Project description:Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 12426 is an efficient producer of poly-γ-glutamate with regular stereochemistry. Here, the complete genome sequence of B. subtilis CGMCC 12426 is presented, which may facilitate the design of rational strategies for further strain improvements with industrial potential.
Project description:Here we report the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas stutzeri strain CGMCC 1.1803 (equivalent to ATCC 17588), the type strain of P. stutzeri, which encodes 4,138 open reading frames on a 4,547,930-bp circular chromosome. The CGMCC 1.1803 genome contains genes involved in denitrification, benzoate/catechol degradation, chemotaxis, and other functions.
Project description:Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of ?-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108.
Project description:Targeted inactivation of the valine (branched-chain amino acid) dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was used to study the role of valine catabolism in the production of tylosin in Streptomyces fradiae and spiramycin in Streptomyces ambofaciens. The deduced products of the vdh genes, cloned and sequenced from S. fradiae C373.1 and S. ambofaciens ATCC 15154, are approximately 80% identical over all 363 amino acids and 96% identical over a span of the first N-terminal 107 amino acids, respectively, to the deduced product of the Streptomyces coelicolor vdh gene. The organization of the regions flanking the vdh genes is the same in all three species. Inactivation of the genomic copy of the vdh gene in S. fradiae and S. ambofaciens by insertion of a hygromycin resistance (hyg) gene caused loss of the valine dehydrogenase (Vdh) activity, and thus only one enzyme is responsible for the Vdh activity in these organisms. Analysis of the culture broth by bioassay revealed that the vdh::hyg mutants produce an approximately sixfold-lower level of tylosin and an approximately fourfold-lower level of spiramycin than the wild-type S. fradiae and S. ambofaciens strains, while maintaining essentially identical growth in a defined minimal medium with either 25 mM ammonium ion or 0.05% asparagine as the nitrogen source. The addition of the valine catabolite, propionate or isobutyrate, and introduction of the wild-type vdh gene back to each vdh::hyg mutant reversed the negative effect of the vdh::hyg mutation on spiramycin and tylosin production. These data show that the catabolism of valine is a major source of fatty acid precursors for macrolide biosynthesis under defined growth conditions and imply that amino acid catabolism is a vital source of certain antibiotic precursors in actinomycetes.
Project description:Variovorax is a metabolically diverse genus of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that engages in mutually beneficial interactions between plants and microbes. Unlike most PGPR, Variovorax cannot synthesize the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via tryptophan. However, we found that Variovorax boronicumulans strain CGMCC 4969 can produce IAA using indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) as the precursor. Thus, in the present study, the IAA synthesis mechanism of V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 was investigated. V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 metabolized IAN to IAA through both a nitrilase-dependent pathway and a nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase-dependent pathway. Cobalt enhanced the metabolic flux via the NHase/amidase, by which IAN was rapidly converted to indole-3-acetamide (IAM) and in turn to IAA. IAN stimulated metabolic flux via the nitrilase, by which IAN was rapidly converted to IAA. Subsequently, the IAA was degraded. V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 can use IAN as the sole carbon and nitrogen source for growth. Genome sequencing confirmed the IAA synthesis pathways. Gene cloning and overexpression in Escherichia coli indicated that NitA has nitrilase activity and IamA has amidase activity to respectively transform IAN and IAM to IAA. Interestingly, NitA showed a close genetic relationship with the nitrilase of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the NHase/amidase system is constitutively expressed, whereas the nitrilase is inducible. The present study helps our understanding of the versatile functions of Variovorax nitrile-converting enzymes that mediate IAA synthesis and the interactions between plants and these bacteria.IMPORTANCE We demonstrated that Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 has two enzymatic systems-nitrilase and nitrile hydratase/amidase-that convert indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) to the important plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The two IAA synthesis systems have very different regulatory mechanisms, affecting the IAA synthesis rate and duration. The nitrilase was induced by IAN, which was rapidly converted to IAA; subsequently, IAA was rapidly consumed for cell growth. The nitrile hydratase (NHase) and amidase system was constitutively expressed and slowly but continuously synthesized IAA. In addition to synthesizing IAA from IAN, CGMCC 4969 has a rapid IAA degradation system, which would be helpful for a host plant to eliminate redundant IAA. This study indicates that the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium V. boronicumulans CGMCC 4969 has the potential to be used by host plants to regulate the IAA level.
Project description:A54145 factors are calcium-dependent lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 18160. A54145 is structurally related to the clinically important daptomycin, and as such may be a useful scaffold for the development of a novel lipopeptide antibiotic. We developed methods to genetically manipulate S. fradiae by deletion mutagenesis and conjugal transfer of plasmids from Escherichia coli. Cloning the complete pathway on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector and the construction of ectopic trans-complementation with plasmids utilizing the ?C31 or ?BT1 site-specific integration system allowed manipulation of A54145 biosynthesis. The BAC clone pDA2002 was shown to harbor the complete A54145 biosynthesis gene cluster by heterologous expression in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces roseosporus strains in yields of >100 mg/liter. S. fradiae mutants defective in LptI methyltransferase function were constructed, and they produced only A54145 factors containing glutamic acid (Glu??), at the expense of factors containing 3-methyl-glutamic acid (3mGlu??). This provided a practical route to produce high levels of pure Glu??-containing lipopeptides. A suite of mutant strains and plasmids was created for combinatorial biosynthesis efforts focused on modifying the A54145 peptide backbone to generate a compound with daptomycin antibacterial activity and activity in Streptococcus pneumoniae pulmonary infections.
Project description:Laccases are a class of multi-copper oxidases with important industrial values. A thermotolerant laccase produced by a basidiomycete fungal strain Cerrena unicolor CGMCC 5.1011 was studied. With glycerin and peptone as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, a maximal laccase activity of 121.7 U/mL was attained after cultivation in the shaking flask for 15 days. Transcriptomics analysis revealed an expressed laccase gene family of 12 members in C. unicolor strain CGMCC 5.1011, and the gene and cDNA sequences were cloned. A glycosylated laccase was purified from the fermentation broth of Cerrena unicolor CGMCC 5.1011 and corresponded to Lac2 based on MALDI-TOF MS/MS identification. Lac2 was stable at pH 5.0 and above, and was resistant to organic solvents. Lac2 displayed remarkable thermostability, with half-life time of 1.67 h at 70 ºC. Consistently, Lac2 was able to completely decolorize malachite green (MG) at high temperatures, whereas Lac7 from Cerrena sp. HYB07 resulted in accumulation of colored MG transformation intermediates. Molecular dynamics simulation of Lac2 was conducted, and possible mechanisms underlying Lac2 thermostability were discussed. The robustness of C. unicolor CGMCC 5.1011 laccase would not only be useful for industrial applications, but also provide a template for future work to develop thermostable laccases.