Project description:In this study, we quantitated the disappearance of intact HMOs and characterized the glycan digestion products in the gut that are produced by the action of microbial enzymes on HMOs and glycoconjugates from breast milk. Oligosaccharides from fecal samples of exclusively breast-fed infants were extracted and profiled using nanoLC-MS. Intact HMOs were found in the fecal samples, additionally, other oligosaccharides were found corresponding to degraded HMOs and non-HMO based compounds. The latter compounds were fragments of N-glycans released through the cleavage of the linkage to the asparagine residue and through cleavage of the chitobiose core of the N-glycan.
Project description:Microbial RNAseq analysis of cecal and fecal samples collected from mice colonized with the microbiota of human twins discordant for obesity. Samples were colleted at the time of sacrifice, or 15 days after colonization from mice gavaged with uncultured or cultured fecal microbiota from the lean twins or their obese co-twins. Samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq technology, with 101 paired end chemistry. Comparisson of microbial gene expression between the microbiota of lean and obese twins fed a Low fat, rich in plant polysaccharide diet.
Project description:Microbial RNAseq analysis of cecal and fecal samples collected from mice colonized with the microbiota of human twins discordant for obesity. Samples were colleted at the time of sacrifice, or 15 days after colonization from mice gavaged with uncultured or cultured fecal microbiota from the lean twins or their obese co-twins. Samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq technology, with 101 paired end chemistry. Overall design: Comparisson of microbial gene expression between the microbiota of lean and obese twins fed a Low fat, rich in plant polysaccharide diet.
Project description:On going efforts are directed at understanding the mutualism between the gut microbiota and the host in breast-fed versus formula-fed infants. Due to the lack of tissue biopsies, no investigators have performed a global transcriptional (gene expression) analysis of the developing human intestine in healthy infants. As a result, the crosstalk between the microbiome and the host transcriptome in the developing mucosal-commensal environment has not been determined. In this study, we examined the host intestinal mRNA gene expression and microbial DNA profiles in full term 3 month-old infants exclusively formula fed (FF) (n=6) or breast fed (BF) (n=6) from birth to 3 months. Host mRNA microarray measurements were performed using isolated intact sloughed epithelial cells in stool samples collected at 3 months. Microbial composition from the same stool samples was assessed by metagenomic pyrosequencing. Both the host mRNA expression and bacterial microbiome phylogenetic profiles provided strong feature sets that clearly classified the two groups of babies (FF and BF). To determine the relationship between host epithelial cell gene expression and the bacterial colony profiles, the host transcriptome and functionally profiled microbiome data were analyzed in a multivariate manner. From a functional perspective, analysis of the gut microbiota's metagenome revealed that characteristics associated with virulence differed between the FF and BF babies. Using canonical correlation analysis, evidence of multivariate structure relating eleven host immunity / mucosal defense-related genes and microbiome virulence characteristics was observed. These results, for the first time, provide insight into the integrated responses of the host and microbiome to dietary substrates in the early neonatal period. Our data suggest that systems biology and computational modeling approaches that integrate “-omic” information from the host and the microbiome can identify important mechanistic pathways of intestinal development affecting the gut microbiome in the first few months of life. KEYWORDS: infant, breast-feeding, infant formula, exfoliated cells, transcriptome, metagenome, multivariate analysis, canonical correlation analysis 12 samples, 2 groups
Project description:Morphine causes microbial dysbiosis. In this study we focused on restoration of native microbiota in morphine treated mice and looked at the extent of restoration and immunological consequences of this restoration. Fecal transplant has been successfully used clinically, especially for treating C. difficile infection2528. With our expanding knowledge of the central role of microbiome in maintenance of host immune homeostasis17, fecal transplant is gaining importance as a therapy for indications resulting from microbial dysbiosis. There is a major difference between fecal transplant being used for the treatment of C. difficile infection and the conditions described in our studies. The former strategy is based on the argument that microbial dysbiosis caused by disproportionate overgrowth of a pathobiont can be out-competed by re-introducing the missing flora by way of a normal microbiome transplant. This strategy is independent of host factors and systemic effects on the microbial composition. Here, we show that microbial dysbiosis caused due to morphine can be reversed by transplantation of microbiota from the placebo-treated animals.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion is a popular and effective microbial process for waste treatment. The performance of anaerobic digestion processes is contingent on the balance of the microbial food web in utilizing various substrates. Recently, co-digestion, i.e., supplementing the primary substrate with an organic-rich co-substrate has been exploited to improve waste treatment efficiency. Yet the potential effects of elevated organic loading on microbial functional gene community remains elusive. In this study, functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) was used to assess the response of microbial community to the addition of poultry waste in anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure. Consistent with 16S rRNA gene sequences data, GeoChip data showed that microbial community compositions were significantly shifted in favor of copiotrophic populations by co-digestion, as taxa with higher rRNA gene copy number such as Bacilli were enriched. The acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina was also enriched, while Methanosaeta was unaltered but more abundant than Methanosarcina throughout the study period. The microbial functional diversity involved in anaerobic digestion were also increased under co-digestion. Overall design: There were two sets of anaerobic digesters. Three control digesters were fed with dairy manure and the organic loading rate kept constant. The three treatment digesters were fed with poultry waste in addition to dairy manure, resulting in step-wise increase in the organic loading rate. Sludge samples were taken at different time points from the six digesters.
Project description:Opioids such as morphine have many beneficial properties as analgesics, however, opioids may induce multiple adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. We have recently demonstrated that morphine treatment results in significant disruption in gut barrier function leading to increased translocation of gut commensal bacteria. However, it is unclear how opioids modulate the gut homeostasis. By using a mouse model of morphine treatment, we studied effects of morphine treatment on gut microbiome. We characterized phylogenetic profiles of gut microbes, and found a significant shift in the gut microbiome and increase of pathogenic bacteria following morphine treatment when compared to placebo. In the present study, wild type mice (C57BL/6J) were implanted with placebo, morphine pellets subcutaneously. Fecal matter were taken for bacterial 16s rDNA sequencing analysis at day 3 post treatment. A scatter plot based on an unweighted UniFrac distance matrics obtained from the sequences at OTU level with 97% similarity showed a distinct clustering of the community composition between the morphine and placebo treated groups. By using the chao1 index to evaluate alpha diversity (that is diversity within a group) and using unweighted UniFrac distance to evaluate beta diversity (that is diversity between groups, comparing microbial community based on compositional structures), we found that morphine treatment results in a significant decrease in alpha diversity and shift in fecal microbiome at day 3 post treatment compared to placebo treatment. Taxonomical analysis showed that morphine treatment results in a significant increase of potential pathogenic bacteria. Our study shed light on effects of morphine on the gut microbiome, and its role in the gut homeostasis.
Project description:We investigated a contaminant-degrading microbial community by sequencing total RNA (without rRNA depletion) from microcosms containing sediment from a hypoxic contaminated aquifer fed with isotopically labeled toluene. Overall design: Microcosms were made using sediment from a hypoxic, hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer in Siklos, Hungary. They were incubated under hypoxic/microoxic conditions and provided with isotopically-labeled toluene as a substrate. RNA was extracted and subjected to isopycnic centrifugation to separated heavy (isotopically labeled) and light (unlabeled) RNA, representing microbes which did or did not metabolize toluene, respectively. Total RNA was sequenced to provide both taxonimic (16S) and functional (mRNA) data on this microbiota, the first instance of total-RNA-stable isotope probing used to investigate a contaminated environment.
Project description:A metaproteomics analysis was conducted on the infant fecal microbiome to characterize global protein expression in 8 samples obtained from infants with a range of early-life experiences. Samples included breast-, formula- or mixed-fed, mode of delivery, and antibiotic treatment and one set of monozygotic twins. Although label-free mass spectrometry-based proteomics is routinely used for the identification and quantification of thousands of proteins in complex samples, the metaproteomic analysis of the gut microbiome presents particular technical challenges. Among them: the extreme complexity and dynamic range of member taxa/species, the need for matched, well-annotated metagenomics databases, and the high inter-protein sequence redundancy/similarity between related members. In this study, a metaproteomic approach was developed for assessment of the biological phenotype and functioning, as a complement to 16S rRNA sequencing analysis to identify constituent taxa. A sample preparation method was developed for recovery and lysis of bacterial cells, followed by trypsin digestion, and pre-fractionation using Strong Cation Exchange chromatography. Samples were then subjected to high performance LC-MS/MS. Data was searched against the Human Microbiome Project database, and a homology-based meta-clustering strategy was used to combine peptides from multiple species into representative proteins. Bacterial taxonomies were also identified, based on species-specific protein sequences, and protein metaclusters were assigned to pathways and functional groups. The results obtained demonstrate the applicability of this approach for performing qualitative comparisons of human fecal microbiome composition, physiology and metabolism, and also provided a more detailed assessment of microbial composition in comparison to 16S rRNA.