Project description:We assess whole-genome H3K9me3 distribution in cancer cells and find that H3K9me3 is largely enriched in long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1). A significant proportion of KDM4B-dependent H3K9me3 was located in evolutionarily young LINE-1 elements, which likely retain retrotransposition activity. Ectopic expression of KDM4B promoted LINE-1 expression, while depletion of KDM4B reduced it. Furthermore, KDM4B overexpression enhanced LINE-1 retrotransposition efficacy, copy number, and associated DNA damage, presumably via the histone demethylase activity of KDM4B. Breast cancer cell lines expressing high levels of KDM4B also exhibited increased LINE-1 expression and copy number compared with other cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of KDM4B significantly reduced LINE-1 expression and DNA damage in breast cancer cells with excessive KDM4B. Our study not only identifies KDM4B as a novel regulator of LINE-1, but it also suggests an unexpected oncogenic role for KDM4B overexpression in tumorigenesis, providing clues for the development of new cancer prevention strategies and therapies. Overall design: We performed H3K9me3 ChIP-seq with wild-type (WT), shKDM4B and KDM4B in MCF7 cell lines
Project description:We used ATLAS-seq to map the sites of integration of an engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon into the genome of HeLa S3 cells. Then, we compared the position of these sites with publicly available genomic datasets. In order to cross-corroborate our findings with datasets obtained in the same cell stock as used in our retrotransposition assays, we also performed H3K4me1 ChIP-seq.
Project description:L1 retrotransposons are active elements in the genome, capable of mobilization in neuronal progenitor cells. Previously, we showed that chromatin remodeling during neuronal differentiation allows for a transient stimulation of L1 transcription. The activity of L1 retrotransposons during brain development can impact gene expression and neuronal function. Here we show that L1 neuronal retrotransposition in rodents is increased in the absence of MeCP2, a protein involved in global methylation and human neurodevelopmental diseases. Using neuronal progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and human tissues, we revealed that Rett syndrome patients, with MeCP2 mutations, have increased susceptibility for L1 retrotransposition. Our data demonstrate that disease-related genetic mutations can influence the frequency of neuronal L1 retrotransposition, thereby increasing brain-specific genetic mosaicism. Genetic reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state (induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs) by over-expression of specific genes has been accomplished for fibroblasts derived from controls and Rett syndrome patients. Different clones from each were compared to respective original fibroblasts and a human embryonic stem cell line. Gene expression profiles measured using human genome Affymetrix Gene Chip arrays were grouped by hierarchical clustering, and correlation coefficients were computed for all pair-wise comparisons.
Project description:L1 retrotransposons are active elements in the genome, capable of mobilization in neuronal progenitor cells. Previously, we showed that chromatin remodeling during neuronal differentiation allows for a transient stimulation of L1 transcription. The activity of L1 retrotransposons during brain development can impact gene expression and neuronal function. Here we show that L1 neuronal retrotransposition in rodents is increased in the absence of MeCP2, a protein involved in global methylation and human neurodevelopmental diseases. Using neuronal progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and human tissues, we revealed that Rett syndrome patients, with MeCP2 mutations, have increased susceptibility for L1 retrotransposition. Our data demonstrate that disease-related genetic mutations can influence the frequency of neuronal L1 retrotransposition, thereby increasing brain-specific genetic mosaicism. Overall design: Genetic reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state (induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs) by over-expression of specific genes has been accomplished for fibroblasts derived from controls and Rett syndrome patients. Different clones from each were compared to respective original fibroblasts and a human embryonic stem cell line. Gene expression profiles measured using human genome Affymetrix Gene Chip arrays were grouped by hierarchical clustering, and correlation coefficients were computed for all pair-wise comparisons.
Project description:We used ATLAS-seq-neo to map the sites of integration of an engineered LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon into the genome of HeLa S3 cells. In brief, we transfected cells with a plasmid-borne L1.3 element carrying a neomycin-resistance-based retrotransposition cassette, as well as a hygromycin-resistance cassette on the plasmid backbone. For this set of experiments, cells were only selected for transfection (hygromycin) but not for retrotransposition (neomycin). Then we prepared ATLAS-seq-neo libraries. Each sample corresponds to an independent transfection and pool of hygromycin-resistant cells. ATLAS-seq-neo relies on the random mechanical fragmentation of the genomic DNA to ensure high-coverage, ligation of adapter sequences, suppression PCR-amplification of the 3' end L1 junction with its flanking genomic sequence, and Ion Torrent sequencing using single-end 400 bp read chemistry. The primer used for suppression PCR specifically targets the engineered element and not endogenous copies as in the original ATLAS-seq protocol (Philippe et al. eLife 2016). For some libraries, the linker-ligated genomic DNA was digested with BamHI, which cuts downstream of L1 polyA site in the plasmid backbone, to limit amplification from the plasmid and enrich for retrotransposition-mediated insertion events into the genomic DNA.
Project description:The aim of this study is to discover LINE-1 (L1) insertion sites present in humans that are absent from the reference genome sequence. We use the distinguishing nucleotide characteristics of human-specific L1 elements to resequence the L1 3' flanking regions thus locating the L1 insertion sites whether or not they are present in the reference genome assembly. In doing so, we have uncovered a higher than expected number of non-reference L1 insertions, an average of 152 insertions per individual. In addition, we find that any two individuals differ at an average of 285 sites with respect to presence or absence of L1 insertions in those sites, and use this to estimate the rate of retrotransposition in humans at 1 event per 140 live births (95% c.i. 1/95 to 1/270). We show that individual 'L1 profiles' recapitulate genetic ancestry as expected, and find that dimorphic insertions are more frequent in introns relative to fixed insertions.
Project description:Two-thirds of gene promoters in mammals are associated with regions of non-methylated DNA, called CpG islands (CGIs), which counteract the repressive effects of DNA methylation. In lower vertebrates, computational CGI predictions often reside away from gene promoters, suggesting a major divergence in gene promoter architecture across vertebrates. By experimentally identifying non-methylated DNA in the genomes of seven diverse vertebrates, we instead reveal that non-methylated islands (NMIs) of DNA are a central feature of vertebrate gene promoters. Furthermore, NMIs are present at orthologous genes across vast evolutionary distances, revealing a surprising level of conservation in this epigenetic feature. By profiling NMIs in different tissues and developmental stages we uncover a unifying set of features that are central to the function of NMIs in vertebrates. Together these findings demonstrate an ancient logic for NMI usage at gene promoters and reveal an unprecedented level of epigenetic conservation across vertebrate evolution. Bio-CAP was used to identify non-methylated regions of the genome in seven diverse vertebrates (human, mouse, platypus, chicken, lizard, frog and zebrafish) across a number of tissues.
Project description:The RAG1/RAG2 endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination at antigen receptor loci but also binds to thousands of places outside of these loci. RAG2 localizes directly to lysine 4 trimethylated histone 3 (H3K4me3) through a PHD finger. The relative contribution of RAG2-dependent and RAG1-intrinsic mechanisms in determining RAG1 binding patterns is not known. Through analysis of deep RAG1 ChIP-seq data, we provide a quantitative description of the forces underlying genome-wide targeting of RAG1. Surprisingly, sequence-specific DNA binding contributes minimally to RAG1 targeting outside of antigen receptor loci. Instead, RAG1 binding is driven by two distinct modes of interaction with chromatin: the first is driven by H3K4me3, promoter-focused, and dependent on the RAG2 PHD, and the second is defined by H3K27Ac, enhancer-focused, and dependent on "non-core" portions of RAG1. Based on this and additional chromatin and genomic features, we formulated a predictive model of RAG1 targeting to the genome. RAG1 binding sites predicted by our model correlate well with observed patterns of RAG1-mediated breaks in human pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Overall, this study provides an integrative model for RAG1 genome-wide binding and off-target activity, and reveals a novel role for the RAG1 non-core region in RAG1 targeting. ChIP-seq profiles of RAG1 from mouse thymocytes, and H3K27Ac from human REH cell line
Project description:The androgen receptor is a steroid receptor belonging to the superfamily of hormone-activated transcriptional factors, displaying distinct expression profiles in Sertoli cells during testis development, tightly correlated to the stages of spermatogenesis.The aim of the project was to better understand the AR signaling pathways, and identify androgen regulated genes in a mature Sertoli cell line (ST38c). In order to identify androgen regulated candidate genes we compared the gene expression of mature Sertoli cells (ST38c) in the absence (condition B) and in the presence of a androgenic ligand, dihydrotestosterone (condition ST). In order to understand the AMH gene repression in mature Sertoli cells, which occurs at puberty, soon after the augmentation of the AR expression, we also compared the gene profile of an immature, not expressing the androgen receptor, prepubertal Sertoli cell line (SMAT1-condition A) with the mature Sertoli cell line (ST38c- condition C), expressing the androgen receptor. The Sertoli cell line SMAT1 has been obtaiend from a 6-day old transgenic male mouse (using the targeted oncogenesis SV40). This cell line has been kindly provided to us by Dr Jean Yves Picard (UMR 782), Universite Paris Sud. (Dutertre M, et al., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997 Dec 31;136(1):57-65. PMID 9510068).The Sertoli cell line ST38c was obtained in the INSERM U-693 from 8-wk-old male murine testis; from a transgenic mouse carrying the construct in which the SV40 large T Antigen (TAg) was placed under the control of the human vimentin promoter. The development and description of this new cell line have not yet been published.
Project description:What genomic changes led to the origin of vertebrates remains a mystery. On the one hand, animal evolution is thought to be driven mostly by changes in the cis-regulatory regions of a shared conserved and toolkit of developmental genes. On the other hand, vertebrates experienced two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) that increased their gene repertoire, particularly of regulatory genes controlling embryo development. To shed light into the origin and evolution of the vertebrate regulatory genome, we have generated an unprecedented transcriptomic and epigenomic resource for the non-duplicated genome of the European amphioxus, a closely related invertebrate chordate. These data include RNA-seq for more than 35 developmental stages and adult tissues, CAGE-seq, ChIP-seq, bisulphite-seq and ATAC-seq for several developmental stages and adult tissues. By comparing these data sets with equivalent novel and previously available data for various vertebrate species, especially zebrafish, we uncovered multiple conserved and vertebrate-specific regulatory landmarks. We first identify a conserved chordate phylotypic stage, a developmental period in which different chordate species show the highest gene expression similarity. We also shed light on the origin of enhancer demethylation in vertebrates, by identifying, for the first time in an invertebrate species, differentially methylated enhancers. Furthermore, we show that conserved clusters of co-expressed and tissue-specific genes display similar enrichments for cis-regulatory motifs between amphioxus and vertebrates. Finally, we study the impact of vertebrate WGDs on the evolution of gene regulation, providing the first genome-wide quantitative assessment of sub-functionalization and neo-functionalization processes after the vertebrate WGDs; changing the way in which these evolutionary mechanisms have been traditionally understood. Overall design: ChIPseq assays in different developmental stages of european amphioxus