Dietary carbohydrate and protein levels affect the growth performance of juvenile peanut worm (Sipunculus nudus): an LC–MS-based metabolomics study
ABSTRACT: The peanut worm (Sipunculus nudus) is an economically important fishery resource in China. To determine how dietary carbohydrate and protein levels affects the growth performance of juvenile S. nudus and identify the mechanisms underlying observedpatterns, five isoenergetic and isolipidic diets with different levels of carbohydrate and protein were formulated and fed to juvenile S. nudus; the experimental groups were referred to as EG1, EG2, EG3, EG4, and EG5, respectively. After 90 days of feeding, S. nudus had significantly lower survival rates when fed D5 compared with other diets (P < 0.05), and the highest survival rate was observed in EG2 individuals. The weight gain rate and specific growth rate were significantly higher in EG2 compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Metabolomic profiling using LC–MS revealed 83 significantly differential metabolites (POS: 59; NEG: 24), which were identified via an in-house MS2 database. Pathway analysis indicated that the significantly different metabolites were involved in 22 metabolic pathways (POS: 9; NEG: 13), including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; phenylalanine metabolism; D-glutamate and D-glutamine metabolism; proline and arginine metabolism; aspartate, alanine, and glutamate metabolism; and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. These analyses implied that the biosynthetic capabilities of juvenile S. nudus were greater in the EG2. The results of this research enhance our understanding of the effects of dietary carbohydrate and protein levels on the growth performance of juvenile S. nudus.
INSTRUMENT(S): Liquid Chromatography MS - positive - hilic, Liquid Chromatography MS - negative - hilic
Project description:This study was to investigate the effect of zinc pectin oligosaccharides chelate (Zn-POS) on growth performance, serum enzyme activities, tissue zinc accumulation, metallothionein (MT) concentrations, and gene expression of zinc transporters (ZnT) in broilers. Five hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary groups with 6 replicates of 18 birds per replicate. The diets were formulated with the same supplemental Zn level (80 mg/kg diet) but different amount of the Zn-POS: 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg Zn-POS/kg diet. ZnSO4 was used to adjust to the desired amount of the Zn (80 mg/kg) in the Zn-POS diets. Broilers were fed with the experimental diets for 42 d including the starter (days 1 to 21) and grower (days 22 to 42) phases. Our results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn-POS linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) the average daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio during 22 to 42 d and 1 to 42 d as well as body weight on day 42, whereas reduced (P < 0.05) the sum of mortality and lag abnormalities in broilers on day 42. Besides, serum alkaline phosphatase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically in response to dietary Zn-POS supplemental level on day 42. Dietary Zn-POS supplementation increased Zn accumulation in serum (linear, P < 0.05), liver (linear, P < 0.05), and pancreas (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). In addition, Zn-POS supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) MT concentrations in liver and pancreas of broilers. Pancreatic mRNA levels of MT, ZnT-1, and ZnT-2 increased (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically, and the mRNA expression of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 increased linearly (P < 0.05), in response to dietary Zn-POS supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn-POS in the diet increases Zn enrichment in the metabolic organs such as liver and pancreas and promotes productive performance in broilers.
Project description:An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a basal control diet (CON), Bacillus subtilis at 107 (BS7) and at 108 CFU/g diet (BS8), Lactococcus lactis at 107 CFU/g (LL7) and at 108 CFU/g diet (LL8), and oxytetracycline (OTC) at 4 g/kg diet on Nile tilapia. Fish with initial body weight of 2.83 ± 0.05 g (mean ± SD) were fed two times a day. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and lysozyme activity of fish fed BS8, LL8 and LL7 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON diet (p < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activity of fish fed BS8, LL8, BS7, LL7 and OTC diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON diet. Intestinal villi length and muscular layer thickness of fish fed BS8, LL8 and LL7 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON and OTC diets. Also, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), interleukin (IL-1?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-?) gene expression of fish fed BS8 and LL8 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON diet. After 13 days of challenge test, cumulative survival rate of fish fed BS8 and LL8 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed CON, BS7 and OTC diets. Based on these results, B. subtilis and L. lactis at 108 (CFU/g) could replace antibiotics, and have beneficial effects on growth, immunity, histology, gene expression, and disease resistance in Nile tilapia.
Project description:An optimum dietary carbohydrate content is important for maximum fish growth. In this study, we fed Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with either control diet (30.42%) or high carbohydrate diet (52.92%) for 90 d. Fish were fed to apparent satiation three times daily in an aquarium with automatic temperature control and circulated water. Growth performance, plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic morphology and enzyme activities were determined. It was shown that compared to fish fed control diet, fish fed high carbohydrate diet had higher plasma triglyceride and cortisol levels for d 90, and lower alkaline phosphatase level for d 45, lower hepatic superoxide dismutase and total antioxidative capacity for d 90, higher malondialdehyde for d 45 and glycogen content for d 45 and 90 (p<0.05). Histological and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that hepatocytes of fish fed high carbohydrate diet contained large lipid droplets, causing displacement of cellular organelles to periphery of hepatocytes. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA of Wuchang bream fed high carbohydrate diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the control diet for 90 d (p<0.05). These changes led to decreased specific growth rate and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). Upon hypoxia challenge, fish fed high carbohydrate diet had higher cumulative mortality than those fed the control diet (p<0.05). These results suggested that high dietary carbohydrate (52.92%) was detrimental to the growth performance and health of Wuchang bream.
Project description:Co-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and hormone receptor (HR) predicted worse prognosis in early breast cancer before trastuzumab was developed. We aimed to investigate whether HER2 positivity was still associated with worse outcome in high-risk estrogen receptor (ER) positive patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. In the present study, 227 ER+/HER2+ patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy (HER2-pos-T group) and 1097 ER+/HER2-patients treated with chemotherapy alone (HER2-neg group) during 2009 and 2015 were retrospectively enrolled for the comparison of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). At a median follow-up of 59 months, 174 DFS events and 69 deaths were observed. The estimated 5-year DFS rate was 94.2% in the HER2-pos-T group and 87.4% in the HER2-neg group (Log-rank P = 0.014). HER2-pos-T group was associated with significantly better DFS in multivariate analysis (HR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22-0.67, Log-rank P = 0.001). The estimated 5-year OS rates for the two groups were 97.2% and 95.7%, respectively (Log-rank P = 0.183). In multivariable analysis, patients in the HER2-pos-T group had significantly better OS compared with those in the HER2-neg group (HR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95, Log-rank P = 0.037). We concluded that high-risk ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and trastuzumab had superior prognosis compared with ER+/HER2-patients. Therefore, HER2 positivity itself may not be considered as an unfavorable factor for ER + patients in the era of trastuzumab.
Project description:An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid (CHO:L) ratios on growth performance, muscle fatty acid composition, and intermediary metabolism in juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (48.0% crude protein and 18.0 MJ kg-1 gross energy) were formulated to contain different CHO:L ratios ranging from 0.33 to 3.75. Triplicate groups of 20 fish averaging 0.51 ± 0.01 g were fed with experimental diets twice daily to apparent satiation. The results indicated that final body weight (FBW), percentage weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were significantly influenced by the dietary CHO:L ratios (p < 0.05). The highest FBW, PWG, and SGR were observed in fish fed the diet with a CHO:L ratio of 1.36 (p < 0.05). A two-slope broken-line regression analysis based on PWG indicated that the optimal dietary CHO:L is 1.08. Lipid content in the whole body decreased, and glycogen concentration in the liver increased with the increase of dietary CHO:L ratios from 0.33 to 3.75 (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between muscle fatty acid composition and dietary fatty acid composition. The relative expression levels of genes involved in glucose metabolism, such as gk, pepck, and glut2 were upregulated by increasing the dietary CHO:L ratio. Also, the mRNA expression level of genes related to lipid synthesis, such as fas and acc? were significantly upregulated with dietary CHO:L ratios increasing from 0.33 to 3.75. The highest expression of genes involved in fatty acid ?-oxidation, such as cpt1 and acox1, were observed in fish fed the 1.36 CHO:L ratio diet. The gene expression of ?6 fatty acyl desaturase (fads2) in the liver significantly increased with increase of dietary CHO:L ratios from 0.33 to 3.75. Fish fed the diet with CHO:L ratios of 2.26 and 3.75 had lower expression levels of elovl5 than those fed the other diets. These results demonstrate that dietary optimal CHO:L ratios could improve PWG and SGR but also influence expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Based on the overall results, the optimal dietary CHO:L ratio is 1.08 for black seabream.
Project description:Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild-type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP-A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) gene in mice at 5 months of age. fPAPP-A mice, which were either positive (pos) or negative (neg) for Tam-Cre, received Tam treatment with quarterly boosters. Only female mice could be used with this experimental design. fPAPP-A/neg and fPAPP-A/pos mice had similar weights at the start of the experiment and showed equivalent weight gain. We found that fPAPP-A/pos mice had a significant extension of life span (P = 0.005). The median life span was increased by 21% for fPAPP-A/pos compared to fPAPP-A/neg mice. Analysis of mortality in life span quartiles indicated that the proportion of deaths of fPAPP-A/pos mice were lower than fPAPP-A/neg mice at young adult ages (P = 0.002 for 601-800 days) and higher than fPAPP-A/neg mice at older ages (P = 0.004 for >1000 days). Thus, survival curves and age-specific mortality indicate that female mice with knockdown of PAPP-A gene expression as adults have an extended healthy life span.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:ARC-520, the first an RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic, was designed to reduce all RNA transcripts derived from covalently closed circular DNA, leading to a reduction in viral antigens and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We aimed to evaluate the depth of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decline in response to multiple doses of ARC-520 compared to placebo (PBO) in two randomized, multicenter studies in nucleoside/nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NUC)-experienced patients with hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-negative (E-neg) or HBeAg-positive (E-pos) disease. A total of 58 E-neg and 32 E-pos patients were enrolled and received four monthly doses of PBO (n = 20 E-neg, 11 E-pos), 1 mg/kg ARC-520 (n = 17 E-neg, 10 E-pos), or 2 mg/kg ARC-520 (n = 21 E-neg, 11 E-pos) concomitantly with NUC. HBsAg change from baseline to 30 days after the last ARC-520 dose were compared to PBO. Both E-neg and E-pos high-dose groups significantly reduced HBsAg compared to PBO, with mean reductions of 0.38 and 0.54 log IU/mL, respectively. HBsAg reductions persisted for approximately 85 days and >85 days after the last dose in E-neg and E-pos patients, respectively. The low-dose groups did not reach statistical significance in either study. E-pos patients showed a dose-dependent reduction in HBeAg from baseline. Mean maximum reduction was 0.23 and 0.69 log Paul Ehrlich IUs/mL in the low-dose and high dose ARC-520 groups respectively. ARC-520 was well tolerated, with only two serious adverse events of pyrexia possibly related to study drug observed. CONCLUSIONS:ARC-520 was active in both E-neg and E-pos, NUC-experienced HBV patients; but absolute HBsAg reductions were moderate, possibly due to expression of HBsAg from integrated HBV DNA, indicating the need for RNAi therapeutics that can target viral transcripts regardless of origin.
Project description:A 30-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate effects of dietary allicin on survival, growth, antioxidant capacity, innate immunity and expression of inflammatory and appetite related genes in large yellow croaker larvae. Four iso-nitrogenous (53% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (19% crude lipid) diets were formulated via supplementing graded levels of allicin (0.0 (the control), 0.005, 0.01, and 0.02% dry diet, respectively). Results showed that, among dietary treatments, larvae fed the diet with 0.005% allicin had the highest survival rate (SR) (P < 0.05), while larvae fed the diet with 0.01% allicin had the highest specific growth rate (SGR) (P < 0.05). Activities of ?-amylase in both pancreatic (PS) and intestine segments (IS) of larvae fed the diet with 0.01% allicin were significantly lower than that in the control (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the supplementation of 0.01% allicin in diets significantly increased activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) in the intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) of larvae than the control (P < 0.05), indicating the promoting roles of allicin on fish larval intestinal development. Moreover, compared to the control, both the nitric oxide (NO) content and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were significantly up-regulated in larvae fed the diet with 0.005% allicin, and catalase (CAT) were significantly upregulated in larvae fed the diet with 0.02% allicin (P < 0.05). Transcriptional levels of pro-inflammatory genes including cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), interleukin-1? (il-1?) and interleukin-6 (il-6) significantly decreased with increasing allicin, compared to the control. The expression of appetite genes including npy, ghrelin and leptin significantly increased with the prolonged fasting period, and dietary allicin supplementation significantly increased the transcriptional level of neuropeptide Y (npy) at 0.01%, while increased the transcriptional level of leptin in larvae at 0.02% dosages (P < 0.05). These results showed that the supplementation of 0.005% - 0.01% allicin in diets could improve the survival and growth of large yellow croaker larvae probably by promoting intestinal development, alleviating inflammation and enhancing appetite.
Project description:The effects of high carbohydrate diet on growth, serum physiological response, and hepatic heat shock protein 70 expression in Wuchang bream were determined at 25°C and 30°C. At each temperature, the fish fed the control diet (31% CHO) had significantly higher weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activities, lower feed conversion ratio and hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole crude lipid, serum glucose, hepatic glucokinase (GK) activity than those fed the high-carbohydrate diet (47% CHO) (p<0.05). The fish reared at 25°C had significantly higher whole body crude protein and ash, serum cholesterol and triglyceride, hepatic G-6-Pase activity, lower glycogen content and relative levels of hepatic growth hormone (GH) gene expression than those reared at 30°C (p<0.05). Significant interaction between temperature and diet was found for HSI, condition factor, hepatic GK activity and the relative levels of hepatic GH gene expression (p<0.05).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To study celiac-specific antibody status over 3?years in patients with type 1 diabetes and biopsy-proven celiac disease (T1D?+?CD). Furthermore, to determine clinical differences after diagnosis between patients reaching constant antibody-negativity (Ab-neg) and staying antibody-positive (Ab-pos). METHODS:A total of 608 pediatric T1D?+?CD patients from the multicenter DPV registry were studied longitudinally regarding their CD specific antibody-status. Differences between Ab-neg (n = 218) and Ab-pos (n = 158) patients 3?years after biopsy were assessed and compared with 26?833 T1D patients without CD by linear and logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, diabetes duration and migration background. RESULTS:Thirty-six percent of T1D?+?CD patients reached and sustained antibody-negativity 3?years after CD diagnosis. The median time until patients returned to Ab-neg was 0.86 (0.51;1.16) years. Three years after diagnosis, HbA1c was lowest in Ab-neg and highest in Ab-pos patients compared to T1D-only patients (adjusted mean (95%CI): 7.72 (7.51-7.92) % vs 8.44 (8.20-8.68) % vs 8.19 (8.17-8.21) %, adjusted P?<?0.001, respectively). Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and frequency of dyslipidemia were significantly lower in Ab-neg compared to T1D-only patients (167 (161-173) mg/dl vs 179 (178-179) mg/dl, P?<?.001; 90 (84-96) mg/dl vs 99 (98-99) mg/dl, P = .005; 15.7 (10.5-22.9) % vs 25.9 (25.2-26.6) %, P = .017). In longitudinal analyses over 6?years after diagnosis, a constantly higher HbA1c (P?<?.001) and a lower height-SDS (P = .044) was observed in Ab-pos compared to Ab-neg patients. CONCLUSION:Only one third of T1D?+?CD patients reached constant Ab-negativity after CD diagnosis. Achieving Ab-negativity after diagnosis seems to be associated with better metabolic control and growth, supposedly due to a higher adherence to therapy in general.