Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in severe muscle weakness and eventual death by respiratory failure. Although little is known about its pathogenesis, mutations in fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS) are causative for familial ALS. FUS is a multifunctional protein that is involved in many aspects of RNA processing. To elucidate the role of FUS in ALS, we overexpressed wild-type and two mutant forms of FUS in HEK-293T cells, as well as knocked-down FUS expression. This was followed by RNA-Seq to identify genes which displayed differential expression or altered splicing patterns. Pathway analysis revealed that overexpression of wild-type FUS regulates ribosomal genes, whereas knock-down of FUS additionally affects expression of spliceosome related genes. Furthermore, cells expressing mutant FUS displayed global transcription patterns more similar to cells overexpressing wild-type FUS than to the knock-down condition. This observation suggests that FUS mutants do not contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS through a loss-of-function. Finally, our results demonstrate that the R521G and R522G mutations display differences in their influence on transcription and splicing. Taken together, these results provide additional insights into the function of FUS and how mutations contribute to the development of ALS.
Project description:More than half of all human genes produce prematurely terminated polyadenylated short mRNAs. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. CLIP-seq (cross-linking immunoprecipitation [CLIP] combined with deep sequencing) of FUS (fused in sarcoma) in neuronal cells showed that FUS is frequently clustered around an alternative polyadenylation (APA) site of nascent RNA. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) demonstrated that FUS stalls RNAP II and prematurely terminates transcription. When an APA site is located upstream of an FUS cluster, FUS enhances polyadenylation by recruiting CPSF160 and up-regulates the alternative short transcript. In contrast, when an APA site is located downstream from an FUS cluster, polyadenylation is not activated, and the RNAP II-suppressing effect of FUS leads to down-regulation of the alternative short transcript. CAGE-seq (cap analysis of gene expression [CAGE] combined with deep sequencing) and PolyA-seq (a strand-specific and quantitative method for high-throughput sequencing of 3' ends of polyadenylated transcripts) revealed that position-specific regulation of mRNA lengths by FUS is operational in two-thirds of transcripts in neuronal cells, with enrichment in genes involved in synaptic activities.
Project description:To investigate selectivity of mRNA oxidation, total RNA and oxidized RNA isolated from Neuro 2a cells before and after H2O2 treatment were employed for microarray analysis. It was found that selective oxidation of mRNA already occurs under normal culture conditions but was increased by H2O2, especially in a subset of mRNAs related to certain functions. Moreover, mRNA oxidation level is also related to its abundance or stability (half-life time). This shows for the first time that mRNA oxidation is associated with RNA homeostasis including function, stability and abundance depending on cellular redox status in a genome-wide scale. Neuro 2a cells received hydrogen peroxide treatment or no treatment as a control. Samples were applied for RNA extraction and ARP labeling, which could bind with apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, and then a pull-down process to isolate oxidized RNA. Total RNA and oxidized RNA were used for subsequent transcriptomic profiling. 4 types of samples were analyzed: Basal-total: untreated N2a cells labeled with ARP, but not processed for the pull-down assay. Ox-total: hydrogen peroxide-treated N2a cells labeled with ARP, but not processed for the pull-down assay. Basal-ARP: untreated N2a cells labeled with ARP, and processed for the pull-down assay. ARP-derivatized RNA, which is also oxidized RNA, was concentrated and used for the microarray analysis. Ox-ARP: hydrogen peroxide-treated N2a cells labeled with ARP, and processed for the pull-down assay. ARP-derivatized RNA, which is also oxidized RNA, was concentrated and used for the microarray analysis.
Project description:The tandem Agenet domain (TAD) of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) protein is considered to be a member of the methyl-lysine-binding Tudor domain "Royal family". Several groups have reported that the TAD binds with methylated histones and plays a role in DNA damage responses. FMRP is a RNA-binding protein predominantly resident in cytoplasm. Therefore, in this study, we identified DDX5, FUS, EWSR1 and LSM14A as TAD-interacting proteins sensitive to F32L and/or Y96L mutation by pull-down assays and mass spectrometry. We also showed that the interaction is potentially mediated by RGG/RG motifs. Furthermore, when FMRP was knocked-down, translocation of exogenously expressed wild-type FUS and disease-related mutant R514G was observed. This study may provide a novel insight into FMRP involvement in the intracellular localization of FUS and pathology of FUS-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by preferential motor neuron death. Approximately 15% of ALS cases are familial, and mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene contribute to a subset of familial ALS cases. FUS is a multifunctional protein participating in many RNA metabolism pathways. ALS-linked mutations cause a liquid-liquid phase separation of FUS protein in vitro, inducing the formation of cytoplasmic granules and inclusions. However, it remains elusive what other proteins are sequestered into the inclusions and how such a process leads to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. In this study, we developed a protocol to isolate the dynamic mutant FUS-positive cytoplasmic granules. Proteomic identification of the protein composition and subsequent pathway analysis led us to hypothesize that mutant FUS can interfere with protein translation. We demonstrated that the ALS mutations in FUS indeed suppressed protein translation in N2a cells expressing mutant FUS and fibroblast cells derived from FUS ALS cases. In addition, the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, which is closely related to protein translation, was altered by mutant FUS. Specifically, NMD-promoting factors UPF1 and UPF3b increased, whereas a negative NMD regulator, UPF3a, decreased, leading to the disruption of NMD autoregulation and the hyperactivation of NMD. Alterations in NMD factors and elevated activity were also observed in the fibroblast cells of FUS ALS cases. We conclude that mutant FUS suppresses protein biosynthesis and disrupts NMD regulation, both of which likely contribute to motor neuron death.
Project description:NKAP is a highly conserved protein with roles in transcriptional repression, T-cell development, maturation and acquisition of functional competency and maintenance and survival of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Here we report the novel role of NKAP in splicing. With NKAP-specific antibodies we found that NKAP localizes to nuclear speckles. NKAP has an RS motif at the N-terminus followed by a highly basic domain and a DUF 926 domain at the C-terminal region. Deletion analysis showed that the basic domain is important for speckle localization. In pull-down experiments, we identified RNA-binding proteins, RNA helicases and splicing factors as interaction partners of NKAP, among them FUS/TLS. The FUS/TLS-NKAP interaction takes place through the RS domain of NKAP and the RGG1 and RGG3 domains of FUS/TLS. We analyzed the ability of NKAP to interact with RNA using in vitro splicing assays and found that NKAP bound both spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) and unspliced pre-mRNA. Genome-wide analysis using crosslinking and immunoprecipitation-seq revealed NKAP association with U1, U4 and U5 small nuclear RNA, and we also demonstrated that knockdown of NKAP led to an increase in pre-mRNA percentage. Our results reveal NKAP as nuclear speckle protein with roles in RNA splicing and processing.
Project description:Prion-like domains (PLDs) are low complexity sequences found in RNA binding proteins associated with the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recently, PLDs have been implicated in mediating gene regulation via liquid-phase transitions that drive ribonucleoprotein granule assembly. In this paper, we report many PLDs in proteins associated with paraspeckles, subnuclear bodies that form around long noncoding RNA. We mapped the interactome network of paraspeckle proteins, finding enrichment of PLDs. We show that one protein, RBM14, connects key paraspeckle subcomplexes via interactions mediated by its PLD. We further show that the RBM14 PLD, as well as the PLD of another essential paraspeckle protein, FUS, is required to rescue paraspeckle formation in cells in which their endogenous counterpart has been knocked down. Similar to FUS, the RBM14 PLD also forms hydrogels with amyloid-like properties. These results suggest a role for PLD-mediated liquid-phase transitions in paraspeckle formation, highlighting this nuclear body as an excellent model system for understanding the perturbation of such processes in neurodegeneration.