Project description:Urea, a non-protein nitrogen for dairy cows, is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease produced by ureolytic bacteria in the rumen, and the ammonia is used as nitrogen for rumen bacterial growth. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ureolytic bacteria community in the rumen. To explore the ruminal ureolytic bacterial community, urea, or acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, an inhibitor of urea hydrolysis) were supplemented into the rumen simulation systems. The bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced by Miseq high-throughput sequencing and used to reveal the ureoltyic bacteria by comparing different treatments. The results revealed that urea supplementation significantly increased the ammonia concentration, and AHA addition inhibited urea hydrolysis. Urea supplementation significantly increased the richness of bacterial community and the proportion of ureC genes. The composition of bacterial community following urea or AHA supplementation showed no significant difference compared to the groups without supplementation. The abundance of Bacillus and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae increased significantly following urea supplementation. Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, and Actinomyces exhibited a positive response to urea supplementation and a negative response to AHA addition. Results retrieved from the NCBI protein database and publications confirmed that the representative bacteria in these genera mentioned above had urease genes or urease activities. Therefore, the rumen ureolytic bacteria were abundant in the genera of Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Bacillus, and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae. Insights into abundant rumen ureolytic bacteria provide the regulation targets to mitigate urea hydrolysis and increase efficiency of urea nitrogen utilization in ruminants.
Project description:Ciliate protozoa are an integral part of the rumen microbiome and were found to exert a large effect on the rumen ecosystem itself as well as their host animal physiology. Part of these effects have been attributed to their ability to harbor a diverse ecto- and endo-symbiotic community of prokaryotic cells. Studies on the relationship between the protozoa population and their associated prokaryotic community in the rumen mainly focused on the methanogens, revealing that protozoa play a major role in enhancing methanogenesis potential. In contrast, little is known about the composition and function of the bacteria associated with rumen protozoa and the extent of this association. In this study, we characterize the prokaryotic communities associated with different protozoa populations and compare their structure to the free-living prokaryotic population residing in the cow rumen. We show that the overall protozoa associated prokaryotic community structure differs significantly compared to the free-living community in terms of richness and composition. The methanogens proportion was significantly higher in all protozoa populations compared to the free-living fraction, while the Lachnospiraceae was the most prevalent bacterial family in the protozoa associated bacterial communities. Several taxa not detected or detected in extremely low abundance in the free-living community were enriched in the protozoa associated bacterial community. These include members of the Endomicrobia class, previously identified as protozoa symbionts in the termite gut. Our results show that rumen protozoa harbor prokaryotic communities that are compositionally different from their surroundings, which may be the result of specific tropism between the prokaryotic community and protozoa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cow manure is not only an agricultural waste, but also an organic fertilizer resource. The application of organic fertilizer is a feasible practice to mitigate the soil degradation caused by overuse of chemical fertilizers, which can affect the bacterial diversity and community composition in soils. However, to our knowledge, the information about the soil bacterial diversity and composition in tea plantation applied with cow manure fertilization was limited. In this study, we performed one field trial to research the response of the soil bacterial community to cow manure fertilization compared with urea fertilization using the high-throughput sequencing technique of 16S rRNA genes, and analyzed the relationship between the soil bacterial community and soil characteristics during different tea-picking seasons using the Spearman's rank correlation analysis. RESULTS:The results showed that the soil bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria across all tea-picking seasons. Therein, there were significant differences of bacterial communities in soils with cow manure fertilization (CMF) and urea fertilization (UF) in three seasons: the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in CMF was significantly higher than that in UF and CK in spring, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in CMF was significantly higher than that in UF and CK in autumn. So, the distribution of the dominant phyla was mainly affected by cow manure fertilization. The diversity of bacterial communities in soils with cow manure fertilization was higher than that in soils with urea fertilization, and was the highest in summer. Moreover, soil pH, OM and AK were important environmental properties affecting the soil bacterial community structure in tea plantation. CONCLUSIONS:Although different fertilizers and seasons affect the diversity and structure of soil microorganisms, the application of cow manure can not only improve the diversity of soil bacteria, but also effectively regulate the structure of soil bacterial community in tea plantation. So, cow manure fertilization is more suitable for tea plantation.
Project description:Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data from studies in which different sampling techniques, different rumen sample fractions or different DNA extraction methods were used should be avoided.
Project description:In light of recent host-microbial association studies, a consensus is evolving that species composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota is a polygenic trait governed by interactions between host genetic factors and the environment. Here, we investigated the effect of host genetic factors in shaping the bacterial species composition in the rumen by performing a genome-wide association study. Using a common set of 61,974 single-nucleotide polymorphisms found in cattle genomes (n?=?586) and corresponding rumen bacterial community composition, we identified operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Families and Phyla with high heritability. The top associations (1-Mb windows) were located on 7 chromosomes. These regions were associated with the rumen microbiota in multiple ways; some (chromosome 19; position 3.0-4.0 Mb) are associated with closely related taxa (Prevotellaceae, Paraprevotellaceae, and RF16), some (chromosome 27; position 3.0-4.0 Mb) are associated with distantly related taxa (Prevotellaceae, Fibrobacteraceae, RF16, RFP12, S24-7, Lentisphaerae, and Tenericutes) and others (chromosome 23; position 0.0-1.0) associated with both related and unrelated taxa. The annotated genes associated with identified genomic regions suggest the associations observed are directed toward selective absorption of volatile fatty acids from the rumen to increase energy availability to the host. This study demonstrates that host genetics affects rumen bacterial community composition.
Project description:The objective of the present study was to characterize the rumen bacterial and archaeal communities in dairy cows fed different ratios of maize silage (MS) and grass silage (GS), and place the findings in the context of ruminal fermentation as well as previously reported methane (CH4) emissions. Rumen fluid from 12 rumen cannulated dairy cows was collected after 10 and 17 days of feeding one of four diets, all of which had the same roughage to concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). Roughage in the four diets (GS100, GS0, GS67, GS33) consisted of either 1000 g/kg DM GS (GS100), 1000 g/kg DM MS (GS0), or a mixture of both silages in different proportions [667 g/kg DM GS and 333 g/kg DM MS (GS67); 333 g/kg DM GS and 677 g/kg DM MS (GS33)]. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportions of the ruminal VFA were not affected by diet. Only the molar proportion of isovalerate was affected by time, being lower on day 17 than on day 10. Bacterial and archaeal concentrations were not affected by diet but increased from day 10 to day 17. The bacterial community composition was affected by diet, time and diet × time, whereas the archaeal community composition was only affected by diet. Several bacterial and archaeal genus level groups were associated with diet, but not with time. Analysis indicated the increased use of hydrogen by succinate and lactate producing bacteria is likely to at least partially explain the previously reported lower CH4 emissions from MS fed dairy cows. Furthermore, time had a significant effect on both bacterial and archaeal concentrations, and also bacterial community composition. This indicates that the rumen microbiota had not stabilized after 10 days of feeding the experimental diets.
Project description:Ruminants have a unique ability to derive energy from the degradation of plant polysaccharides through the activity of the rumen microbiota. Although this process is well studied in vitro, knowledge gaps remain regarding the relative contribution of the microbiota members and enzymes in vivo. The present study used RNA-sequencing to reveal both the expression of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) by the rumen microbiota of a lactating dairy cow and the microorganisms forming the fiber-degrading community. Functional analysis identified 12,237 CAZymes, accounting for 1% of the transcripts. The CAZyme profile was dominated by families GH94 (cellobiose-phosphorylase), GH13 (amylase), GH43 and GH10 (hemicellulases), GH9 and GH48 (cellulases), PL11 (pectinase) as well as GH2 and GH3 (oligosaccharidases). Our data support the pivotal role of the most characterized fibrolytic bacteria (Prevotella, Ruminocccus and Fibrobacter), and highlight a substantial, although most probably underestimated, contribution of fungi and ciliate protozoa to polysaccharide degradation. Particularly these results may motivate further exploration of the role and the functions of protozoa in the rumen. Moreover, an important part of the fibrolytic bacterial community remains to be characterized since one third of the CAZyme transcripts originated from distantly related strains. These findings are used to highlight limitations of current metatranscriptomics approaches to understand the functional rumen microbial community and opportunities to circumvent them.
Project description:Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia for the synthesis of microbial protein. However, little is known about the diversity and distribution of rumen ureolytic microorganisms. The urease gene (ureC) has been the target gene of choice for analysis of the urea-degrading microorganisms in various environments. In this study, we investigated the predominant ureC genes of the ureolytic bacteria in the rumen of dairy cows using high-throughput sequencing. Six dairy cows with rumen fistulas were assigned to a two-period cross-over trial. A control group (n = 3) were fed a total mixed ration without urea and the treatment group (n = 3) were fed rations plus 180 g urea per cow per day at three separate times. Rumen bacterial samples from liquid and solid digesta and rumen wall fractions were collected for ureC gene amplification and sequencing using Miseq. The wall-adherent bacteria (WAB) had a distinct ureolytic bacterial profile compared to the solid-adherent bacteria (SAB) and liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) but more than 55% of the ureC sequences did not affiliate with any known taxonomically assigned urease genes. Diversity analysis of the ureC genes showed that the Shannon and Chao1 indices for the rumen WAB was lower than those observed for the SAB and LAB (P < 0.01). The most abundant ureC genes were affiliated with Methylococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, Paenibacillaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Methylophilaceae families. Compared with the rumen LAB and SAB, relative abundance of the OTUs affiliated with Methylophilus and Marinobacter genera were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the WAB. Supplementation with urea did not alter the composition of the detected ureolytic bacteria. This study has identified significant populations of ureolytic WAB representing genera that have not been recognized or studied previously in the rumen. The taxonomic classification of rumen ureC genes in the dairy cow indicates that the majority of ureolytic bacteria are yet to be identified. This survey has expanded our knowledge of ureC gene information relating to the rumen ureolytic microbial community, and provides a basis for obtaining regulatory targets of ureolytic bacteria to moderate urea hydrolysis in the rumen.
Project description:In mammals, microbial colonization of the digestive tract (GIT) occurs right after birth by several bacterial phyla. Numerous human and mouse studies have reported the importance of early gut microbial inhabitants on host health. However, few attempts have been undertaken to directly interrogate the role of early gut/rumen microbial colonization on GIT development or host health in neonatal ruminants through artificial manipulation of the rumen microbiome. Thus, the molecular changes associated with bacterial colonization are largely unknown in cattle. In this study, we dosed young calves with exogenous rumen fluid obtained from an adult donor cow, starting at birth, and repeated every other week until six weeks of age. Eight Holstein bull calves were included in this study and were separated into two groups of four: the first group was treated with rumen content freshly extracted from an adult cow, and the second group was treated with sterilized rumen content. Using whole-transcriptome RNA-sequencing, we investigated the transcriptional changes in the host liver, which is a major metabolic organ and vital to the calf's growth performance. Additionally, the comparison of rumen epimural microbial communities between the treatment groups was performed using the rRNA reads generated by sequencing. Liver transcriptome changes were enriched with genes involved in cell signaling and protein phosphorylation. Specifically, up-regulation of SGPL1 suggests a potential increase in the metabolism of sphingolipids, an essential molecular signal for bacterial survival in digestive tracts. Notably, eight genera, belonging to four phyla, had significant increases in abundance in treated calves. Our study provides insight into host liver transcriptome changes associated with early colonization of the microbial communities in neonatal calves. Such knowledge provides a foundation for future probiotics-based research in microbial organism mediated rumen development and nutrition in ruminants.