Project description:Deciphering the mechanism of action of novel anti-tuberculosis compounds is a key step in the drug development process. We have previously described a number of imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines with a promising activity on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These compounds had predicted activity as serine?threonine protein kinase inhibitors, however spontaneous drug resistant Mycolicibacterium smegmatis mc 2 155 (formerly Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed only the mycobacterial mechanism of resistance to imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines: mutations in MSMEG_1380 gene lead to overexpression of the mmpS5-mmpL5 operon in M. smegmatis, thus providing resistance to imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines via enhanced efflux . Here we report the RNA sequencing data of M. smegmatis mc 2 155 culture treated with one of the imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines for 1.5 h and the untreated culture as a control. The mapped reads showed that a total of 1386 genes are differentially expressed in this experiment. A further analysis of these data can shed light of the mechanism of action of imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines. The data generated by RNA-seq (raw reads) have been deposited to NCBI sequence read archive (SRA) and have been assigned a BioProject accession number PRJNA615922.
Project description:A series of structome analyses, that is, quantitative and three-dimensional structural analysis of a whole cell at the electron microscopic level, have already been achieved individually in Exophiala dermatitidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Myojin spiral bacteria, and Escherichia coli. In these analyses, sample cells were processed through cryo-fixation and rapid freeze-substitution, resulting in the exquisite preservation of ultrastructures on the serial ultrathin sections examined by transmission electron microscopy. In this paper, structome analysis of non pathogenic Mycolicibacterium smegmatis, basonym Mycobacterium smegmatis, was performed. As M. smegmatis has often been used in molecular biological experiments and experimental tuberculosis as a substitute of highly pathogenic M. tuberculosis, it has been a task to compare two species in the same genus, Mycobacterium, by structome analysis. Seven M. smegmatis cells cut into serial ultrathin sections, and, totally, 220 serial ultrathin sections were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Cell profiles were measured, including cell length, diameter of cell and cytoplasm, surface area of outer membrane and plasma membrane, volume of whole cell, periplasm, and cytoplasm, and total ribosome number and density per 0.1 fl cytoplasm. These data are based on direct measurement and enumeration of exquisitely preserved single cell structures in the transmission electron microscopy images, and are not based on the calculation or assumptions from biochemical or molecular biological indirect data. All measurements in M. smegmatis, except cell length, are significantly higher than those of M. tuberculosis. In addition, these data may explain the more rapid growth of M. smegmatis than M. tuberculosis and contribute to the understanding of their structural properties, which are substantially different from M. tuberculosis, relating to the expression of antigenicity, acid-fastness, and the mechanism of drug resistance in relation to the ratio of the targets to the corresponding drugs. In addition, data obtained from cryo-transmission electron microscopy examination were used to support the validity of structome analysis. Finally, our data strongly support the most recent establishment of the novel genus Mycolicibacterium, into which basonym Mycobacterium smegmatis has been classified.
Project description:MSMEG_4305 is a two-domain protein of Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (Mycobacterium smegmatis) (Mycolicibacterium smegmatis). The N-terminal domain of MSMEG_4305 encodes an RNase H type I. The C-terminal domain is a presumed CobC, predicted to be involved in the aerobic synthesis of vitamin B12. Both domains reach their maximum at distinct pH, approximately 8.5 and 4.5, respectively. The presence of the CobC domain influenced RNase activity in vitro in homolog Rv2228c. Here, we analyzed the role of MSMEG_4305 in vitamin B12 synthesis and the functional association between both domains in vivo in M. smegmatis. We used knock-out mutant of M. smegmatis, deficient in MSMEG_4305. Whole-cell lysates of the mutants strain contained a lower concentration of vitamin B12, as it determined with immunoenzimatic assay. We observed growth deficits, related to vitamin B12 production, on media containing sulfamethazine and propionate. Removal of the CobC domain of MSMEG_4305 in ?rnhA background hardly affected the growth rate of M. smegmatis in vivo. The strain carrying truncation showed no fitness deficit in the competitive assay and it did not show increased level of RNA/DNA hybrids in its genome. We show that homologs of MSMEG_4305 are present only in the Actinomycetales phylogenetic branch (according to the old classification system). The domains of MSMEG_4305 homologs accumulate mutations at a different rate, while the linker region is highly variable. We conclude that MSMEG_4305 is a multidomain protein that most probably was fixed in the phylogenetic tree of life due to genetic drift.
Project description:The micafungin and caspofungin susceptibilities of Candida albicans laboratory and clinical isolates and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains stably hyperexpressing fungal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters involved in azole resistance were determined using three separate methods. Yeast strains hyperexpressing individual alleles of ABC transporters or an MFS transporter from C. albicans gave the expected resistance profiles for the azoles fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. The strains hyperexpressing CDR2 showed slightly decreased susceptibility to caspofungin in agar plate drug resistance assays, as previously reported, but increased susceptibility to micafungin compared with either the strains hyperexpressing CDR1 or the null parent deleted of seven ABC transporters. The strains hyperexpressing CDR1 showed slightly decreased susceptibility to micafungin in these assays. A C. albicans clinical isolate overexpressing both Cdr1p and Cdr2p relative to its azole-sensitive isogenic progenitor acquired resistance to azole drugs and showed reduced susceptibility to caspofungin and slightly increased susceptibility to micafungin in agar plate drug resistance assays. None of the strains showed significant resistance to micafungin or caspofungin in liquid microdilution susceptibility assays. The antifungal activities of micafungin and caspofungin were similar in agarose diffusion assays, although the shape and size of the caspofungin inhibitory zones were affected by medium composition. The assessment of micafungin and caspofungin potency is therefore assay dependent; the differences seen with agar plate drug resistance assays occur over narrow ranges of echinocandin concentrations and are not of clinical significance.
Project description:The expression of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes represents a survival strategy of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase [AAC(2')] neutralizes aminoglycoside drugs by acetylation of their 2' amino groups in an acetyl coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent manner. To understand the structural features and molecular mechanism underlying AAC(2') activity, we overexpressed, purified, and crystallized AAC(2') from Mycolicibacterium smegmatis [AAC(2')-Id] and determined the crystal structures of its apo-form and ternary complexes with CoA and four different aminoglycosides (gentamicin, sisomicin, neomycin, and paromomycin). These AAC(2')-Id structures unraveled the binding modes of different aminoglycosides, explaining the broad substrate specificity of the enzyme. Comparative structural analysis showed that the ?4-helix and ?8-?9 loop region undergo major conformational changes upon CoA and substrate binding. Additionally, structural comparison between the present paromomycin-bound AAC(2')-Id structure and the previously reported paromomycin-bound AAC(6')-Ib and 30S ribosome structures revealed the structural features of paromomycin that are responsible for its antibiotic activity and AAC binding. Taken together, these results provide useful information for designing AAC(2') inhibitors and for the chemical modification of aminoglycosides.
Project description:Here, we report 12 draft genome sequences of mutant Mycolicibacterium smegmatis strains resistant to imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines, which are antituberculosis drug candidates. We have identified 7 different mutations in the MSMEG_1380 gene, which encodes the AcrR/TetR_N transcriptional repressor, which may activate efflux-mediated resistance.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Bacterial locomotion driven by flagella is given directionality by the chemotaxis signal transduction network. In the classic plate assays of migration in porous motility agar, efficient motility is compromised in chemotaxis mutants of diverse bacteria. Nonchemotactic mutants become trapped within the agar matrix. Suppressor mutations that prevent this entanglement but do not restore chemotaxis, a phenomenon designated pseudotaxis, were first reported to arise for Escherichia coli. In this study, novel mechanisms of pseudotaxis have been identified for the plant-pathogenic alphaproteobacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mutants with chemotaxis mutation suppressor (cms) mutations that impart enhanced migration in motility agar compared to that of their straight-swimming, nonchemotactic parent were isolated. We find that pseudotaxis in A. tumefaciens occurs most commonly via mutations in the D1 domain of the flagellar hook protein, FlgE, but it can also be found less frequently to be due to mutations in the hook length regulator, FliK, or in the motor protein, MotA. Single-cell-tracking studies of cms mutants in bulk medium clearly reveal frequent changes in the direction of swimming, similar to the swimming of strains that are proficient for chemotaxis, but independent of a sensory mechanism. Our results suggest that the tumbling process can be tuned through mutation and evolution to optimize migration through complex, porous environments. IMPORTANCE:Chemotaxis sensory networks control direct bacterial motility by modulating flagellar rotary motion, alternating cellular movement between runs and tumbles. The straight-swimming phenotype of chemotaxis-deficient cells yields nonexpanding colonies in motility agar. Enhanced, chemotaxis-independent spreading, dubbed pseudotaxis, has been observed in Escherichia coli mutants. We have identified novel pseudotaxis mutations in Agrobacterium tumefaciens that alter the flagellar hook structure or motor, leading to randomly occurring reorientations observed in single-cell tracking studies in bulk medium. These directional changes allow the cells to migrate more efficiently than the parent strain through the agar matrix, independently of the chemotaxis process. These findings reveal that tumbling can be tuned for effective navigation in complex porous environments, analogous to the natural habitats for many bacteria, and provide evidence for the strong selective pressure exerted by the external environment on the basal pattern of motility, even in the absence of chemotaxis.
Project description:For Mycobacterium tuberculosis, phenotypic methods for drug susceptibility testing of second-line drugs are poorly standardized and technically challenging. The Sensititre MYCOTB MIC plate (MYCOTB) is a microtiter plate containing lyophilized antibiotics and configured for determination of MICs to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. To evaluate the performance of MYCOTB for M. tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method (APM) as the comparator, we conducted a two-site study using archived M. tuberculosis isolates from Uganda and the Republic of Korea. Thawed isolates were subcultured, and dilutions were inoculated into MYCOTB wells and onto 7H10 agar. MYCOTB results were read at days 7, 10, 14, and 21; APM results were read at 21 days. A total of 222 isolates provided results on both platforms. By APM, 106/222 (47.7%) of isolates were resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin. Agreement between MYCOTB and APM with respect to susceptibility or resistance was ?92% for 7 of 12 drugs when a strict definition was used and ?96% for 10 of 12 drugs when agreement was defined by allowing a ± one-well range of dilutions around the APM critical concentration. For ethambutol, agreement was 80% to 81%. For moxifloxacin, agreement was 83% to 85%; incorporating existing DNA sequencing information for discrepant analysis raised agreement to 91% to 96%. For MYCOTB, the median time to plate interpretation was 10 days and interreader agreement was ?95% for all drugs. MYCOTB provided reliable results for M. tuberculosis susceptibility testing of first- and second-line drugs except ethambutol, and results were available sooner than those determined by APM.