Project description:Leishmania donovani WHO reference strain MHOM/IN/80/DD8 and Leptomonas seymouri isolates Ld 2001 and Ld39 were used for proteome analysis which were originally isolated from clinical cases of kala azar patients with different inherent antimonial sensitivities. Ld 2001 was Sb-S and Ld 39 was Sb-R. The genome sequencing of these isolates had confirmed co-infection with Leptomonas.
Project description:Bacteria respond to stimuli in the environment using transcriptional control, but this may not be the case for most marine bacteria having small, streamlined genomes. Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique, a cultivated representative of the SAR11 clade, which is the most abundant clade in the oceans 4, has a small, streamlined genome and possesses an unusually small number of transcriptional regulators. This observation leads to the hypothesis that transcriptional control is low in Pelagibacter and limits its response to environmental conditions. However, the extent of transcriptional control in Pelagibacter is unknown. Here we show that transcriptional control is extremely low in Pelagibacter and another oligotroph (SAR92) compared to two marine copiotrophic bacterial taxa, Polaribacter MED152 and Ruegeria pomeroyi. We found that ~0.1% of protein-encoding genes in Pelagibacter are under transcriptional control compared to >10% of genes in other marine bacteria. Regardless of the growth condition, the same genes were highly expressed while most genes were always expressed at very low levels. Quantitative RNA sequencing revealed that abundances of most Pelagibacter transcripts were <0.01 copies per cell whereas transcript abundances were 1 to 10 copies per cell in some other bacteria. Our results demonstrate that Pelagibacter can change growth without shifts in transcript levels, suggesting that transcriptional control plays a minimal role in the adaptive strategy for one of the most successful organisms in the biosphere. Bacteria were grown in batch culture and sampled twice during the initial, rapid phase of exponential growth and twice during the phase of slower growth that followed.
Project description:TFIID and SAGA share a common set of TAFs, regulate chromatin, and deliver TBP to promoters. Here we examine their relationship within the context of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide regulatory network. We find that while TFIID and SAGA make overlapping contributions to the expression of all genes, TFIID function predominates at ~90% and SAGA at ~10% of the measurable genome. Strikingly, SAGA-dominated genes are largely stress-induced and TAF-independent, and are down-regulated by the coordinate action of a variety of chromatin, TBP, and RNA polymerase II regulators. In contrast, the TFIID-dominated class is less regulated, but is highly dependent upon TAFs including those shared between TFIID and SAGA. These two distinct modes of transcription regulation might reflect the need to balance inducible stress responses with the steady output of housekeeping genes. Keywords = Taf1 Keywords = Spt3 Keywords = Gcn5
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. The SAGA co-activator complex contains distinct chromatin-modifying activities and is recruited by DNA-bound activators to regulate the expression of a subset of genes. Surprisingly, recent studies revealed little overlap between genome-wide SAGA-binding profiles and changes in gene expression upon depletion of subunits of the complex. As indicators of SAGA recruitment on chromatin, we monitored in yeast and human cells the genome-wide distribution of histone H3K9 acetylation and H2B ubiquitination, which are respectively deposited or removed by SAGA. Changes in these modifications after inactivation of the corresponding enzyme revealed that SAGA acetylates the promoters and deubiquitinates the transcribed region of all expressed genes. In agreement with this broad distribution, we show that SAGA plays a critical role for RNA polymerase II recruitment at all expressed genes. In addition, through quantification of newly synthesized RNA, we demonstrated that SAGA inactivation induced a strong decrease of mRNA synthesis at all tested genes. Analysis of the SAGA deubiquitination activity further revealed that SAGA acts on the whole transcribed genome in a very fast manner indicating a highly dynamic association of the complex with chromatin. Thus, our study uncovers a new function for SAGA as a bone fide co-factor for all RNA Polymerase II transcription. Refer to individual Series
Project description:Root samples of ‘Sanhu’ red tangerine trees infected with and without Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) were collected at 50 days post inoculation and subjected to RNA-sequencingto profile the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) . Results showed that a total of 3956 genes were differentially regulated by HLB-infection. Comparison between our results and those of the previously reported showed that known HLB-modulated biological pathways including cell-wall modification, protease-involved protein degradation, carbohydrate metabolism, hormone synthesis and signaling, transcription activities, and stress responses were similarly regulated by HLB infection but different or root-specific changes did exist. The root unique changes included the down-regulation in genes of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathway, secondary metabolisms, cytochrome P450, UDP-glucosyl transferase and pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein genes. Notably, nutrient absorption was impaired by HLB-infection as the expression of the genes involved in Fe, Zn, N and P adsorption and transportation were significantly changed. HLB-infection induced some cellular defense responses but simultaneously reduced the biosynthesis of the three major classes of secondary metabolites, many of which are known to have anti-pathogen activities. Genes involved in callose deposition were up-regulated whereas those involved in callose degradation were also up-regulated, indicating that the sieve tube elements in roots were hanging on the balance of life and death at this stage. In addition, signs of carbohydrate starvation were already eminent in roots at this stage. Other interesting genes and pathways that were changed by HLB-infection were also discussed based on our findings. Overall design: Two-year-old seedlings of ‘Sanhu’ red tangerine were grafted with buds from CLas-infected or CLas-free ‘Gonggan’ mandarin trees. Mature leaves and roots were collected from the CLas-inoculated and the control trees every ten days to detect for CLas by PCR. DNA used for PCR was extracted with the use of the Plant DNA isolation Kit (Trans, Beijing, China) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Primers used for CLas detection were the same A2/J5. The fibrous roots of 3 CLas-positive and 3 control CLas-free trees were individually collected at 50 dpi (days post inoculation) when the HLB-inoculated trees became CLas-positive in both leaves and roots yet showed no visible chlorosis and other HLB symptoms. This should have allowed us not to miss too many early responsive genes but at the same time ensured that the trees were infected as expected. Total RNA was extracted from each sample using RNeasy plant mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and further purified using the RQ1 Rnase Free Dnase Kit (Promega, Madison, USA). RNA quality and quantity were assessed by gel-electrophoresis and by absorbance at OD260/OD280, respectively. Aliquot RNA samples were stored at -80 ℃. For RNA-seq analysis, RNA samples from the three trees were mixed in equal amount and used for cDNA library construction following the Illumina mRNA-sequencing sample preparation protocol (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The 90-bp raw paired end reads were generated by Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. Please note that the features (in the processed data, e.g.,clementine0.9_035093m.g) represent the gene IDs in the Citrus clementina genome at ftp://ftp.jgi-psf.org/pub/JGI_data/phytozome/v9.0/Cclementina/. However, the database has been updated (http://genome.jgi.doe.gov/pages/dynamicOrganismDownload.jsf?organism=PhytozomeV10) with new gene IDs, thus the gene IDs used for this study are not trackable anymore. Therefore, the gene annotation files downloadeded from the previous genome database (v0.9) and used for the data analysis are included in this record.
Project description:We have analyzed the global effect of the conserved transcription-mRNA export factor Sus1 on transcription and its association with chromatin. We used genomic run-on experiments to show that Sus has a broad impact on the stability of most RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Genome association of Sus1 by the chromatin immunoprecipitation technique showed that Sus1 was widely distributed throughout coding regions, tending to accumulate towards the 3’ ends of highly transcribed transcription factor IID (TFIID) and Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) dependent genes. This accumulation depends on growth conditions, the transcriptional rate and whether the genes are TFIID- or SAGA-regulated. Validation of Sus1 occupancy data also revealed that Sus1 appears at tRNAs. Concomitantly, deletion of SUS1 leads to tRNA overexpression. In addition, we discovered that distinctive SAGA subunits Spt8 and Spt7 play a key role in Sus1 enrichment at the 3’ ends of SAGA-regulated genes upon temperature shift and at tRNAs. Thus, our study identifies the molecular mechanisms by which a SAGA factor is recruited genome-wide, and provides evidence of a more general role for this conserved coactivator in eukaryotic transcription. Genome wide analysis of Sus1 in wild type and Spt7 and Spt8 deletion mutants using ChIP-exo and genomic run-on experiments
Project description:Multiomics of faecal samples collected from individuals in families with multiple cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) over 3 or 4 months. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing and metaproteomics were carried out, as well as whole human genome sequencing. Phenotypic data is available.
Project description:The SAGA co-activator complex contains distinct chromatin-modifying activities and is recruited by DNA-bound activators to regulate the expression of a subset of genes. Surprisingly, recent studies revealed little overlap between genome-wide SAGA-binding profiles and changes in gene expression upon depletion of subunits of the complex. As indicators of SAGA recruitment on chromatin, we monitored in yeast and human cells the genome-wide distribution of histone H3K9 acetylation and H2B ubiquitination, which are respectively deposited or removed by SAGA. Changes in these modifications after inactivation of the corresponding enzyme revealed that SAGA acetylates the promoters and deubiquitinates the transcribed region of all expressed genes. In agreement with this broad distribution, we show that SAGA plays a critical role for RNA polymerase II recruitment at all expressed genes. In addition, through quantification of newly synthesized RNA, we demonstrated that SAGA inactivation induced a strong decrease of mRNA synthesis at all tested genes. Analysis of the SAGA deubiquitination activity further revealed that SAGA acts on the whole transcribed genome in a very fast manner indicating a highly dynamic association of the complex with chromatin. Thus, our study uncovers a new function for SAGA as a bone fide co-factor for all RNA Polymerase II transcription. Comparison of H3K9ac and H2Bub distributions in control HeLa cells and upon the inactivation of SAGA enzymatic activities