Project description:AIM:Bacteroides vulgatus and B. dorei have a protective effect against atherosclerosis, suggesting that expansion of these species in the gut microbiota could help patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to investigate the effect of resistant starch (RS) on the gut microbiota and its metabolites in fecal sample cultures from patients with CAD and individuals without CAD, using a single-batch fermentation system. METHODS:Fecal samples from 11 patients with CAD and 10 individuals without CAD were fermented for 30 h with or without RS in the Kobe University Human Intestinal Microbiota Model (KUHIMM). Gut microbiota and the abundance of B. vulgatus and B. dorei were analyzed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Short-chain fatty acids were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS:Gut microbial analysis showed significantly lower levels of B. vulgatus and B. dorei in the original fecal samples from patients with CAD, which was simulated after 30 h of fermentation in the KUHIMM. Although RS significantly increased the absolute numbers of B. vulgatus and B. dorei, and butyrate levels in CAD fecal sample cultures, the numbers varied among each patient. CONCLUSIONS:The effect of RS on gut microbiota and its metabolites in the KUHIMM varied between CAD and non-CAD fecal sample cultures. The KUHIMM may be useful for preclinical evaluations of the effects of RS on the gut microbiota and its metabolites.
Project description:BackgroundThe human gut microbiome has an important role in health and disease. There is extensive geographical variation in the composition of the gut microbiome, however, little is known about the gut microbiome composition of people from the Arabian Peninsula. In this study, we describe the gut microbiome of Arab Kuwaitis. The gut microbiome of 25 native adult Arab Kuwaitis was characterised using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V3–V4 regions. Sequencing data were analysed using DADA2. Phylogeny analysis was performed using amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) assigned to the Bacteroides genus and 16S rRNA sequences of Bacteroides type strains to understand the relationships among Bacteroides ASVs.ResultsAbout 63% of participants were overweight/obese reflecting normal Kuwaiti population. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla detected in the gut microbiome (representing 48% and 46% of total sequencing reads respectively). At the genus level, Bacteroides was the most abundant genus in 22 of 25 participants. A total of 223 ASVs were assigned to the Bacteroides genus, eleven of which were present in 50% or more of study participants, reflecting a high diversity of this genus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bacteroides dorei/vulgatus group was the most abundant phylogenetic group (representing 11.91% of all sequence reads) and was detected in all 25 individuals.ConclusionsBacteroides was the most abundant genus in the gut microbiome of native Arab Kuwaiti adults, with Bacteroides dorei/vulgatus forming the predominant phylogenetic group. The microbiome composition would also have been influenced by the nutritional status of participants.
Project description:The ability to antagonize competing strains and species is often important for bacterial fitness in microbial communities. The extent to which intra-species antagonism drives phenotypic diversity of bacterial species is rarely examined in a comprehensive manner at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. Here we show that for nine abundant human gut Bacteroides species examined, there are only a few LPS glycan genetic types. We show that for a given Bacteroides species, there is a predominant lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycan locus present in the majority of strains. However, other strains have replacements of glycosyltransferase-encoding genes, in most cases, adjacent to a membrane attack/perforin (MACPF) domain-encoding gene not present in the predominant type. We show that the MACPF genes present in LPS glycan biosynthesis loci of four Bacteroides species encode antimicrobial proteins and in Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides dorei, we show the MACPF toxin targets the LPS of strains with the predominant LPS glycan locus. By a combination of gene deletion and replacement, we converted a MACPF toxin-producing strain into a sensitive strain. Genetic diversity of LPS glycan biosynthesis regions in Bacteroides is similar to phage serotype conversion whereby the receptor is altered to render the strain immune to infection/toxicity, and is a rare example in bacteria of toxin immunity conferred to the toxin-producing strain by replacement of genetic material to modify the receptor rather than by a cognate immunity protein.
Project description:The microbial community in the human colon contains bacteria that reduce cholesterol to coprostanol, but the species responsible for this conversion are still unknown. We describe here the first isolation and characterization of a cholesterol-reducing bacterium of human intestinal origin. Strain D8 was isolated from a 10(-8) dilution of a fresh stool sample provided by a senior male volunteer with a high capacity to reduce luminal cholesterol to coprostanol. Cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion by strain D8 started on the third day, while cells were in stationary phase, and was almost complete after 7 days. Intermediate products (4-cholesten-3-one and coprostanone) were occasionally observed, suggesting an indirect pathway for cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion. Resting-cell assays showed that strain D8 could reduce 1.5 mumol of cholesterol/mg bacterial protein/h. Strain D8 was a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped organism identified as a member of the genus Bacteroides closely related to Bacteroides vulgatus, based on its morphological and biochemical characteristics. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain D8 was most similar (>99.5%) to those of two isolates of the recently described species Bacteroides dorei. Phylogenetic tree construction confirmed that Bacteroides sp. strain D8 clustered within an independent clade together with these B. dorei strains. Nevertheless, no cholesterol-reducing activity could be detected in cultures of the B. dorei type strain. Based on Bacteroides group-specific PCR-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, there was no correlation between the presence of a band comigrating with the band of Bacteroides sp. strain D8 and cholesterol conversion in 11 human fecal samples, indicating that this strain is unlikely to be mainly responsible for cholesterol conversion in the human population.
Project description:Interactions of anaerobic gut bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile, with the intestinal mucosa have been poorly studied due to challenges in culturing anaerobes with the oxygen-requiring gut epithelium. Although gut colonization by C. difficile is a key determinant of disease outcome, precise mechanisms of mucosal attachment and spread remain unclear. Here, using human gut epithelial monolayers co-cultured within dual environment chambers, we demonstrate that C. difficile adhesion to gut epithelial cells is accompanied by a gradual increase in bacterial numbers. Prolonged infection causes redistribution of actin and loss of epithelial integrity, accompanied by production of C. difficile spores, toxins, and bacterial filaments. This system was used to examine C. difficile interactions with the commensal Bacteroides dorei, and interestingly, C. difficile growth is significantly reduced in the presence of B. dorei. Subsequently, we have developed novel models containing a myofibroblast layer, in addition to the epithelium, grown on polycarbonate or three-dimensional (3D) electrospun scaffolds. In these more complex models, C. difficile adheres more efficiently to epithelial cells, as compared to the single epithelial monolayers, leading to a quicker destruction of the epithelium. Our study describes new controlled environment human gut models that enable host-anaerobe and pathogen-commensal interaction studies in vitro.
Project description:The gut microbiome is a complex microbial community that plays a key role in human health. Diet is an important factor dictating gut microbiome composition. This is mediated by multiple microbe-microbe interactions that result in the fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates and the production of short-chain fatty acids. Certain species play key metabolic roles in the microbiome, and their disappearance could result in dysbiosis. In this work, a synthetic consortium of 14 gut microbes was studied during the utilization of prebiotic inulin in batch bioreactors. Fermentations were repeated leaving one species out every time, in order to evaluate the impact of their elimination on the system. Substrate consumption, microbial composition, and metabolite production were determined. Single deletions never resulted in a complete loss of bacterial growth or inulin consumption, suggesting functional redundancy. Deletions of Bacteroides dorei and Lachnoclostridium clostridioforme resulted in lower biomass and higher residual inulin. The absence of B. dorei impacted the abundance of the other 10 species negatively. Lachnoclostridium symbiosum, a butyrate producer, appeared to be the most sensitive species to deletions, being stimulated by the presence of Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. dorei, and Lactobacillus plantarum Conversely, bioreactors without these species did not show butyrate production. L. clostridioforme was observed to be essential for propionate production, and B. dorei for lactate production. Our analysis identified specific members that were essential for the function of the consortium. In conclusion, species deletions from microbial consortia could be a useful approach to identify relevant interactions between microorganisms and defining metabolic roles in the gut microbiome.IMPORTANCE Gut microbes associate, compete for, and specialize in specific metabolic tasks. These interactions are dictated by the cross-feeding of degradation or fermentation products. However, the individual contribution of microbes to the function of the gut microbiome is difficult to evaluate. It is essential to understand the complexity of microbial interactions and how the presence or absence of specific microorganisms affects the stability and functioning of the gut microbiome. The experimental approach of this study could be used for identifying keystone species, in addition to redundant functions and conditions that contribute to community stability. Redundancy is an important feature of the microbiome, and its reduction could be useful for the design of microbial consortia with desired metabolic properties enhancing the tasks of the keystone species.
Project description:Like many other Bacteroides species, Bacteroides vulgatus strain mpk, a mouse fecal isolate which was shown to promote intestinal homeostasis, utilizes a variety of mobile elements for genome evolution. Based on sequences collected by Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing technology, we discuss the challenges of assembling and studying a bacterial genome of high plasticity. Additionally, we conducted comparative genomics comparing this commensal strain with the B. vulgatus type strain ATCC 8482 as well as multiple other Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains to reveal the most important differences and identify the unique features of B. vulgatus mpk. The genome of B. vulgatus mpk harbors a large and diverse set of mobile element proteins compared with other sequenced Bacteroides strains. We found evidence of a number of different horizontal gene transfer events and a genome landscape that has been extensively altered by different mobilization events. A CRISPR/Cas system could be identified that provides a possible mechanism for preventing the integration of invading external DNA. We propose that the high genome plasticity and the introduced genome instabilities of B. vulgatus mpk arising from the various mobilization events might play an important role not only in its adaptation to the challenging intestinal environment in general, but also in its ability to interact with the gut microbiota.
Project description:Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters. A consortium containing Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus was grown on fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or 2'-fucosyllactose (2FL) in mono- or co-culture. While Bi. infantis and Ba. vulgatus dominated growth on 2FL, their combined growth was reduced. Besides, interaction coefficients indicated strong competition, especially on FOS. While FOS was rapidly consumed by the consortium, B. infantis was the only microbe displaying significant consumption of 2FL. Acid production by the consortium resembled the metabolism of microorganisms dominating growth in each substrate. Finally, the consortium was tested in a bioreactor, observing similar predominance but more pronounced acid production and substrate consumption. This study indicates that the chemical nature of prebiotics modulate microbial interactions in a consortium of infant gut species.
Project description:Recent studies underscore important roles of intestinal microbiota and the bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) production in the pathogenesis of liver disease. However, how gut microbiota alters in response to the development of steatosis and subsequent progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. We aimed to study the gut microbial changes over liver disease progression using a streptozotocin-high fat diet (STZ-HFD) induced NASH-HCC C57BL/6J mouse model that is highly relevant to human liver disease. The fecal microbiota at various liver pathological stages was analyzed by 16S rDNA gene pyrosequencing. Both UniFrac analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed significant structural alterations in gut microbiota during the development of liver disease. Co-abundance network analysis highlighted relationships between genera. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the bacterial species, Atopobium spp., Bacteroides spp., Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides uniformis, Clostridium cocleatum, Clostridium xylanolyticum and Desulfovibrio spp., markedly increased in model mice, were positively correlated with LPS levels and pathophysiological features. Taken together, the results showed that the gut microbiota was altered significantly in the progression of liver disease. The connection between the gut microbial ecology and the liver pathology may represent potential targets for the prevention and treatment of chronic liver disease and HCC.
Project description:Bacteroidaceae are common gut microbiota members in all warm-blooded animals. However, if Bacteroidaceae are to be used as probiotics, the species selected for different hosts should reflect the natural distribution. In this study, we therefore evaluated host adaptation of bacterial species belonging to the family Bacteroidaceae. B. dorei, B. uniformis, B. xylanisolvens, B. ovatus, B. clarus, B. thetaiotaomicron and B. vulgatus represented human-adapted species while B. gallinaceum, B. caecigallinarum, B. mediterraneensis, B. caecicola, M. massiliensis, B. plebeius and B. coprocola were commonly detected in chicken but not human gut microbiota. There were 29 genes which were present in all human-adapted Bacteroides but absent from the genomes of all chicken isolates, and these included genes required for the pentose cycle and glutamate or histidine metabolism. These genes were expressed during an in vitro competitive assay, in which human-adapted Bacteroides species overgrew the chicken-adapted isolates. Not a single gene specific for the chicken-adapted species was found. Instead, chicken-adapted species exhibited signs of frequent horizontal gene transfer, of KUP, linA and sugE genes in particular. The differences in host adaptation should be considered when the new generation of probiotics for humans or chickens is designed.