Project description:Agglutinin like sequence (Als) cell-wall proteins play a key role in adhesion and virulence of Candida species. Compared to the well-characterized Candida albicans ALS genes, little is known about ALS genes in the Candida parapsilosis species complex. Three incomplete ALS genes were identified in the genome sequence for Candida orthopsilosis strain 90-125 (GenBank assembly ASM31587v1): CORT0C04210 (named CoALS4210), CORT0C04220 (CoALS4220) and CORT0B00800 (CoALS800). To complete the gene sequences, new data were derived from strain 90-125 using Illumina (short-read) and Oxford Nanopore (long-read) methods. Long-read sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of 3 ALS genes in C. orthopsilosis 90-125 and resolved the gaps located in repetitive regions of CoALS800 and CoALS4220. In the new genome assembly (GenBank PQBP00000000), the CoALS4210 sequence was slightly longer than in the original assembly. C. orthopsilosis Als proteins encoded features well-known in C. albicans Als proteins such as a secretory signal peptide, N-terminal domain with a peptide-binding cavity, amyloid-forming region, repeated sequences, and a C-terminal site for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor addition that, in yeast, suggest localization of the proteins in the cell wall. CoAls4210 and CoAls800 lacked the classic C. albicans Als tandem repeats, instead featuring short, imperfect repeats with consensus motifs such as SSSEPP and GSGN. Quantitative RT-PCR showed differential regulation of CoALS genes by growth stage in six genetically diverse C. orthopsilosis clinical isolates, which also exhibited length variation in the ALS alleles, and strain-specific gene expression patterns. Overall, long-read DNA sequencing methodology was instrumental in generating an accurate assembly of CoALS genes, thus revealing their unconventional features and first insights into their allelic variability within C. orthopsilosis clinical isolates.
Project description:Candida orthopsilosis is closely related to the fungal pathogen Candida parapsilosis. However, whereas C. parapsilosis is a major cause of disease in immunosuppressed individuals and in premature neonates, C. orthopsilosis is more rarely associated with infection. We sequenced the C. orthopsilosis genome to facilitate the identification of genes associated with virulence. Here, we report the de novo assembly and annotation of the genome of a Type 2 isolate of C. orthopsilosis. The sequence was obtained by combining data from next generation sequencing (454 Life Sciences and Illumina) with paired-end Sanger reads from a fosmid library. The final assembly contains 12.6 Mb on 8 chromosomes. The genome was annotated using an automated pipeline based on comparative analysis of genomes of Candida species, together with manual identification of introns. We identified 5700 protein-coding genes in C. orthopsilosis, of which 5570 have an ortholog in C. parapsilosis. The time of divergence between C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis is estimated to be twice as great as that between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. There has been an expansion of the Hyr/Iff family of cell wall genes and the JEN family of monocarboxylic transporters in C. parapsilosis relative to C. orthopsilosis. We identified one gene from a Maltose/Galactoside O-acetyltransferase family that originated by horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium to the common ancestor of C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. We report that TFB3, a component of the general transcription factor TFIIH, undergoes alternative splicing by intron retention in multiple Candida species. We also show that an intein in the vacuolar ATPase gene VMA1 is present in C. orthopsilosis but not C. parapsilosis, and has a patchy distribution in Candida species. Our results suggest that the difference in virulence between C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis may be associated with expansion of gene families.
Project description:Despite the increasing occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in clinical settings, little is known about their microbiological and clinical properties. Herein, we conducted a national retrospective study (2014-2019) from multiple centers in Iran. Among the 1,770 Candida isolates collected, we identified 600 Candida parapsilosis species complex isolates. Isolate identification was performed by 9-plex PCR, matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and rDNA sequencing, and antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) followed CLSI M27-A3/S4; genotyping was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis; and clinical information was mined. Thirty-one isolates of C. orthopsilosis from various clinical sources, one mixed sample (blood) concurrently containing C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis and one isolate of C. metapsilosis from a nail sample were identified. Although both 9-plex PCR and MALDI-TOF successfully identified all isolates, only 9-plex PCR could identify the agents in a mixed sample. For the C. orthopsilosis isolates, resistance (non-wild type) was noted only for itraconazole (n = 4; 12.5%). Anidulafungin and fluconazole showed the highest and voriconazole had the lowest geometric mean values. AFLP analysis showed three main and four minor genotypes. Interestingly, 90% of nail isolates clustered with 80% of the blood isolates within two clusters, and four blood isolates recovered from four patients admitted to a hospital clustered into two genotypes and showed a high degree of similarity (>99.2%), which suggests that C. orthopsilosis disseminates horizontally. Supported by our data and published case studies, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis can be linked to challenging clinical failures, and successful outcomes are not always mirrored by in vitro susceptibility. Accordingly, conducting nationwide studies may provide more comprehensive data, which is required for a better prognosis and clinical management of patients.
Project description:Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities <90% in the ITS1 sequence, suggest the subgroups should be afforded species status. The near absence of DNA sequence variability among isolates of C. parapsilosis and relatively high levels of sequence variability among isolates of C. orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.
Project description:Candida orthopsilosis is diploid asexual yeast that causes human disease. Most C. orthopsilosis isolates arose from at least four separate hybridizations between related, but not identical, parents. Here, we used population genomics data to correlate genotypic and phenotypic variation in 28 C. orthopsilosis isolates. We used cosine similarity scores to identify 65 variants with potential high-impact (deleterious effects) that correlated with specific phenotypes. Of these, 19 were Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that changed stop or start codons, or splice sites. One variant resulted in a premature stop codon in both alleles of the gene ZCF29 in C. orthopsilosis isolate 185, which correlated with sensitivity to nystatin and caffeine. We used CRISPR-Cas9 editing to introduce this polymorphism into two resistant C. orthopsilosis isolates. Introducing the stop codon resulted in sensitivity to caffeine and to ketoconazole, but not to nystatin. Our analysis shows that it is possible to associate genomic variants with phenotype in asexual Candida species, but that only a small amount of genomic variation can be easily explored.
Project description:We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.
Project description:Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A rapid, low-cost mPCR assay for detection and differentiation of C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, C. metapsilosis and L. elongisporus has been developed.
Project description:Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungal isolate from clinical specimens, many studies have detected a shift towards non-albicans Candida species. Despite worrying clinical pictures associated with latter species, there is little information regarding its susceptibility patterns against currently available antifungal agents, with only a small number of strains having been studied.We evaluated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of clinical isolates of C. orthopsilosis already identified by two-steps PCR-RFLP and reconfirmed by sequence analysis of entire ITS rDNA region, to six antifungal drugs.The resulting MIC50 and MIC90 for all strains (n=18) were in increasing order, as follows: posaconazole (0.016 & 0.063 ?g/ml); itraconazole (0.031 & 0.125 ?g/ml); amphotericin B (0.5 & 1 ?g/ml); fluconazole (0.25 & 0.5 ?g/ml) and caspofungin (4 & 8 ?g/ml). A uniform pattern of the MIC ranges was seen for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, while a widest range and the highest MICs were observed for caspofungin.Although we emphasis on the careful species designation of the clinical isolates of Candida, the antifungal susceptibility patterns of these clinically important organisms may have an application in clinical and epidemiological setting and deserve the implementation of local surveillance programs to monitor.