Project description:The contained data consist of Illumina HiSeq reads generated genomic DNA of Oryza sativa ssp. indica used for comparative coverage aspects with plant-RRBS methylome profiling by bioinformatics analyses. The inbred control line and a derived epiline LR2 of the 4th selfing were analysed using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing.
Project description:The contained data consist of Illumina HiSeq 2500 reads generated from restriction endonuclease digested genomic DNA of Oryza sativa ssp. indica used as proof of concept for plant-RRBS methylome profiling by bioinformatics analyses. Five biological repeats for an inbred control line and a derived epiline of the 4th generation where analysed using two restriction endonuclease combination (MspI-DpnII or MspI-ApekI).
Project description:Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) is a powerful method of DNA methylome profiling that can be applied to single cells. However, no previous report has described how PCR-based duplication-induced artifacts affect the accuracy of this method when measuring DNA methylation levels. For quantifying the effects of duplication-induced artifacts on methylome profiling when using ultra-trace amounts of starting material, we developed a novel method, namely quantitative RRBS (Q-RRBS), in which PCR-induced duplication is excluded through the use of unique molecular identifiers (UMIs). By performing Q-RRBS on varying amounts of starting material, we determined that duplication-induced artifacts were more severe when small quantities of the starting material were used. However, through using the UMIs, we successfully eliminated these artifacts. In addition, Q-RRBS could accurately detect allele-specific methylation in absence of allele-specific genetic variants. Our results demonstrate that Q-RRBS is an optimal strategy for DNA methylation profiling of single cells or samples containing ultra-trace amounts of cells.
Project description:UNLABELLED: Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) is a cost-effective approach for genome-wide methylation pattern profiling. Analyzing RRBS sequencing data is challenging and specialized alignment/mapping programs are needed. Although such programs have been developed, a comprehensive solution that provides researchers with good quality and analyzable data is still lacking. To address this need, we have developed a Streamlined Analysis and Annotation Pipeline for RRBS data (SAAP-RRBS) that integrates read quality assessment/clean-up, alignment, methylation data extraction, annotation, reporting and visualization. This package facilitates a rapid transition from sequencing reads to a fully annotated CpG methylation report to biological interpretation. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: SAAP-RRBS is freely available to non-commercial users at the web site http://ndc.mayo.edu/mayo/research/biostat/stand-alone-packages.cfm.
Project description:Epigenetics is the study of gene expression changes that are not caused by changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark occurring in C-phosphate-G sites (CpGs) that leads to local or regional gene expression changes. Reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) is a technique that is used to ascertain the DNA methylation of millions of CpGs at single-nucleotide resolution. The genomic coverage of RRBS is given by the restriction enzyme combination used during the library preparation and the throughput capacity of the next-generation sequencer, which is used to read the generated libraries. The four-nucleotide cutters, MspI and Taq?I, are restriction enzymes commonly used in RRBS that, when combined, achieve ~12% genomic coverage. The increase in throughput of next-generation sequencers allows for novel combinations of restriction enzymes that provide higher CpG coverage.We performed a near-neighbor analysis of the four nucleotide sequences most frequently found within 50 nt of all genomic CpGs. This resulted in the identification of seven methylation-insensitive restriction enzymes (AluI, BfaI, HaeIII, HpyCH4V, MluCI, MseI, and MspI) that shared similar restriction conditions suitable for RRBS library preparation. We report that the use of two or three enzyme combinations increases the theoretical epigenome coverage to almost half of the human genome.We provide the enzyme combinations that are more likely to increase the CpG coverage in human, rat, and mouse genomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) was developed to measure DNA methylation of high-CG regions at single base-pair resolution, and has been widely used because of its minimal DNA requirements and cost efficacy; however, the CpG coverage of genomic regions is restricted and important regions with low-CG will be ignored in DNA methylation profiling. This method could be improved to generate a more comprehensive representation. RESULTS: Based on in silico simulation of enzyme digestion of human and mouse genomes, we have optimized the current single-enzyme RRBS by applying double enzyme digestion in the library construction to interrogate more representative regions. CpG coverage of genomic regions was considerably increased in both high-CG and low-CG regions using the double-enzyme RRBS method, leading to more accurate detection of their average methylation levels and identification of differential methylation regions between samples. We also applied this double-enzyme RRBS method to comprehensively analyze the CpG methylation profiles of two colorectal cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: The double-enzyme RRBS increases the CpG coverage of genomic regions considerably over the previous single-enzyme RRBS method, leading to more accurate detection of their average methylation levels. It will facilitate genome-wide DNA methylation studies in multiple and complex clinical samples.
Project description:DNA methylation is a mechanism for long-term transcriptional regulation and is required for normal cellular differentiation. Failure to properly establish or maintain DNA methylation patterns leads to cell dysfunction and diseases such as cancer. Identifying DNA methylation signatures in complex tissues can be challenging owing to inaccurate cell enrichment methods and low DNA yields. We have developed a technique called laser capture microdissection-reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (LCM-RRBS) for the multiplexed interrogation of the DNA methylation status of cytosine-guanine dinucleotide islands and promoters. LCM-RRBS accurately and reproducibly profiles genome-wide methylation of DNA extracted from microdissected fresh frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. To demonstrate the utility of LCM-RRBS, we characterized changes in DNA methylation associated with gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the mouse. Compared with adjacent normal tissue, the adrenocortical tumors showed reproducible gains and losses of DNA methylation at genes involved in cell differentiation and organ development. LCM-RRBS is a rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive technique for analyzing DNA methylation in heterogeneous tissues and will facilitate the investigation of DNA methylation in cancer and organ development.
Project description:Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been used to profile DNA methylation patterns in mammalian genomes such as human, mouse and rat. The methylome of the zebrafish, an important animal model, has not yet been characterized at base-pair resolution using RRBS. Therefore, we evaluated the technique of RRBS in this model organism by generating four single-nucleotide resolution DNA methylomes of adult zebrafish brain. We performed several simulations to show the distribution of fragments and enrichment of CpGs in different in silico reduced representation genomes of zebrafish. Four RRBS brain libraries generated 98 million sequenced reads and had higher frequencies of multiple mapping than equivalent human RRBS libraries. The zebrafish methylome indicates there is higher global DNA methylation in the zebrafish genome compared with its equivalent human methylome. This observation was confirmed by RRBS of zebrafish liver. High coverage CpG dinucleotides are enriched in CpG island shores more than in the CpG island core. We found that 45% of the mapped CpGs reside in gene bodies, and 7% in gene promoters. This analysis provides a roadmap for generating reproducible base-pair level methylomes for zebrafish using RRBS and our results provide the first evidence that RRBS is a suitable technique for global methylation analysis in zebrafish.
Project description:Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) are widely used for measuring DNA methylation levels on a genome-wide scale. Both methods have limitations: WGBS is expensive and prohibitive for most large-scale projects; RRBS only interrogates 6-12% of the CpGs in the human genome. Here, we introduce methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme bisulfite sequencing (MREBS) which has the reduced sequencing requirements of RRBS, but significantly expands the coverage of CpG sites in the genome. We built a multiple regression model that combines the two features of MREBS: the bisulfite conversion ratios of single cytosines (as in WGBS and RRBS) as well as the number of reads that cover each locus (as in MRE-seq). This combined approach allowed us to estimate differential methylation across 60% of the genome using read count data alone, and where counts were sufficiently high in both samples (about 1.5% of the genome), our estimates were significantly improved by the single CpG conversion information. We show that differential DNA methylation values based on MREBS data correlate well with those based on WGBS and RRBS. This newly developed technique combines the sequencing cost of RRBS and DNA methylation estimates on a portion of the genome similar to WGBS, making it ideal for large-scale projects of mammalian genomes.