Project description:BACKGROUND: The genus Spiroplasma contains a group of helical, motile, and wall-less bacteria in the class Mollicutes. Similar to other members of this class, such as the animal-pathogenic Mycoplasma and the plant-pathogenic 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', all characterized Spiroplasma species were found to be associated with eukaryotic hosts. While most of the Spiroplasma species appeared to be harmless commensals of insects, a small number of species have evolved pathogenicity toward various arthropods and plants. In this study, we isolated a novel strain of honeybee-associated S. melliferum and investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and comparative analysis with other Mollicutes genomes. RESULTS: The whole-genome shotgun sequencing of S. melliferum IPMB4A produced a draft assembly that was ~1.1 Mb in size and covered ~80% of the chromosome. Similar to other Spiroplasma genomes that have been studied to date, we found that this genome contains abundant repetitive sequences that originated from plectrovirus insertions. These phage fragments represented a major obstacle in obtaining a complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma with the current sequencing technology. Comparative analysis of S. melliferum IPMB4A with other Spiroplasma genomes revealed that these phages may have facilitated extensive genome rearrangements in these bacteria and contributed to horizontal gene transfers that led to species-specific adaptation to different eukaryotic hosts. In addition, comparison of gene content with other Mollicutes suggested that the common ancestor of the SEM (Spiroplasma, Entomoplasma, and Mycoplasma) clade may have had a relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capacity; the extremely reduced genomes of present day Mycoplasma and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species are likely to be the result of independent gene losses in these lineages. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study highlighted the significance of phage insertions and horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of bacterial genomes and acquisition of pathogenicity. Furthermore, the inclusion of Spiroplasma in comparative analysis has improved our understanding of genome evolution in Mollicutes. Future improvements in the taxon sampling of available genome sequences in this group are required to provide further insights into the evolution of these important pathogens of humans, animals, and plants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Gram-negative intracellular bacterium Mycoplasma anatis is a pathogen of respiratory infectious diseases in ducks and has caused significant economic losses in the poultry industry.<h4>Objective</h4>This study, as the first report of the structure and function of the pan-genome of Mycoplasma anatis, may provide a valuable genetic basis for many aspects of future research on the pathogens of waterfowl.<h4>Methods</h4>We sequenced the whole genomes of 15 Mycoplasma anatis isolated from ducks in China. Draft genome sequencing was carried out and whole-genome sequencing was performed by the sequencers of the PacBio Sequel and an IonTorrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Then the common genic elements of protein-coding genes, tRNAs, and rRNAs of Mycoplasma anatis genomes were predicted by using the pipeline Prokka v1.13.7. To investigate homologous protein clusters across Mycoplasma anatis genomes, we adopted Roary v3.13.0 to cluster orthologous genes (OGs) based on the following criteria.<h4>Results</h4>We obtained one complete genome and 14 genome sketches. Microbial mobile genetic element analysis revealed the distribution of insertion sequences (IS30, IS3, and IS1634), prophage regions, and CRISPR arrays in the genome of Mycoplasma anatis. Comparative genomic analysis decoded the genetic components and functional classification of the pan-genome of Mycoplasma anatis that comprised 646 core genes, 231 dispensable genes and among them 110 was strain-specific. Virulence-related gene profiles of Mycoplasma anatis were systematically identified, and the products of these genes included bacterial ABC transporter systems, iron transport proteins, toxins, and secretion systems.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A complete virulence-related gene profile of Mycoplasma anatis has been identified, most of the genes are highly conserved in all strains. Sequencing results are relevant to the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance, adaptive evolution of pathogens, population structure, and vaccine development.
Project description:A chromium-reducing bacterium designated as strain KNP was isolated from a sample collected from a tannery effluent of Kanpur, India. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KNP belonged to the <i>Bacillus</i> genus and showed 100% similarity with <i>Bacillus licheniformis</i>. Furthermore, average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization between strain KNP and its closely related strains confirmed its affiliation with <i>Bacillus licheniformis</i> species<i>.</i> Whole-genome sequencing of <i>Bacillus licheniformis</i> KNP was performed using the Illumina Hiseq platform. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of <i>Bacillus licheniformis</i> KNP. The total size of the draft assembly was 4,280,093?bp, distributed into 21 contigs with an N50 value of 4,186,229. The genome has 45.9% G?+?C content, 4255 coding sequences and 86 putative RNA genes. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession JACDXS000000000. The version described in this paper is version JACDXS010000000.
Project description:Currently, the genome sequencing community is producing shotgun sequence data at a very high rate, but finishing (collecting additional directed sequence data to close gaps and improve the quality of the data) is not matching that rate. One reason for the difference is that shotgun sequencing is highly automated but finishing is not: Most finishing decisions, such as which directed reads to obtain and which specialized sequencing techniques to use, are made by people. If finishing rates are to increase to match shotgun sequencing rates, most finishing decisions also must be automated. The Autofinish computer program (which is part of the computer software package) does this by automatically choosing finishing reads. Autofinish is able to suggest most finishing reads required for completion of each sequencing project, greatly reducing the amount of human attention needed. sometimes completely finishes the project, with no human decisions required. It cannot solve the most complex problems, so we recommend that Autofinish be allowed to suggest reads for the first three rounds of finishing, and if the project still is not finished completely, a human finisher complete the work. We compared this Autofinish-Hybrid method of finishing against a human finisher in five different projects with a variety of shotgun depths by finishing each project twice--once with each method. This comparison shows that the Autofinish-Hybrid method saves many hours over a human finisher alone, while using roughly the same number and type of reads and closing gaps at roughly the same rate. Autofinish currently is in production use at several large sequencing centers. It is designed to be adaptable to the finishing strategy of the lab--it can finish using some or all of the following: resequencing reads, reverses, custom primer walks on either subclone templates or whole clone templates, PCR, or minilibraries. Autofinish has been used for finishing cDNA, genomic clones, and whole bacterial genomes (see http://www.phrap.org).
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes millions of death every year. We have sequenced the genome of M. tuberculosis isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The isolated strain was referred as M. tuberculosis SB24. Genomic DNA of the M. tuberculosis SB24 was extracted and subjected to whole genome sequencing using PacBio platform. The draft genome size of M. tuberculosis SB24 was determined to be 4,452,489 bp with a G + C content of 65.6%. The whole genome shotgun project has been deposited in NCBI SRA under the accession number SRP076503.
Project description:Alcoholism is associated with significant changes in gut microbiota composition. Metagenomic sequencing allows to assess the altered abundance levels of bacterial taxa and genes in a culture-independent way. We collected 99 stool samples from the patients with alcoholic dependence syndrome (n=72) and alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n=27). Each of the samples was surveyed using "shotgun" (whole-genome) sequencing on SOLiD platform. The reads are deposited in the ENA (project ID: PRJEB18041).
Project description:Detailed analyses of the clone-based genome assembly reveal that the recent duplication content of mouse (4.94%) is now comparable to that of human (5.5%), in contrast to previous estimates from the whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly. However, the architecture of mouse and human genomes differs markedly: most mouse duplications are organized into discrete clusters of tandem duplications that show depletion of genes and transcripts and enrichment of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) and long terminal repeat (LTR) retroposons. We assessed copy number variation of the C57BL/6J duplicated regions within 15 mouse strains previously used for genetic association studies, sequencing and the Mouse Phenome Project. We determined that over 60% of these base pairs are polymorphic among the strains (on average, there was 20 Mb of copy-number-variable DNA between different mouse strains). Our data suggest that different mouse strains show comparable, if not greater, copy number polymorphism when compared to human; however, such variation is more locally restricted. We show large and complex patterns of interstrain copy number variation restricted to large gene families associated with spermatogenesis, pregnancy, viviparity, pheromone signaling and immune response.
Project description:Antibiotic therapy can lead to the disruption of gut microbiota community with possible negative outcomes for human health. One of the diseases for which the treatment scheme commonly included antibiotic intake is Helicobacter pylori infection. The changes in taxonomic and functional composition of microbiota in patients can be assessed using "shotgun" metagenomic sequencing. Ten stool samples were collected from 4 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection before and directly after the H. pylori eradication course. Additionally, for two of the subjects, the samples were collected 1 month after the end of the treatment. The samples were subject to "shotgun" (whole-genome) metagenomic sequencing using Illumina HiSeq platform. The reads are deposited in the ENA (project ID: PRJEB18265).
Project description:We have engineered synthetic gene switches to control and limit Mycoplasma growth for biosafety containment applications. Mycoplasmas have high mutation rates and, the accumulation of mutations that inactivate the circuit is expected. However, the question is how resilient is the kill-switch to mutation and whether it is more sensitive to the accumulation of mutations. Therefore, we did the whole-genome sequencing of the three Mycoplasma biosafety strains, designed in our study, at different passages (p2, p3 and p15) or after IPTG-treatment at passage 3 (p3IPTG)
Project description:Detailed analyses of the clone-based genome assembly reveal that the recent duplication content of mouse (4.94%) is now comparable to that of human (5.5%), in contrast to previous estimates from the whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly. The architecture of mouse and human genomes differ dramatically; most mouse duplications are organized into discrete clusters of tandem duplications that are depleted for genes/transcripts and enriched for LINE1 and LTR retroposons. We assessed copy-number variation of the C57BL/6J duplicated regions within 15 mouse strains used for genetic association studies, sequencing, and the mouse phenome project. We determined that over 60% of these basepairs are polymorphic between the strains (on average 20 Mbp of copy-number variable DNA between different mouse strains). Our data suggest that different mouse strains show comparable, if not greater, copy-number polymorphism when compared to human; however, such variation is more locally restricted. We show large and complex patterns of inter-strain copy-number variation restricted to large gene families associated with spermatogenesis, pregnancy, viviparity, phermone signaling, and immune response. Keywords: comparative genomic hybridization Genomic DNA of 14 inbred mouse strains was tested against reference C57BL/6J sample. C57BL/6J DNA sample from another individual was tested as negative control.