in various combinations. Genome assemblies of the 16 Streptomyces strains have also provided genes involved in key pathways related to PGP and biocontrol traits such as siderophores, auxin, hydrocyanic acid, chitinase and cellulase. Further, the genome assemblies provided better understanding of genetic similarity among target strains and with the publically available Streptomyces strains.
Project description:Analysis of fatty acids (FA) in food and biological samples such as blood is indispensable in modern life sciences. We developed a rapid, sensitive and comprehensive method for the quantification of 41 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids by means of LC-MS. Optimized chromatographic separation of isobaric analytes was carried out on a C8 reversed phase analytical column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm core-shell particle) with a total run time of 15 min with back pressure lower than 300 bar. On an old triple quadrupole instrument (3200, AB Sciex), pseudo selected reaction monitoring mode was used for quantification of the poorly fragmenting FA, yielding limits of detection of 5-100 nM. Sample preparation was carried out by removal of phospholipids and triglycerides by solid-phase extraction (non-esterified fatty acids in oils) or saponification in iso-propanol (fatty acyls). This is not only a rapid strategy for quantification of fatty acyls, but allows the direct combination with the LC-MS-based analysis of fatty acid oxidation products (eicosanoids and other oxylipins) from the same sample. The concentrations of fatty acyls determined by means of LC-MS were consistent with those from GC-FID analysis demonstrating the accuracy of the developed method. Moreover, the method shows high precisions with a low intra-day (≤ 10% for almost all fatty acids in plasma and ≤ 15% in oils) and inter-day as well as inter-operator variability (< 20%). The method was successfully applied on human plasma and edible oils. The possibility to quantify non-esterified fatty acids in samples containing an excess of triacylglycerols and phospholipids is a major strength of the described approach allowing to gain new insights in the composition of biological samples.
Project description:Antarctic have been suggested as an attractive source for antibiotics discovery and members of Streptomyces genus have historically been studied as natural producers of antimicrobial metabolites. Nonetheless, our knowledge on antibiotic-producing Streptomyces from Antarctic is very limited. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of organic extracts from Antarctic Streptomyces strains was evaluated by disk diffusion assays and minimum inhibitory concentration. The strain Streptomyces sp. So13.3 showed the greatest antibiotic activity (MIC?=?15.6??g/mL) against Gram-positive bacteria and growth reduction of Gram?negative pathogens. The bioactive fraction in the crude extract was revealed by TLC?bioautography at Rf?=?0.78 with molecular weight between 148 and 624?m/z detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The strain So13.3 was taxonomically affiliated as Streptomyces fildesensis. Whole genome sequencing and analysis suggested a 9.47?Mb genome size with 42 predicted biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and 56 putative clusters representing a 22% of total genome content. Interestingly, a large number of them (11 of 42 BGCs and 40 of 56 putative BGCs), did not show similarities with other known BGCs. Our results highlight the potential of the Antarctic Streptomyces strains as a promising source of novel antimicrobials, particularly the strain Streptomyces fildesensis So13.3, which first draft genome is reported in this work.
Project description:Summary Streptomyces species have attracted considerable interest as a reservoir of medically important secondary metabolites, which are even diverse and different between strains. Here, we reassess ten Streptomyces venezuelae strains by presenting the highly resolved classification, using 16S rRNA sequencing, MALDI-TOF MS protein profiling, and whole-genome sequencing. The results revealed that seven of the ten strains were misclassified as S. venezuelae species. Secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster (smBGC) mining and targeted LC-MS/MS based metabolite screening of S. venezuelae and misclassified strains identified in total 59 secondary metabolites production. In addition, a comparison of pyrrolamide-type antibiotic BGCs of four misclassified strains, followed by functional genomics, revealed that athv28 is critical in the synthesis of the anthelvencin precursor, 5-amino-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (ADPC). Our findings illustrate the importance of the accurate classification and better utilization of misclassified Streptomyces strains to discover smBGCs and their secondary metabolite products. Graphical abstract Highlights • Seven out of ten Streptomyces venezuelae strains were misclassified• 59secondary metabolites productions were identified from the ten strains• Athv28 converts glutamine to ADPC, the most important anthelvencin precursor Microbiology; Microbial genomics; Phylogeny; Metabolomics
Project description:Streptomyces sp. GSL-6B was isolated from sediment collected from the Great Salt Lake and investigation of its organic extract led to the isolation of three new linear heptapeptides, bonnevillamides A (1), B (2), and C (3). The bonnevillamides represent a new class of linear peptides featuring unprecedented non-proteinogenic amino acids. All three peptides contain the newly characterized bonnevillic acid moiety (3-(3,5-dichloro-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyacrylic acid), as well as a heavily modified proline residue. Moreover, in bonnevillamide A, the terminal proline residue found in bonnevillamides B and C is replaced with 4-methyl-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester. The structures of the three heptapeptides were elucidated by NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS), and LC-MS/MS, and the absolute configuration of all proteinogenic amino acid residues were determined by advanced Marfey's method. Bonnevillamides A, B and C were evaluated for their effects on zebrafish embryo development. All three heptapeptides were shown to modulate heart growth and cardiac function, with bonnevillamide B having the most pronounced effect.
Project description:Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, ?-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties.
Project description:Three new polyketides, lactomycins A (1)-C (3), were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. ACT232 as cathepsin B inhibitors. Their structures were determined by a combination of NMR and MS data analyses to be the dephosphorylated derivatives of a phoslactomycin class of metabolites. Lactomycins exhibited cathepsin B inhibitory activity (IC50 0.8 to 4.5 ?g/mL). Even though the biosynthetic gene clusters found in the genome of the current strain have high similarity to those of phoslactomycin, neither phoslactomycins nor leustroducsins were detected by LC-MS analyses of the crude extract.
Project description:<i>Streptomyces</i> spp. have been major contributors of novel natural products that are used in many application areas. We found that the nojirimycin (NJ) producer JCM 3382 has antimicrobial activity against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> via cellular degradation. Genome analysis revealed 30 biosynthetic gene clusters, including those responsible for producing antibiotics, including an azasugar NJ. In-depth MS/MS analysis confirmed the production of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) along with NJ. In addition, the production of tambromycins, setomimycin, and linearmycins was verified by spectroscopic analyses, including LC-MS and NMR. The distribution of the clusters of genes coding for antibiotics in 2061 <i>Streptomyces</i> genomes suggested potential producers of tambromycin, setomimycin, and linearmycin. For a DNJ gene cluster, homologs of <i>gabT1</i> and <i>gutB1</i> were commonly found; however, <i>yktC1</i> was identified in only 112 genomes. The presence of several types of clusters suggests that different strains may produce different types of azasugars. Chemical-profile-inspired comparative genome analysis may facilitate a more accurate assessment of the biosynthetic potential to produce secondary metabolites.