Project description:The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza.
Project description:A huge amount of cDNA and EST resources have been developed for cultivated rice species Oryza sativa; however, only few cDNA resources are available for wild rice species. In this study, we isolated and completely sequenced 1888 putative full-length cDNA (FLcDNA) clones from wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. W1943 for comparative analysis between wild and cultivated rice species. Two cDNA libraries were constructed from 3-week-old leaf samples under either normal or cold-treated conditions. Homology searching of these cDNA sequences revealed that >96.8% of the wild rice cDNAs were matched to the cultivated rice O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare genome sequence. However, <22% of them were fully matched to the cv. Nipponbare genome sequence. The comparative analysis showed that O. rufipogon W1943 had greater similarity to O. sativa ssp. japonica than to ssp. indica cultivars. In addition, 17 novel rice cDNAs were identified, and 41 putative tissue-specific expression genes were defined through searching the rice massively parallel signature-sequencing database. In conclusion, these FLcDNA clones are a resource for further function verification and could be broadly utilized in rice biological studies.
Project description:The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a text-based browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tab-delimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/.
Project description:Exploiting novel gene sources from wild relatives has proven to be an efficient approach to advance crop genetic breeding efforts. Oryza granulata, with the GG genome type, occupies the basal position of the Oryza phylogeny and has the second largest genome (~882 Mb). As an upland wild rice species, it possesses renowned traits that distinguish it from other Oryza species, such as tolerance to shade and drought, immunity to bacterial blight and resistance to the brown planthopper. Here, we generated a 736.66-Mb genome assembly of O. granulata with 40,131 predicted protein-coding genes. With Hi-C data, for the first time, we anchored ~98.2% of the genome assembly to the twelve pseudo-chromosomes. This chromosome-length genome assembly of O. granulata will provide novel insights into rice genome evolution, enhance our efforts to search for new genes for future rice breeding programmes and facilitate the conservation of germplasm of this endangered wild rice species.
Project description:Africa contains a huge diversity of both cultivated and wild rice species. The region has eight species representing six of the ten known genome types. Genetic resources of these species are conserved in various global germplasm repositories but they remain under collected and hence underrepresented in germplasm collections. Moreover, they are under characterized and therefore grossly underutilized. The lack of in situ conservation programs further exposes them to possible genetic erosion or extinction. In order to obtain maximum benefits from these resources, it is imperative that they are collected, efficiently conserved and optimally utilized. High throughput molecular approaches such as genome sequencing could be employed to more precisely study their genetic diversity and value and thereby enhance their use in rice improvement. Oryza sativa was the first crop plant to have its reference genome sequence released marking a major milestone that opened numerous opportunities for functional characterization of the entire rice genome. Studies have however demonstrated that one reference genome sequence is not enough to fully explore the genetic variation in the Oryza genus, hence the need to have reference sequences for other species in the genus. An overview of the state of conservation and utilization of African Oryza is hereby presented. Progress in the release of reference genome sequences for these species is also highlighted.
Project description:Common wild rice contains valuable resources of novel alleles for rice improvement. It is well known that genetic populations provide the basis for a wide range of genetic and genomic studies. In particular, chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) ais a powerful tool for fine mapping of quantitative traits, new gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, 132 CSSLs were developed from a cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar (93-11) and common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. DP30) by selfing-crossing, backcrossing and marker-assisted selection (MAS). Based on the high-throughput sequencing of the 93-11 and DP30, 285 pairs of Insertion-deletions (InDel) markers were selected with an average distance of 1.23 Mb. The length of this DP30-CSSLs library was 536.4 cM. The coverage rate of substitution lines cumulatively overlapping the whole genome of DP30 was about 91.55%. DP30-CSSLs were used to analyze the variation for 17 traits leading to the detection of 36 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant phenotypic effects. A cold-tolerant line (RZ) was selected to construct a secondary mapping F2 population, which revealed that qCT2.1 is in the 1.7 Mb region of chromosome 2. These CSSLs may, therefore, provide powerful tools for genome wide large-scale gene discovery in wild rice. This research will also facilitate fine mapping and cloning of QTLs and genome-wide study of wild rice. Moreover, these CSSLs will provide a foundation for rice variety improvement.
Project description:Rice is the most important crop in the world as the staple food for over half of the population. The wild species of Oryza represent an enormous gene pool for genetic improvement of rice cultivars. Accurate and rapid identification of these species is critical for effective utilization of the wild rice germplasm. In this study, we developed valuable chloroplast molecular markers by comparing the chloroplast genomes for species identification. Four chloroplast genomes of Oryza were newly sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform and other 14 Oryza species chloroplast genomes from Genbank were simultaneously taken into consideration for comparative analyses. Among 18 Oryza chloroplast genomes, five variable regions (rps16-trnQ, trnTEYD, psbE-petL, rpoC2 and rbcL-accD) were detected for DNA barcodes, in addition to differences in simple sequence repeats (SSR) and repeat sequences. The highest species resolution (72.22%) was provided by rpoC2 and rbcL-accD with distance-based methods. Three-marker combinations (rps16-trnQ + trnTEYD + rbcL-accD, rps16-trnQ + trnTEYD + rpoC2 and rpoC2 + trnTEYD + psbE-petL) showed the best species resolution (100%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the chloroplast genome provided the best resolution of Oryza. In the comparison of chloroplast genomes in this study, identification of the most variable regions and assessment of the focal regions of divergence were efficient in developing species-specific DNA barcodes. Based on evaluation of the chloroplast genomic resources, we conclude that chloroplast genome sequences are a reliable and valuable molecular marker for exploring the wild rice genetic resource in rice improvement.
Project description:The wild Oryza species are rich in genetic diversity and are good resources for modern breeding of rice varieties. The reliable ex situ conservation of various genetic resources supports both basic and applied rice research. For this purpose, we developed PCR-based and co-dominant insertion/deletion (INDEL) markers which enable the discrimination of the genome types or species in the genus Oryza. First, 12,107 INDEL candidate sequences were found in the BAC end sequences for 12 Oryza species available in public databases. Next, we designed PCR primers for INDEL-flanking sequences to match the characteristics of each INDEL, based on an assessment of their likelihood to give rise to a single or few PCR products in all 102 wild accessions, covering most Oryza genome types. Then, we selected 22 INDEL markers to discriminate all genome types in the genus Oryza. A phylogenetic tree of 102 wild accessions and two cultivars according to amplicon polymorphisms for the 22 INDEL markers corresponded well to those in previous studies, indicating that the INDEL markers developed in this study were a useful tool to improve the reliability of identification of wild Oryza species in the germplasm stocks.
Project description:The African wild rice species Oryza longistaminata has several beneficial traits compared to cultivated rice species, such as resistance to biotic stresses, clonal propagation via rhizomes, and increased biomass production. To facilitate breeding efforts and functional genomics studies, we de-novo assembled a high-quality, haploid-phased genome. Here, we present our assembly, with a total length of 351?Mb, of which 92.2% was anchored onto 12 chromosomes. We detected 34,389 genes and 38.1% of the genome consisted of repetitive content. We validated our assembly by a comparative linkage analysis and by examining well-characterized gene families. This genome assembly will be a useful resource to exploit beneficial alleles found in O. longistaminata. Our results also show that it is possible to generate a high-quality, functionally complete rice genome assembly from moderate SMRT read coverage by exploiting synteny in a closely related Oryza species.
Project description:Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important food crop in the world and a model system for plant biology. With the completion of a finished genome sequence we must now functionally characterize the rice genome by a variety of methods, including comparative genomic analysis between cereal species and within the genus Oryza. Oryza contains two cultivated and 22 wild species that represent 10 distinct genome types. The wild species contain an essentially untapped reservoir of agriculturally important genes that must be harnessed if we are to maintain a safe and secure food supply for the 21st century. As a first step to functionally characterize the rice genome from a comparative standpoint, we report the construction and analysis of a comprehensive set of 12 BAC libraries that represent the 10 genome types of Oryza. To estimate the number of clones required to generate 10 genome equivalent BAC libraries we determined the genome sizes of nine of the 12 species using flow cytometry. Each library represents a minimum of 10 genome equivalents, has an average insert size range between 123 and 161 kb, an average organellar content of 0.4%-4.1% and nonrecombinant content between 0% and 5%. Genome coverage was estimated mathematically and empirically by hybridization and extensive contig and BAC end sequence analysis. A preliminary analysis of BAC end sequences of clones from these libraries indicated that LTR retrotransposons are the predominant class of repeat elements in Oryza and a roughly linear relationship of these elements with genome size was observed.