Bombyx strain:B. mori (c10), B. mori (p21), B. mori (p22), B. mori (p20), B. mori (k25), B. mori (f35), B. mori (b20), B. mori (d18), B. mori (u48), B. mori (n16), B. mori (o55), B. mori (o56), B. mori (e10), B. mori (p44), B. mori (c51), B. mori (g53),B. mandarina (Oki), B. mandarina (Sakado), B. mori (C108T), B. mori (N4)
ABSTRACT: Genome resequencing of inbred silkwroms derived from different origins
Project description:Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina are morphologically and physiologically similar. In this study, we compared the nucleotide variations in the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes between the domesticated silkmoth, B. mori, and its wild ancestors, Chinese B. mandarina (ChBm) and Japanese B. mandarina (JaBm). The sequence divergence and transition mutation ratio between B. mori and ChBm are significantly smaller than those observed between B. mori and JaBm. The preference of transition by DNA strands between B. mori and ChBm is consistent with that between B. mori and JaBm, however, the regional variation in nucleotide substitution rate shows a different feature. These results suggest that the ChBm mt genome is not undergoing the same evolutionary process as JaBm, providing evidence for selection on mtDNA. Moreover, investigation of the nucleotide sequence divergence in the A+T-rich region of Bombyx mt genomes also provides evidence for the assumption that the A+T-rich region might not be the fastest evolving region of the mtDNA of insects.
Project description:To investigate the patterns of nucleotide diversity in domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and its wild relative, Chinese wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina Moore, we sequenced nine nuclear genes. Neutrality test and coalescent simulation for these genes were performed to look at bottleneck intensity and selection signature; linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and between loci was employed to investigate allele association. As a result, B. mori lost 33-49% of nucleotide diversity relative to wild silkworm, which is similar to the loss levels found in major cultivated crops. Diversity of B. mori is significantly lower than that of B. mandarina measured as ?(total) (0.01166 vs. 0.1741) or ?(W)(0.01124 vs. 0.02206). Bottleneck intensity of domesticated silkworm is 1.5 (in terms of k = N(b) /d, N(b) -bottleneck population size; d-bottleneck duration) with different durations. Gene DefA showed signature of artificial selection by all analysis methods and might experience strong artificial selection in B. mori during domestication. For nine loci, both curves of LD decay rapidly within 200 bp and drop slowly when distance is > 200 bp, although that of B. mori decays slower than B. mandarina at loci investigated. However, LD could not be estimated at DefA in B. mori and at ER in both silkworms. Elevated LD observed in B. mori may be indicator of selection and demographic events.
Project description:We reared a Telenomus species from eggs of Bombyx mandarina (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) and Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in Japan, and from eggs of B. mandarina in Taiwan. Morphological examination revealed that this Telenomus species is new to science. In this article, we describe it as Telenomus moricolus Matsuo et Hirose, sp. nov. Because B. mandarina is considered to be an ancestor of B. mori, a domestic insect, it is reasonable to assume that B. mandarina is an original host of T. moricolus. This is the second discovery of an egg parasitoid attacking wild and domesticated silkworms, following the first discovery of T. theophilae, a Chinese species. The significance of the discovery of T. moricolus is discussed in relation to examining the effects of host-insect domestication on egg parasitism.
Project description:Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) satellite RNA (satBaMV) depends on BaMV for its replication and encapsidation. SatBaMV-encoded P20 protein is an RNA-binding protein that facilitates satBaMV systemic movement in co-infected plants. Here, we examined phosphorylation of P20 and its regulatory functions. Recombinant P20 (rP20) was phosphorylated by host cellular kinase(s) in vitro, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and mutational analyses revealed Ser-11 as the phosphorylation site. The phosphor-mimic rP20 protein interactions with satBaMV-translated mutant P20 were affected. In overlay assay, the Asp mutation at S11 (S11D) completely abolished the self-interaction of rP20 and significantly inhibited the interaction with both the WT and S11A rP20. In chemical cross-linking assays, S11D failed to oligomerize. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and subsequent Hill transformation analysis revealed a low affinity of the phospho-mimicking rP20 for satBaMV RNA. Substantial modulation of satBaMV RNA conformation upon interaction with nonphospho-mimic rP20 in circular dichroism analysis indicated formation of stable satBaMV ribonucleoprotein complexes. The dissimilar satBaMV translation regulation of the nonphospho- and phospho-mimic rP20 suggests that phosphorylation of P20 in the ribonucleoprotein complex converts the translation-incompetent satBaMV RNA to messenger RNA. The phospho-deficient or phospho-mimicking P20 mutant of satBaMV delayed the systemic spread of satBaMV in co-infected Nicotiana benthamiana with BaMV. Thus, satBaMV likely regulates the formation of satBaMV RNP complex during co-infection in planta.
Project description:The N4-methylation of cytidine (m4C and m42C) in RNA plays important roles in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. In this work, we synthesized a series of m4C and m42C modified RNA oligonucleotides, conducted their base pairing and bioactivity studies, and solved three new crystal structures of the RNA duplexes containing these two modifications. Our thermostability and X-ray crystallography studies, together with the molecular dynamic simulation studies, demonstrated that m4C retains a regular C:G base pairing pattern in RNA duplex and has a relatively small effect on its base pairing stability and specificity. By contrast, the m42C modification disrupts the C:G pair and significantly decreases the duplex stability through a conformational shift of native Watson-Crick pair to a wobble-like pattern with the formation of two hydrogen bonds. This double-methylated m42C also results in the loss of base pairing discrimination between C:G and other mismatched pairs like C:A, C:T and C:C. The biochemical investigation of these two modified residues in the reverse transcription model shows that both mono- or di-methylated cytosine bases could specify the C:T pair and induce the G to T mutation using HIV-1 RT. In the presence of other reverse transcriptases with higher fidelity like AMV-RT, the methylation could either retain the normal nucleotide incorporation or completely inhibit the DNA synthesis. These results indicate the methylation at N4-position of cytidine is a molecular mechanism to fine tune base pairing specificity and affect the coding efficiency and fidelity during gene replication.
Project description:GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) is a type of ganglioside, which is a molecule composed of ceramide and oligosaccharide containing one or more sialic acids. Since GM3 is abundantly expressed in blood cells, we investigated the association between GM3 molecular species and haematological diseases. We measured the serum levels of seven GM3 molecular species in subjects with various haematological diseases (n = 52) and healthy subjects (n = 24) using a liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry technique as an exploratory study. In all the subjects with haematological diseases, GM3(d18:1-16:0) were inversely correlated with the erythrocytes counts. Regarding the difference in serum GM3 molecular species levels among each haematological diseases and healthy subjects, the levels of GM3(d18:1-16:0) and GM3(d18:1-24:1) were higher in the lymphoid neoplasm group than healthy subjects. Principal component analyses also revealed that the GM3(d18:1-16:0) and GM3(d18:1-24:1) levels were significant contributing factors for discriminating the lymphoid neoplasm group. Moreover, in the lymphoid neoplasm group, the GM3(d18:1-16:0) levels were significantly and positively correlated with the levels of C-reactive protein, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and lactate dehydrogenase. In conclusion, in our exploratory study with haematological diseases, GM3 molecular species showed different distribution among disease groups, and serum GM3(d18:1-16:0) and GM3(d18:1-24:1) might be associated with lymphoma.
Project description:The wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina is widely believed to be an ancestor of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Silkworms are often used as a model for studying the mechanism of species domestication. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing of the wild silkworm using an Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. We produced 100,004,078 high-quality reads and assembled them into 50,773 contigs with an N50 length of 1764 bp and a mean length of 941.62 bp. A total of 33,759 unigenes were identified, with 12,805 annotated in the Nr database, 8273 in the Pfam database, and 9093 in the Swiss-Prot database. Expression profile analysis found significant differential expression of 1308 unigenes between the middle silk gland (MSG) and posterior silk gland (PSG). Three sericin genes (sericin 1, sericin 2, and sericin 3) were expressed specifically in the MSG and three fibroin genes (fibroin-H, fibroin-L, and fibroin/P25) were expressed specifically in the PSG. In addition, 32,297 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 361 insertion-deletions (INDELs) were detected. Comparison with the domesticated silkworm p50/Dazao identified 5,295 orthologous genes, among which 400 might have experienced or to be experiencing positive selection by Ka/Ks analysis. These data and analyses presented here provide insights into silkworm domestication and an invaluable resource for wild silkworm genomics research.