Project description:Bacteriophage – host dynamics and interactions are important for microbial community composition and ecosystem function. Nonetheless, empirical evidence in engineered environment is scarce. Here, we examined phage and prokaryotic community composition of four anaerobic digestors in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across China. Despite relatively stable process performance in biogas production, both phage and prokaryotic groups fluctuated monthly over a year of study period. Nonetheless, there were significant correlations in their α- and β-diversities between phage and prokaryotes. Phages explained 40.6% of total prokaryotic community composition, much higher than the explainable power by abiotic factors (14.5%). Consequently, phages were significantly (P<0.010) linked to parameters related to process performance including biogas production and volatile solid concentrations. Association network analyses showed that phage-prokaryote pairs were deeply rooted, and two network modules were exclusively comprised of phages, suggesting a possibility of co-infection. Those results collectively demonstrate phages as a major biotic factor in controlling bacterial composition. Therefore, phages may play a larger role in shaping prokaryotic dynamics and process performance of WWTPs than currently appreciated, enabling reliable prediction of microbial communities across time and space. Overall design: 48 samples were monthly collected from 4 anaerobic tanks in 3 wastewater treatment plants (Ninghai WWTP has 2 tank applying mesophilic and thermophilic technology respectively) during a year.
Project description:In this study we focus on two Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN. PK series) strains producing either insulin precursor or amylase and we compare the transcriptional regulation at different dilution rates, in particular with the objective to identify the relationship between cell metabolism and recombinant protein production. We found that anaerobic conditions showed high amount of amylase productions when comparing to aerobic conditions and the genome-scale transcriptional analysis suggested that genes related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lipid synthesis and stress responses were generally up-regulated at anaerobic conditions. Moreover, we proposed a model for the electron transfer from ER to the final electron acceptor, fumarate under anaerobic conditions. Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing either insulin precursor or amylase were selected at different dilution rates in chemostat cultivation for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Biological triplicates were applied.
Project description:Biogas plants (BGPs) produce methane and carbon dioxide through the anaerobic digestion of agricultural waste. Identification of strategies for more stable biogas plant operation and increased biogas yields require better knowledge about the individual degradation steps and the interactions within the microbial communities. The metaprotein profiles of ten agricultural BGPs and one laboratory reactor were investigated using a metaproteomics pipeline. Fractionation of samples using SDS-PAGE was combined with a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer, metagenome sequences specific for BGPs, and the MetaProteomeAnalyzer software. This enabled us to achieve a high coverage of the metaproteome of the BGP microbial communities. The investigation revealed approx. 17,000 protein groups (metaproteins), covering the majority of the expected metabolic networks of the biogas process such as hydrolysis, transport, fermentation processes, amino acid metabolism, methanogenesis and bacterial C1-metabolism. Biological functions could be linked with the taxonomic composition. Two different types of BGPs were classified by the abundance of the acetoclastic methanogenesis and by abundance of enzymes implicating syntrophic acetate oxidation. Linking of the identified metaproteins with the process steps of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 proved the main model assumptions but indicated also some improvements such as considering syntrophic acetate oxidation. Beside the syntrophic interactions, the microbial communities in BGPs are also shaped by competition for substrates and host-phage interactions causing cell lysis. In particular, larger amounts of Bacteriophages for the bacterial families Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridiaceae, exceeding the cell number of the Bacteria by approximately four-fold. In contrast, less Bacteriophages were found for Archaea, but more CRISPR proteins were detected. On the one hand, the virus induced turnover of biomass might cause slow degradation of complex biomass in BGP. On the other hand, the lysis of bacterial cells allows cycling of essential nutrients.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion is a popular and effective microbial process for waste treatment. The performance of anaerobic digestion processes is contingent on the balance of the microbial food web in utilizing various substrates. Recently, co-digestion, i.e., supplementing the primary substrate with an organic-rich co-substrate has been exploited to improve waste treatment efficiency. Yet the potential effects of elevated organic loading on microbial functional gene community remains elusive. In this study, functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) was used to assess the response of microbial community to the addition of poultry waste in anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure. Consistent with 16S rRNA gene sequences data, GeoChip data showed that microbial community compositions were significantly shifted in favor of copiotrophic populations by co-digestion, as taxa with higher rRNA gene copy number such as Bacilli were enriched. The acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina was also enriched, while Methanosaeta was unaltered but more abundant than Methanosarcina throughout the study period. The microbial functional diversity involved in anaerobic digestion were also increased under co-digestion. Overall design: There were two sets of anaerobic digesters. Three control digesters were fed with dairy manure and the organic loading rate kept constant. The three treatment digesters were fed with poultry waste in addition to dairy manure, resulting in step-wise increase in the organic loading rate. Sludge samples were taken at different time points from the six digesters.