Project description:The Leucine-responsive Regulatory Protein (Lrp) family is a widespread family of regulatory transcription factors in prokaryotes. BarR is an Lrp-like transcription factor in the model archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that activates the expression of a ?-alanine aminotransferase gene, which is involved in ?-alanine degradation. In contrast to classical Lrp-like transcription factors, BarR is not responsive to any of the ?-amino acids but interacts specifically with ?-alanine. Besides the juxtaposed ?-alanine aminotransferase gene, other regulatory targets of BarR have not yet been identified although ?-alanine is the precursor of coenzyme A and thus an important central metabolite. The aim of this study is to extend the knowledge of the DNA-binding characteristics of BarR and of its corresponding regulon from a local to a genome-wide perspective.We characterized the genome-wide binding profile of BarR using chromatin immunoprecipation combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). This revealed 21 genomic binding loci. High-enrichment binding regions were validated to interact with purified BarR protein in vitro using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and almost all targets were also shown to harbour a conserved semi-palindromic binding motif. Only a small subset of enriched genomic sites are located in intergenic regions at a relative short distance to a promoter, and qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that only one additional operon is under activation of BarR, namely the glutamine synthase operon. The latter is also a target of other Lrp-like transcription factors. Detailed inspection of the BarR ChIP-seq profile at the ?-alanine aminotransferase promoter region in combination with binding motif predictions indicate that the operator structure is more complicated than previously anticipated, consisting of multiple (major and auxiliary) operators.BarR has a limited regulon, and includes also glutamine synthase genes besides the previously characterized ?-alanine aminotransferase. Regulation of glutamine synthase is suggestive of a link between ?-alanine and ?-amino acid metabolism in S. acidocaldarius. Furthermore, this work reveals that the BarR regulon overlaps with that of other Lrp-like regulators.
Project description:The Leucine-responsive Regulatory Protein (Lrp) family is a widespread family of regulatory transcription factors in prokaryotes. BarR is an Lrp-like transcription factor in the model archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that activates the expression of a -alanine aminotransferase gene, which is involved in -alanine degradation. In contrast to classical Lrp-like transcription factors, BarR is not responsive to any of the -amino acids but interacts specifically with -alanine. Besides the juxtaposed -alanine aminotransferase gene, other regulatory targets of BarR have not yet been identified although -alanine is the precursor of coenzyme A and thus an important central metabolite. The aim of this study is to extend the knowledge of the DNA-binding characteristics of BarR and of its corresponding regulon from a local to a genome-wide perspective.
Project description:The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic transactivator Rta activates promoters through direct binding to cognate DNA sites termed Rta response elements (RREs). Rta also activates promoters that apparently lack Rta binding sites, notably Zp and Rp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of endogenous Rta expressed during early replication in B95-8 cells was performed to identify Rta binding sites in the EBV genome. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed strong enrichment for known RREs but little or no enrichment for Rp or Zp, suggesting that the Rta ChIP approach enriches for direct Rta binding sites. Rta ChIP combined with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified most known RREs and several novel Rta binding sites. Rta ChIP-seq peaks were frequently upstream of Rta-responsive genes, indicating that these Rta binding sites are likely functioning as RREs. Unexpectedly, the BALF5 promoter contained an Rta binding peak. To assess whether BALF5 might be activated by an RRE-dependent mechanism, an Rta mutant (Rta K156A), deficient for DNA binding and RRE activation but competent for Zp/Rp activation, was used. Rta K156A failed to activate BALF5p, suggesting this promoter can be activated by an RRE-dependent mechanism. Rta binding to late gene promoters was not seen at early time points but was specifically detected at later times within the Rta-responsive BLRF2 and BFRF3 promoters, even when DNA replication was inhibited. Our results represent the first characterization of Rta binding to the EBV genome during replication, identify previously unknown RREs, such as one in BALF5p, and highlight the complexity of EBV late gene promoter activation by Rta.
Project description:The human CCCTC-binding factor, CTCF, regulates transcription of the double-stranded DNA genomes of herpesviruses. The architectural complex cohesin and RNA Polymerase II also contribute to this organization. We profiled the occupancy of CTCF, cohesin, and RNA Polymerase II on the episomal genome of the Epstein-Barr virus in a cell culture model of latent infection. CTCF colocalizes with cohesin but not RNA Polymerase II. CTCF and cohesin bind specific sequences throughout the genome that are found not just proximal to the regulatory elements of latent genes, but also near lytic genes. In addition to tracking with known transcripts, RNA Polymerase II appears at two unannotated positions, one of which lies within the latent origin of replication. The widespread occupancy profile of each protein reveals binding near or at a myriad of regulatory elements and suggests context-dependent functions.
Project description:The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein that stimulates DNA replication at the viral origin of plasmid replication (OriP), regulates transcription of viral and cellular genes, and tethers the viral episome to the cellular chromosome. EBNA1 also provides a survival function to B-lymphocytes, potentially through its ability to alter cellular gene expression. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with massively parallel deep-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was used to identify cellular sites bound by EBNA1. Sites identified by ChIP-Seq were validated by conventional real-time PCR, and ChIP-Seq provided quantitative, high-resolution detection of the known EBNA1 binding sites on the EBV genome at OriP and Qp. We identified at least one cluster of unusually high-affinity EBNA1 binding sites on chromosome 11, between the divergent FAM55D and FAM55B genes. A consensus for all cellular EBNA1 binding sites is distinct from those derived from the known viral binding sites, suggesting that some of these sites are indirectly bound by EBNA1. We conclude that EBNA1 can interact with a large number of cellular genes and chromosomal loci in latently infected cells, but that these sites are likely to represent a complex ensemble of direct and indirect EBNA1 binding sites. Study of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
Project description:The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome sustains substantial epigenetic modification involving chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation during lytic replication. Zta (ZEBRA, BZLF1), a key regulator of the EBV lytic cycle, is a transcription and replication factor, binding to Zta response elements (ZREs) in target promoters and EBV lytic origins of replication. In vitro, Zta binding is modulated by DNA methylation; a subset of CpG-containing Zta binding sites (CpG ZREs) is bound only in a DNA methylation-dependent manner. The question of how the dynamic epigenetic environment impacts Zta interaction during the EBV lytic cycle is unknown. To address this, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to identify Zta binding sites across the EBV genome before and after viral DNA replication. Replication did not alter the association of Zta across many regions of the EBV genome, but a striking reduction in Zta binding occurred at some loci that contain CpG ZREs. Separating Zta-bound DNA into methylated and nonmethylated fractions, we found that promoters that contain CpG ZREs were enriched in the methylated fraction but that Zta binding to promoters lacking CpG ZREs was not reduced. We hypothesize that the loss of DNA methylation on the EBV genome during the lytic cycle causes the reduced binding to CpG ZREs; this may act as a lytic cycle epigenetic switch. However, the epigenetic changes associated with the replicated EBV genome do not affect the interaction of Zta with many loci that are rich in non-CpG ZREs; this leads to sustained binding at these regions.
Project description:The replication and persistence of extra chromosomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome in latently infected cells are primarily dependent on the binding of EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to the cognate EBV oriP element. In continuation of the previous study, herein we characterized EBNA1 small molecule inhibitors (H20, H31) and their underlying inhibitory mechanisms. In silico docking analyses predicted that H20 fits into a pocket in the EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD). However, H20 did not significantly affect EBNA1 binding to its cognate sequence. A limited structure-relationship study of H20 identified a hydrophobic compound H31, as an EBNA1 inhibitor. An in vitro EBNA1 EMSA and in vivo EGFP-EBNA1 confocal microscopy analysis showed that H31 inhibited EBNA1-dependent oriP sequence-specific DNA binding activity, but not sequence-nonspecific chromosomal association. Consistent with this, H31 repressed the EBNA1-dependent transcription, replication, and persistence of an EBV oriP plasmid. Furthermore, H31 induced progressive loss of EBV episome. In addition, H31 selectively retarded the growth of EBV-infected LCL or Burkitt's lymphoma cells. These data indicate that H31 inhibition of EBNA1-dependent DNA binding decreases transcription from and persistence of EBV episome in EBV-infected cells. These new compounds might be useful probes for dissecting EBNA1 functions in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:This is ChIPseq result of FadR (Saci_1107), which is the only TetR family regulator presented in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The aim of the study is to gain insights into the function of TetR regulator by analyzing its whole genome binding sites. Overall design: genome-scale binding site identification with output and mock samples as control
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a DNA tumor virus responsible for 1 to 2% of human cancers including subtypes of Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastric carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Persistent latent infection drives EBV-associated tumorigenesis. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein consistently expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is therefore an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. It is a multifunctional DNA binding protein critical for viral replication, genome maintenance, viral gene expression, and host cell survival. Using a fragment-based approach and x-ray crystallography, we identify a 2,3-disubstituted benzoic acid series that selectively inhibits the DNA binding activity of EBNA1. We characterize these inhibitors biochemically and in cell-based assays, including chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA replication assays. In addition, we demonstrate the potency of EBNA1 inhibitors to suppress tumor growth in several EBV-dependent xenograft models, including patient-derived xenografts for NPC. These inhibitors selectively block EBV gene transcription and alter the cellular transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling pathway in NPC tumor xenografts. These EBNA1-specific inhibitors show favorable pharmacological properties and have the potential to be further developed for the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies.