ABSTRACT: Epidemiological characterization of an outbreak of extended spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli ST-131 confirms the clinical value of using cgMLST and SNP analysis in order to avoid false associations
Project description:BackgroundCarbapenemase-producing <i>Escherichia coli</i> are increasing worldwide. In recent years, an increase in OXA-244-producing <i>E. coli</i> isolates has been seen in the national surveillance of carbapenemase-producing organisms in Denmark.AimMolecular characterisation and epidemiological investigation of OXA-244-producing <i>E. coli</i> isolates from January 2016 to August 2019.MethodsFor the epidemiological investigation, data from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish register of civil registration were used together with data from phone interviews with patients. Isolates were characterised by analysing whole genome sequences for resistance genes, MLST and core genome MLST (cgMLST).ResultsIn total, 24 OXA-244-producing <i>E. coli</i> isolates were obtained from 23 patients. Among the 23 patients, 13 reported travelling before detection of the <i>E. coli</i> isolates, with seven having visited countries in Northern Africa. Fifteen isolates also carried an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase gene and one had a plasmid-encoded AmpC gene. The most common detected sequence type (ST) was ST38, followed by ST69, ST167, ST10, ST361 and ST3268. Three clonal clusters were detected by cgMLST, but none of these clusters seemed to reflect nosocomial transmission in Denmark.ConclusionImport of OXA-244 <i>E. coli</i> isolates from travelling abroad seems likely for the majority of cases. Community sources were also possible, as many of the patients had no history of hospitalisation and many of the <i>E. coli</i> isolates belonged to STs that are present in the community. It was not possible to point at a single country or a community source as risk factor for acquiring OXA-244-producing <i>E. coli</i>.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans is one of the primary pathogens responsible for the development of dental caries. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) approaches have been employed in epidemiological studies of specific human pathogens. However, this approach has not been reported in studies of S. mutans Here, we therefore developed a cgMLST scheme for S. mutans We surveyed 199 available S. mutans genomes as a means of identifying cgMLST targets, developing a scheme that incorporated 594 targets from the S. mutans UA159 reference genome. Sixty-eight sequence types (STs) were identified in this cgMLST scheme (cgSTs) in 80 S. mutans isolates from 40 children that were sequenced in this study, compared to 35 STs identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Fifty-six cgSTs (82.35%) were associated with a single isolate based on our cgMLST scheme, which is significantly higher than in the MLST scheme (11.43%). In addition, 58.06% of all MLST profiles with??2 isolates were further differentiated by our cgMLST scheme. Topological analyses of the maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees revealed that our cgMLST scheme was more reliable than the MLST scheme. A minimum spanning tree of 145 S. mutans isolates from 10 countries developed based upon the cgMLST scheme highlighted the diverse population structure of S. mutans This cgMLST scheme thus offers a new molecular typing method suitable for evaluating the epidemiological distribution of this pathogen and has the potential to serve as a benchmark for future global studies of the epidemiological nature of dental caries.IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans is regarded as a major pathogen responsible for the onset of dental caries. S. mutans can transmit among people, especially within families. In this study, we established a new epidemiological approach to S. mutans classification. This approach can effectively differentiate among closely related isolates and offers superior reliability relative to that of the traditional MLST molecular typing method. As such, it has the potential to better support effective public health strategies centered around this bacterium that are aimed at preventing and treating dental caries.
Project description:Pathogen whole-genome sequencing has huge potential as a tool to better understand infection transmission. However, rapidly identifying closely related genomes among a background of thousands of other genomes is challenging. Here, we describe a refinement to core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) in which alleles at each gene are reproducibly converted to a unique hash, or short string of letters (hash-cgMLST). This avoids the resource-intensive need for a single centralized database of sequentially numbered alleles. We test the reproducibility and discriminatory power of cgMLST/hash-cgMLST compared to those of mapping-based approaches in Clostridium difficile, using repeated sequencing of the same isolates (replicates) and data from consecutive infection isolates from six English hospitals. Hash-cgMLST provided the same results as standard cgMLST, with minimal performance penalty. Comparing 272 replicate sequence pairs using reference-based mapping, there were 0, 1, or 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between 262 (96%), 5 (2%), and 1 (<1%) of the pairs, respectively. Using hash-cgMLST, 218 (80%) of replicate pairs assembled with SPAdes had zero gene differences, and 31 (11%), 5 (2%), and 18 (7%) pairs had 1, 2, and >2 differences, respectively. False gene differences were clustered in specific genes and associated with fragmented assemblies, but were reduced using the SKESA assembler. Considering 412 pairs of infections with ?2 SNPS, i.e., consistent with recent transmission, 376 (91%) had ?2 gene differences and 16 (4%) had ?4. Comparing a genome to 100,000 others took <1 min using hash-cgMLST. Hash-cgMLST is an effective surveillance tool for rapidly identifying clusters of related genomes. However, cgMLST/hash-cgMLST generate more false variants than mapping-based approaches. Follow-up mapping-based analyses are likely required to precisely define close genetic relationships.
Project description:The chromogenic ?Lacta test developed for the rapid detection of ?-lactamase-hydrolyzing extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae revealed good performance with extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producers (97.5% true-positive results). However, false-negative results occurred with chromosomal AmpC hyperproducers and plasmid AmpC producers, whereas uninterpretable results were mostly due to VIM-1 carbapenemase producers and possibly low levels of expressed ESBLs.
Project description:Multi-country outbreaks of foodborne bacterial disease present challenges in their detection, tracking, and notification. As food is increasingly distributed across borders, such outbreaks are becoming more common. This increases the need for high-resolution, accessible, and replicable isolate typing schemes. Here we evaluate a core genome multilocus typing (cgMLST) scheme for the high-resolution reproducible typing of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) isolates, by its application to a large European outbreak of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This outbreak had been extensively characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based approaches. The cgMLST analysis was congruent with the original SNP-based analysis, the epidemiological data, and whole genome MLST (wgMLST) analysis. Combination of the cgMLST and epidemiological data confirmed that the genetic diversity among the isolates predated the outbreak, and was likely present at the infection source. There was consequently no link between country of isolation and genetic diversity, but the cgMLST clusters were congruent with date of isolation. Furthermore, comparison with publicly available Enteritidis isolate data demonstrated that the cgMLST scheme presented is highly scalable, enabling outbreaks to be contextualised within the Salmonella genus. The cgMLST scheme is therefore shown to be a standardised and scalable typing method, which allows Salmonella outbreaks to be analysed and compared across laboratories and jurisdictions.
Project description:Clonal lineages of ESBL (Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase)-producing E. coli belonging to sequence type 131 (ST131) have disseminated globally during the last 30 years, leading to an increased prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in clinical isolates of E. coli. We aimed to study if Swedish ESBL-producing ST131 isolates originated from single or multiple introductions to the population by assessing the amount of genetic variation, on chromosomal and plasmid level, between Swedish and international E. coli ST131. Bayesian inference of Swedish E. coli ST131 isolates (n?=?29), sequenced using PacBio RSII, together with an international ST131 dataset showed that the Swedish isolates were part of the international ST131 A, C1 and C2 clades. Highly conserved plasmids were identified in three clusters although they were separated by several years, which indicates a strong co-evolution between some ST131 lineages and specific plasmids. In conclusion, the tight clonal relationship observed within the ST131 clades, together with highly conserved plasmids, challenges investigation of strain transmission events. A combination of few SNPs on a genome-wide scale and an epidemiological temporospatial link, are needed to track the spread of the ST131 subclones.
Project description:Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a pandemic clonal lineage that is responsible for the global increase in fluoroquinolone resistance and extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The members of ST131 clade C, especially subclades C2 and C1-M27, are associated with ESBLs. We developed a multiplex conventional PCR assay with the ability to detect all ST131 clades (A, B, and C), as well as C subclades (C1-M27, C1-nM27 [C1-non-M27], and C2). To validate the assay, we used 80 ST131 global isolates that had been fully sequenced. We then used the assay to define the prevalence of each clade in two Japanese collections consisting of 460 ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 (2001-12) and 329 E. coli isolates from extraintestinal sites (ExPEC) (2014). The assay correctly identified the different clades in all 80 global isolates: clades A (n = 12), B (n = 12), and C, including subclades C1-M27 (n = 16), C1-nM27 (n = 20), C2 (n = 17), and other C (n = 3). The assay also detected all 565 ST131 isolates in both collections without any false positives. Isolates from clades A (n = 54), B (n = 23), and C (n = 483) corresponded to the O serotypes and the fimH types of O16-H41, O25b-H22, and O25b-H30, respectively. Of the 483 clade C isolates, C1-M27 was the most common subclade (36%), followed by C1-nM27 (32%) and C2 (15%). The C1-M27 subclade with blaCTX-M-27 became especially prominent after 2009. Our novel multiplex PCR assay revealed the predominance of the C1-M27 subclade in recent Japanese ESBL-producing E. coli isolates and is a promising tool for epidemiological studies of ST131.
Project description:A total of 1,021 extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) isolates obtained in 2006 during a Spanish national survey conducted in 44 hospitals were analyzed for the presence of the O25b:H4-B2-ST131 (sequence type 131) clonal group. Overall, 195 (19%) O25b-ST131 isolates were detected, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% to 52% per hospital. Molecular characterization of 130 representative O25b-ST131 isolates showed that 96 (74%) were positive for CTX-M-15, 15 (12%) for CTX-M-14, 9 (7%) for SHV-12, 6 (5%) for CTX-M-9, 5 (4%) for CTX-M-32, and 1 (0.7%) each for CTX-M-3 and the new ESBL enzyme CTX-M-103. The 130 O25b-ST131 isolates exhibited relatively high virulence scores (mean, 14.4 virulence genes). Although the virulence profiles of the O25b-ST131 isolates were fairly homogeneous, they could be classified into four main virotypes based on the presence or absence of four distinctive virulence genes: virotypes A (22%) (afa FM955459 positive, iroN negative, ibeA negative, sat positive or negative), B (31%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN positive, ibeA negative, sat positive or negative), C (32%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN negative, ibeA negative, sat positive), and D (13%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN positive or negative, ibeA positive, sat positive or negative). The four virotypes were also identified in other countries, with virotype C being overrepresented internationally. Correspondingly, an analysis of XbaI macrorestriction profiles revealed four major clusters, which were largely virotype specific. Certain epidemiological and clinical features corresponded with the virotype. Statistically significant virotype-specific associations included, for virotype B, older age and a lower frequency of infection (versus colonization), for virotype C, a higher frequency of infection, and for virotype D, younger age and community-acquired infections. In isolates of the O25b:H4-B2-ST131 clonal group, these findings uniquely define four main virotypes, which are internationally distributed, correspond with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, and exhibit distinctive clinical-epidemiological associations.
Project description:The draft genome sequence has been determined for an extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (blaCTX-M-15) Escherichia coli strain (CCUG 62462), composed of 119 contigs and a total size of 5.27 Mb. This E. coli is serotype O25b and sequence type 131, a pandemic clonal group, causing worldwide antimicrobial-resistant infections.
Project description:We examined extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates from livestock, humans, companion animals, food, and the environment during 2009-2016 in Germany for the presence of CTX-M-27 allele within Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131. E. coli ST131 C1-M27 was exclusively present in humans; its incidence increased from 0% in 2009 to 45% in 2016.