Project description:We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration. In contrast, rats that were administered short-chain fatty acids beginning at weaning were not protected from type 1 diabetes. Short-chain fatty acid therapy exerted a profound effect on the intestinal microbiome in the offspring reflected by a reduction and an increase in the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes taxa, respectively, on day 5 post-infection, and reversed virus-induced alterations in certain bacterial taxa. Principal component analysis and permutation multivariate analysis of variance tests further revealed that short-chain fatty acids induce a distinct intestinal microbiota compared with uninfected animals or rats that receive the virus only. Short-chain fatty acids downregulated Kilham Rat Virus-induced proinflammatory responses in the intestine. Finally, short-chain fatty acids altered the B and T cell compartments in Peyer's patches. These data demonstrate that short-chain fatty acids can reshape the intestinal microbiota and prevent virus-induced islet autoimmunity and may therefore represent a useful therapeutic strategy for disease prevention.
Project description:Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a satiety-inducing gut hormone targeting predominantly the Y4 receptor within the neuropeptide Y multiligand/multireceptor family. Palmitoylated PP-based ligands have already been reported to exert prolonged satiety-inducing effects in animal models. Here, we suggest that other lipidation sites and different fatty acid chain lengths may affect receptor selectivity and metabolic stability. Activity tests revealed significantly enhanced potency of long fatty acid conjugates on all four Y receptors with a preference of position 22 over 30 at Y1 , Y2 and Y5 receptors. Improved Y receptor selectivity was observed for two short fatty acid analogues. Moreover, [K(30)(E-Prop)]hPP2-36 (15) displayed enhanced stability in blood plasma and liver homogenates. Thus, short chain lipidation of hPP at key residue 30 is a promising approach for anti-obesity therapy because of maintained selectivity and a sixfold increased plasma half-life.
Project description:Laminitis is a chronic, crippling disease triggered by the sudden influx of dietary starch. Starch reaches the hindgut resulting in enrichment of lactic acid bacteria, lactate accumulation, and acidification of the gut contents. Bacterial products enter the bloodstream and precipitate systemic inflammation. Hindgut lactate levels are normally low because specific bacterial groups convert lactate to short chain fatty acids. Why this mechanism fails when lactate levels rapidly rise, and why some hindgut communities can recover is unknown. Fecal samples from three adult horses eating identical diets provided bacterial communities for this in vitro study. Triplicate microcosms of fecal slurries were enriched with lactate and/or starch. Metabolic products (short chain fatty acids, headspace gases, and hydrogen sulfide) were measured and microbial community compositions determined using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing over 12-hour intervals. We report that patterns of change in short chain fatty acid levels and pH in our in vitro system are similar to those seen in in vivo laminitis induction models. Community differences between microcosms with disparate abilities to clear excess lactate suggest profiles conferring resistance of starch-induction conditions. Where lactate levels recover following starch induction conditions, propionate and acetate levels rise correspondingly and taxa related to Megasphaeraelsdenii reach levels exceeding 70% relative abundance. In lactate and control cultures, taxa related to Veillonellamontpellierensis are enriched as lactate levels fall. Understanding these community differences and factors promoting the growth of specific lactate utilizing taxa may be useful to prevent acidosis under starch-induction conditions.
Project description:Antibiotics administered in low doses have been widely used as growth promoters in the agricultural industry since the 1950s, yet the mechanisms for this effect are unclear. Because antimicrobial agents of different classes and varying activity are effective across several vertebrate species, we proposed that such subtherapeutic administration alters the population structure of the gut microbiome as well as its metabolic capabilities. We generated a model of adiposity by giving subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy to young mice and evaluated changes in the composition and capabilities of the gut microbiome. Administration of subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy increased adiposity in young mice and increased hormone levels related to metabolism. We observed substantial taxonomic changes in the microbiome, changes in copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids, increases in colonic short-chain fatty acid levels, and alterations in the regulation of hepatic metabolism of lipids and cholesterol. In this model, we demonstrate the alteration of early-life murine metabolic homeostasis through antibiotic manipulation.
Project description:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a worldwide public health problem affecting up to 27% of pregnancies with high predictive values for childhood obesity and inflammatory diseases. Compromised seeding of the infant gut microbiota is a risk factor for immunologic and metabolic diseases in the offspring; however, how GDM along with maternal obesity interact to alter colonization remains unknown. We hypothesized that GDM individually and in combination with maternal overweight/obesity would alter gut microbial composition, diversity, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in neonates. We investigated 46 full-term neonates born to normal-weight or overweight/obese mothers with and without GDM, accounting for confounders including cesarean delivery, lack of breastfeeding, and exposure to antibiotics. Gut microbiota in 2-week-old neonates born to mothers with GDM exhibited differences in abundance of 26 microbial taxa; 14 of which showed persistent differential abundance after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Key pioneering gut taxa, including potentially important taxa for establishing neonatal immunity, were reduced. <i>Lactobacillus</i>, <i>Flavonifractor</i>, <i>Erysipelotrichaceae</i>, and unspecified families in <i>Gammaproteobacteria</i> were significantly reduced in neonates from mothers with GDM. GDM was associated with an increase in microbes involved in suppressing early immune cell function (<i>Phascolarctobacterium</i>). No differences in infant stool SCFA levels by maternal phenotype were noted; however, significant correlations were found between microbial abundances and SCFA levels in neonates. Our results suggest that GDM alone and together with maternal overweight/obesity uniquely influences seeding of specific infant microbiota in patterns that set the stage for future risk of inflammatory and metabolic disease.
Project description:The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n?=?12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n?=?20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2?×?250?bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls. nMDS clustered GC and FD subjects separately, with PERMANOVA confirming a significant difference between the groups. H. pylori serological status had a significant impact on gastric microbiome ?-diversity and composition. Several bacterial taxa were enriched in GC, including Lactococcus, Veilonella, and Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia). Prediction of bacterial metabolic contribution indicated that serological status had a significant impact on metabolic function, while carbohydrate digestion and pathways were enriched in GC. Our findings highlight three mechanisms of interest in GC, including enrichment of pro-inflammatory oral bacterial species, increased abundance of lactic acid producing bacteria, and enrichment of short chain fatty acid production pathways.
Project description:The prebiotic potential of nervine herbal medicines has been scarcely studied. We therefore used anaerobic human fecal cultivation to investigate whether medicinal herbs commonly used as treatment in neurological health and disease in Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine modulate gut microbiota. Profiling of fecal cultures supplemented with either Kapikacchu, Gotu Kola, Bacopa/Brahmi, Shankhapushpi, Boswellia/Frankincense, Jatamansi, Bhringaraj, Guduchi, Ashwagandha or Shatavari by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed profound changes in diverse taxa. Principal coordinate analysis highlights that each herb drives the formation of unique microbial communities predicted to display unique metabolic potential. The relative abundance of approximately one-third of the 243 enumerated species was altered by all herbs. Additional species were impacted in an herb-specific manner. In this study, we combine genome reconstruction of sugar utilization and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) pathways encoded in the genomes of 216 profiled taxa with monosaccharide composition analysis of each medicinal herb by quantitative mass spectrometry to enhance the interpretation of resulting microbial communities and discern potential drivers of microbiota restructuring. Collectively, our results indicate that gut microbiota engage in both protein and glycan catabolism, providing amino acid and sugar substrates that are consumed by fermentative species. We identified taxa that are efficient amino acid fermenters and those capable of both amino acid and sugar fermentation. Herb-induced microbial communities are predicted to alter the relative abundance of taxa encoding SCFA (butyrate and propionate) pathways. Co-occurrence network analyses identified a large number of taxa pairs in medicinal herb cultures. Some of these pairs displayed related culture growth relationships in replicate cultures highlighting potential functional interactions among medicinal herb-induced taxa.
Project description:Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial phospholipid essential for electron transport chain (ETC) integrity. CL-deficiency in humans is caused by mutations in the tafazzin (Taz) gene and results in a multisystem pediatric disorder, Barth syndrome (BTHS). It has been reported that tafazzin deficiency destabilizes mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and affects supercomplex assembly. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Taz-knockdown on the mitochondrial proteomic landscape and metabolic processes, such as stability of respiratory chain supercomplexes and their interactions with fatty acid oxidation enzymes in cardiac muscle. Proteomic analysis demonstrated reduction of several polypeptides of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, including Rieske and cytochrome c1 subunits of complex III, NADH dehydrogenase alpha subunit 5 of complex I and the catalytic core-forming subunit of F0F1-ATP synthase. Taz gene knockdown resulted in upregulation of enzymes of folate and amino acid metabolic pathways in heart mitochondria, demonstrating that Taz-deficiency causes substantive metabolic remodeling in cardiac muscle. Mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes are destabilized in CL-depleted mitochondria from Taz knockdown hearts resulting in disruption of the interactions between ETC and the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, potentially affecting the metabolic channeling of reducing equivalents between these two metabolic pathways. Mitochondria-bound myoglobin was significantly reduced in Taz-knockdown hearts, potentially disrupting intracellular oxygen delivery to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Our results identify the critical pathways affected by the Taz-deficiency in mitochondria and establish a future framework for development of therapeutic options for BTHS.
Project description:Long-term high-fat dietary intake plays a crucial role in the composition of gut microbiota in animal models and human subjects, which affect directly short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and host health. This review aims to highlight the interplay of fatty acid (FA) intake and gut microbiota composition and its interaction with hosts in health promotion and obesity prevention and its related metabolic dysbiosis. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, as Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria species are associated with increased SCFA production, reported high-fat diet rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as well as low-fat diets rich in long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). SCFAs play a key role in health promotion and prevention and, reduction and reversion of metabolic syndromes in the host. Furthermore, in this review, we discussed the type of fatty acids and their amount, including the administration time and their interplay with gut microbiota and its results about health or several metabolic dysbioses undergone by hosts.
Project description:Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation.