Project description:Geranium L. is a genus of over 350 species distributed throughout most of the world, except in lowland tropical areas. It is the largest genus of the Geraniaceae and is represented in the New World by 137 species. This dataset includes 8,937 records that covers the genus Geranium the New World, providing an updated, taxonomically consistent and a sound geographical distribution of the 137 species of Geranium in America. Specimens from 128 herbaria were reviewed. These were supplemented by others collected during nine field trips, which allowed better knowledge of the variability of characters within populations, and refining species distribution ranges. Each record represents a specimen that has been reviewed and in some cases collected by C. Aedo. Accepted scientific name, locality details, distribution status (introduced, native, naturalized, uncertain), geographic coordinates are given for 8,538 (95%) records, and habitat information for 3,952 (44%). All data have been released under a CC-BY license in a standardized format, which enables easy integration with other data, for example through GBIF.org.
Project description:Geraniaceae have emerged as a model system for investigating the causes and consequences of variation in plastid and mitochondrial genomes. Incredible structural variation in plastid genomes (plastomes) and highly accelerated evolutionary rates have been reported in selected lineages and functional groups of genes in both plastomes and mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), and these phenomena have been implicated in cytonuclear incompatibility. Previous organelle genome studies have included limited sampling of Geranium, the largest genus in the family with over 400 species. This study reports on rates and patterns of nucleotide substitutions in plastomes and mitogenomes of 17 species of Geranium and representatives of other Geraniaceae. As detected across other angiosperms, substitution rates in the plastome are 3.5 times higher than the mitogenome in most Geranium. However, in the branch leading to Geranium brycei/Geranium incanum mitochondrial genes experienced significantly higher dN and dS than plastid genes, a pattern that has only been detected in one other angiosperm. Furthermore, rate accelerations differ in the two organelle genomes with plastomes having increased dN and mitogenomes with increased dS. In the Geranium phaeum/Geranium reflexum clade, duplicate copies of clpP and rpoA genes that experienced asymmetric rate divergence were detected in the single copy region of the plastome. In the case of rpoA, the branch leading to G. phaeum/G. reflexum experienced positive selection or relaxation of purifying selection. Finally, the evolution of acetyl-CoA carboxylase is unusual in Geraniaceae because it is only the second angiosperm family where both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ACCases functionally coexist in the plastid.
Project description:Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is a perennial herb that produces a high value essential oil of fragrant significance due to the characteristic compositional blend of rose-oxide and acyclic monoterpenoids in foliage. Recently, the plant has also been shown to produce tartaric acid in leaf tissues. Rose-scented geranium represents top-tier cash crop in terms of economic returns and significance of the plant and plant products. However, there has hardly been any study on its metabolism and functional genomics, nor any genomic expression dataset resource is available in public domain. Therefore, to begin the gains in molecular understanding of specialized metabolic pathways of the plant, de novo sequencing of rose-scented geranium leaf transcriptome, transcript assembly, annotation, expression profiling as well as their validation were carried out.De novo transcriptome analysis resulted a total of 78,943 unique contigs (average length: 623 bp, and N50 length: 752 bp) from 15.44 million high quality raw reads. In silico functional annotation led to the identification of several putative genes representing terpene, ascorbic acid and tartaric acid biosynthetic pathways, hormone metabolism, and transcription factors. Additionally, a total of 6,040 simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified in 6.8% of the expressed transcripts. The highest frequency of SSR was of tri-nucleotides (50%). Further, transcriptome assembly was validated for randomly selected putative genes by standard PCR-based approach. In silico expression profile of assembled contigs were validated by real-time PCR analysis of selected transcripts.Being the first report on transcriptome analysis of rose-scented geranium the data sets and the leads and directions reflected in this investigation will serve as a foundation for pursuing and understanding molecular aspects of its biology, and specialized metabolic pathways, metabolic engineering, genetic diversity as well as molecular breeding.
Project description:1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified.
Project description:Plants growing in high densities experience a reduced red (R) to far-red (FR) light ratio and shade-intolerant species respond with accelerated elongation growth to reach the top of the canopy: the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). FR-enriched light inactivates phytochrome photoreceptors, which results in subsequent action of several plant hormones regulating growth. SAS is adaptive for shade-intolerant plants, but is suppressed in shade-tolerant plant species. Inspired by a previously published transcriptome analysis, we use two species of the genus Geranium here to study the involvement of auxin, brassinosteroids (BRs), and gibberellins (GAs) in supplemental FR-induced elongation growth. G. pyrenaicum, a shade-avoiding species, strongly induces auxin and gibberellin levels, but not BR, in elongating petioles. We show that, in this species, FR light perception, hormone synthesis, and growth are local and restricted to the petiole, and not the leaf lamina. Using chemical hormone inhibitors, we confirm the essential role of auxin and GAs in supplemental FR-induced elongation growth. Shade-tolerant G. robertianum does not display the change in hormone levels upon FR light enrichment, resulting in the lack of a shade avoidance response.