Project description:Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterial species that causes anthrax in both humans and animals. In Zambia, anthrax cases are frequently reported in both livestock and wildlife, with occasional transmission to humans, causing serious public health problems in the country. To understand the genetic diversity of B. anthracis strains in Zambia, we sequenced and compared the genomic DNA of B. anthracis strains isolated across the country. Single nucleotide polymorphisms clustered these strains into three groups. Genome sequence comparisons revealed a large deletion in strains belonging to one of the groups, possibly due to unequal crossing over between a pair of rRNA operons. The deleted genomic region included genes conferring resistance to bacitracin, and the strains with the deletion were confirmed with loss of bacitracin resistance. Similar deletions between rRNA operons were also observed in a few B. anthracis strains phylogenetically distant from Zambian strains. The structure of bacitracin resistance genes flanked by rRNA operons was conserved only in members of the Bacillus cereus group. The diversity and genomic characteristics of B. anthracis strains determined in this study would help in the development of genetic markers and treatment of anthrax in Zambia. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, an endospore-forming soil bacterium. The genetic diversity of B. anthracis is known to be low compared with that of Bacillus species. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing of Zambian isolates of B. anthracis to understand the genetic diversity between closely related strains. Comparison of genomic sequences revealed that closely related strains were separated into three groups based on single nucleotide polymorphisms distributed throughout the genome. A large genomic deletion was detected in the region containing a bacitracin resistance gene cluster flanked by rRNA operons, resulting in the loss of bacitracin resistance. The structure of the deleted region, which was also conserved among species of the Bacillus cereus group, has the potential for both deletion and amplification and thus might be enabling the species to flexibly control the level of bacitracin resistance for adaptive evolution.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis strains previously isolated from Bulgaria form a unique subcluster within the A1.a cluster that is typical for isolates from southeastern Europe. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Bulgarian B. anthracis strains belonging to the A branch (A.Br.)008/009 canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) group of the major A branch.
Project description:In 1988, an outbreak of anthrax occurred among cattle in the Austrian state of Tyrol. Since then, Austria has been declared anthrax-free. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of one of these last outbreak strains, Bacillus anthracis Tyrol 4675, isolated from a diseased cow.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, is characteristically susceptible to penicillin despite containing two chromosomal ?-lactamase genes. Few naturally occurring penicillin-resistant B. anthracis isolates have been reported. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for three penicillin-resistant B. anthracis strains, strain 32, UT308, and SK57.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of five historical B. anthracis strains that were preserved as lyophilates in glass vials for decades.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms.
Project description:Soil was collected in July 2013 at a site where a cow infected with anthrax had been the month before. Selective culturing yielded Bacillus anthracis strain Tangail-1. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this Bacillus anthracis isolate that belongs to the canonical A.Br.001/002 clade.
Project description:Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, is susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, but few cases of naturally occurring penicillin-resistant strains have been reported. We report the genome sequence of penicillin-resistant strain Bacillus anthracis PCr, isolated from imported bone powder in 1978 in Japan.
Project description:This report presents genomic data on sequence reads and draft genomes of Bacillus anthracis isolates from anthrax outbreaks in animals in an endemic region of South Africa as well as genotyping of the strains using canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNPs). It is derived from an article entitle "Phylogenomic structure of B. anthracis strains in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa revealed novel single nucleotide polymorphisms". Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of twenty-three B. anthracis strains isolated during 1998 and 2009 anthrax outbreaks in the Northern Cape Province (NCP), as well as a strain from Botswana (6102_6B) and one from Namibia-South Africa transfrontier conservation area (Sendlingsdrift, 6461_SP2) were obtained using both the HiSeq 2500 and MiSeq Illumina platforms. Mismatch amplification mutation assay (melt-MAMA) qPCR were used to identify the canSNP genotypes within the global population of B. anthracis. DNA sequencing data is available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive and GenBank database under accession N0. PRJNA580142 and PRJNA510736 respectively. A phylogenetic tree and CanSNP typing profiles of the isolates are presented within this article.