Project description:Short RNAs derived from the cleavage of tRNA molecules are observed in most organisms. Their occurrence seems to be induced by stress conditions, but still little is known about their biogenesis and functions. We find that the recovery of tRNA fragments depends on the RNA isolation method. Using an optimized RNA extraction protocol and northern blot hybridization technique, we show that the tRNA-derived fragments in yeast are widespread in 12 different growth conditions. We did not observe significant stress-dependent changes in the amounts of tRNA fragments pool. Instead, we show the differential processing of almost all individual tRNAs. We also provide evidence that 3'-part-derived tRNA fragments are as abundant as the 5'- one in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting set of S. cerevisiae tRNA fragments provides a robust basis for further experimental studies on biological functions of tRFs.
Project description:Recent experiments established that a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) survives sudden high temperatures by specifically duplicating the entire chromosome III and two chromosomal fragments (from IV and XII). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are not significantly over-abundant in the duplication. In contrast, we suggest a simple algorithm to " postdict " the experimental results: Find a small enough chromosome with minimal protein disorder and duplicate this region. This algorithm largely explains all observed duplications. In particular, all regions duplicated in the experiment reduced the overall content of protein disorder. The differential analysis of the functional makeup of the duplication remained inconclusive. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment suggested over-representation in processes related to reproduction and nutrient uptake. Analyzing the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) revealed that few network-central proteins were duplicated. The predictive hypothesis hinges upon the concept of reducing proteins with long regions of disorder in order to become less sensitive to heat shock attack.
Project description:Based on the prediction that histone lysine demethylases may contain the JmjC domain, we examined the methylation patterns of five knock-out strains (ecm5Delta, gis1Delta, rph1Delta, jhd1Delta, and jhd2Delta (yjr119cDelta)) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of histone H3 showed increased modifications in all mutants except ecm5Delta. High-resolution MS was used to unequivocally differentiate trimethylation from acetylation in various tryptic fragments. The relative abundance of specific fragments indicated that histones K36me3 and K4me3 accumulate in rph1Delta and jhd2Delta strains, respectively, whereas both histone K36me2 and K36me accumulate in gis1Delta and jhd1Delta strains. Analyses performed with strains overexpressing the JmjC proteins yielded changes in methylation patterns that were the reverse of those obtained in the complementary knock-out strains. In vitro enzymatic assays confirmed that the JmjC domain of Rph1 specifically demethylates K36me3 primarily and K36me2 secondarily. Overexpression of RPH1 generated a growth defect in response to UV irradiation. The demethylase activity of Rph1 is responsible for the phenotype. Collectively, in addition to Jhd1, our results identified three novel JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases and their sites of action in budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, the methodology described here will be useful for identifying histone demethylases and their target sites in other organisms.
Project description:We have screened the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fragments that confer a growth-retardation phenotype when overexpressed in a multicopy plasmid with a tetracycline-regulatable (Tet-off) promoter. We selected 714 such fragments with a mean size of 700 base-pairs out of around 84,000 clones tested. These include 493 in-frame open reading frame fragments corresponding to 454 distinct genes (of which 91 are of unknown function), and 162 out-of-frame, antisense and intergenic genomic fragments, representing the largest collection of toxic inserts published so far in yeast.
Project description:We have reported the isolation of linking clones of HindIII and EcoRI fragments, altogether spanning a 230-kb continuous stretch of chromosome VI. The presence or absence of autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activities in all of these fragments has been determined by using ARS searching vectors containing CEN4. Nine ARS fragments were identified, and their positions were mapped on the chromosome. Structures essential for and/or stimulative to ARS activity were determined for the ARS fragments by deletions and mutations. The organization of functional elements composed of core and stimulative sequences was found to be variable. Single core sequences were identified in eight of nine ARSs. The remaining ARS (ARS603) essential element is composed of two core-like sequences. The lengths of 3'- and 5'-flanking stimulative sequences required for the full activity of ARSs varied from ARS to ARS. Five ARSs required more than 100 bp of the 3'-flanking sequence as stimulative sequences, while not more than 79 bp of the 3' sequence was required by the other three ARSs. In addition, five ARSs had stimulative sequences varying from 127 to 312 bp in the 5'-flanking region of the core sequence. In general, these stimulative activities were correlated with low local delta Gs of unwinding, suggesting that the low local delta G of an ARS is an important element for determining the efficiency of initiation of replication of ARS plasmids.
Project description:The nuclear genome of eukaryotes is colonized by DNA fragments of mitochondrial origin, called NUMTs. These insertions have been associated with a variety of germ-line diseases in humans. The significance of this uptake of potentially dangerous sequences into the nuclear genome is unclear. Here we provide functional evidence that sequences of mitochondrial origin promote nuclear DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that NUMTs are rich in key autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) consensus motifs, whose mutation results in the reduction or loss of DNA replication activity. Furthermore, 2D-gel analysis of the mrc1 mutant exposed to hydroxyurea shows that several NUMTs function as late chromosomal origins. We also show that NUMTs located close to or within ARS provide key sequence elements for replication. Thus NUMTs can act as independent origins, when inserted in an appropriate genomic context or affect the efficiency of pre-existing origins. These findings show that migratory mitochondrial DNAs can impact on the replication of the nuclear region they are inserted in.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPH1 was first identified as a gene encoding a 3' to 5' DNA helicase, which when deleted leads to a mutator phenotype. In this study, we isolated MPH1 as a multicopy suppressor of the dna2K1080E helicase-negative lethal mutant. Purified Mph1 stimulated the endonuclease activities of both Fen1 and Dna2, which act faithfully in the processing of Okazaki fragments. This stimulation required neither ATP hydrolysis nor the helicase activity of Mph1. Multicopy expression of MPH1 also suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth defects in cells expressing dna2Delta405N, which lacks the N-terminal 405 amino acids of Dna2. However, Mph1 did not stimulate the endonuclease activity of the Dna2Delta405N mutant protein. The stimulation of Fen1 by Mph1 was limited to flap-structured substrates; Mph1 hardly stimulated the 5' to 3' exonuclease activity of Fen1. Mph1 binds to flap-structured substrate more efficiently than to nicked duplex structures, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of Mph1 is exerted through its binding to DNA substrates. In addition, we found that Mph1 reversed the inhibitory effects of replication protein A on Fen1 activity. Our biochemical and genetic data indicate that the in vivo suppression of Dna2 defects observed with both dna2K1080E and dna2Delta405N mutants occur via stimulation of Fen1 activity. These findings suggest that Mph1 plays an important, although not essential, role in processing of Okazaki fragments by facilitating the formation of ligatable nicks.
Project description:DNA-damaging agents can induce clustered lesions or multiply damaged sites (MDSs) on the same or opposing DNA strands. In the latter, attempts to repair MDS can generate closely opposed single-strand break intermediates that may convert non-lethal or mutagenic base damage into double-strand breaks (DSBs). We constructed a diploid S. cerevisiae yeast strain with a chromosomal context targeted by integrative DNA fragments carrying different damages to determine whether closely opposed base damages are converted to DSBs following the outcomes of the homologous recombination repair pathway. As a model of MDS, we studied clustered uracil DNA damages with a known location and a defined distance separating the lesions. The system we describe might well be extended to assessing the repair of MDSs with different compositions, and to most of the complex DNA lesions induced by physical and chemical agents.
Project description:We investigated the genome-wide distribution of Okazaki fragments in the commonly used laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C to study the DNA replication model adopted by the budding yeast. The method based upon lambda exonuclease digestion for purification of RNA-primed replication intermediates was first improved to be suitable for the purification of Okazaki fragments. Then, we used this improved method to purify Okazaki fragments from S288C yeast cells, followed by Illumina sequencing. We found that the expected asymmetric distribution of Okazaki fragments around confirmed replication origins, which was derived from the semi-discontinuous DNA replication model, was not observed on S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Even around two highly efficient replication origins, ARS522 and ARS416, the ratios of Okazaki fragments on both strands were inconsistent with the semi-discontinuous DNA replication model. Our study supported the discontinuous DNA replication model. Besides, we also observed that Okazaki fragments were overpresented in the transcribed regions in S. cerevisiae mitochondrial genome, which indicated the interplay between transcription and DNA replication. Examination of the distribution of Okazaki fragments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C.
Project description:The binding of MS2-GFP protein to arrays of MS2 sites in yeast mRNAs has been used extensively to visualize mRNA localization. We previously reported that arrays of MS2 sites bound by MS2 protein could inhibit Xrn1p and lead to the accumulation of 3' mRNA decay fragments. We suggest that these decay fragments have the potential to complicate mRNA localization studies, as stated in an earlier study.